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Full text of "Influence of food preservatives and artificial colors on digestion and health"

ft '■ 3 ■ W/f*- -2- 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 

BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY— BULLETIN No. 84, PART II. 



H. \Y. wilky. Chief of Bureau. 



NFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES AND ARTIFICIAL 
COLORS ON DIGESTION AND HEALTH. 



II. -SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



By H. W. WILEY, M. T).. 



WITH THE COLLABORATION OF W. I). BIGELOW, (THIEF OF THK. BWIfilON 
of foods, f; 6. WEBER, AND OTHERS 





WASHINGTON: 

<;<>\ i:i;\ M BNT i'i: I \ ti N G OFF1 GE 

1 :mm;. 



Property of the United States Gayer* 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 

BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY— BULLETIN No. 84, PART II. 
H. W. WILEY, Chief of Bureau. 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES AND ARTIFICIAL 
COLORS ON DIGESTION AND HEALTH. 



II.— SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES, 



By H. W. WILEY, M. D., 



WITH THE COLLABORATION OF W. 1). BIGELOW, CHIEF OF THE DIVISION 
OF FOODS, F. C. WEBER, AND OTHERS. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1 906, 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



United States Department of Agriculture, 

Bureau of Chemistry, 
Washington, D. C, April 88, 1906. 
Sir: I beg to submit for your inspection and approval the results 
of the investigations which have been made in this Bureau to deter- 
mine the effect of salicylic acid and salicylates upon digestion and 
health. The work is a continuation in plan of that described in Part 
I of Bulletin 84, devoted to boric acid and borax. I recommend that 
the report be published as Part II of Bulletin 84. 
Respectfully. 

H. W. Wiley, 

Chief of Bureau. 
Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/ineoffoodpOOunit 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Organization of the experiment 479 

SERIES VI. 

Administration of the preservative 481 

Schedule of administration 481 

Method of administration 482 

Quantity of the preservative 483 

Excretion of the salicylic acid 483 

Method for determining salicylic acid in the urine 483 

Discussion of results 485 

Daily medical and clinical notes 486 

Individual data 486 

Conclusions 504 

Body weights 505 

Variations in body weights 505 

Ratio of food weight to body weight 508 

Microscopical examination of the blood 520 

Weight and water content of the feces . 525 

The urine 531 

Volume, specific gravity, and total solids 531 

Individual data 531 

Summary for nine men 534 

Presence of albumin and the reaction of the urine 539 

Ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphoric acid to nitrogen excreted in 

the urine 541 

Individual data 541 

Summary for nine men ">4."> 

Changes in the relative quantities of sulphur compounds excreted in the 

urine 557 

Individual data 558 

Summary for nine men 561 

M icroscopical examination of the urine 574 

Discussion of observations 575 

General conclusion 577 

Metabolic processes 582 

Nitn >gen 1 balance 583 

• Individual data 583 

I teneral discussion <>t" individual data 589 

Summary 590 

Phosphoric acid balance 604 

I ndividual data 604 

Summary tiiii 

Sulphur balance (ii'ti 

Individual data 627 

Summary 632 



VI CONTENTS. 

Metabolic processes — Continued. Page. 

Fat balance 646 

Individual data 646 

Summary 040 

Calories balance 663 

Individual data 664 

Summary 668 

Solids balance 681 

Individual data 681 

Summary 688 

Summary oi results 701 

SERIES XI. 

The effect of salicylic acid and sodium salicylate upon the nitrogenous elements 

of the urine 706 

Preliminary study for the determination of the ration and methods of 

analysis 706 

The rat i< m 706 

Analytical results 707 

Individual data 707 

Summary 712 

Methods of analysis employed and comparison of results 722 

Urea determinations 722 

One acid detenu i nations 7 , _'.". 

Kreatinin determinations 723 

X an thin determinations 724 

Special study of the distribution of the nitrogenous constituents of the 

urine as affected by the preservatives 725 

Introduetion 725 

Schedule of administration of the preservative 720 

Supplemental study of the presence of albumin and the reaction of 

the urine 720 

Individual analytical data 7.'!2 

Summary for Nos. 1 and 2 735 

Summary for Nos. 1 1 and 12 7:;7 

General summary 7."'»7 

The use of small quantities of the preservative 754 

General conclusions 757 

Lisl of tables 760 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Fig. I. Daily and average body weights for Series VI, Nos. I s 508 

2. Daily and average bodj weights for series VI, Nos. 9 12, and sum- 
mary 507 

:». Graphic chart, representing the comparative influences of foods and 

preservatives 754 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES AND ARTI- 
FICIAL COLORS ON DIGESTION AND HEALTH. 



II.— SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



ORGANIZATION OF THE EXPERIMENT. 

The researches to determine the effect of salicylic acid upon diges- 
tion and health were carried on in the same manner as those described 
in the first part of this bulletin on boric acid and borax. Some few 
changes were made in the methods of manipulation, sampling, and 
analysis in order to simplify the process and to save time. Instead 
of the analysis being made upon each daily sample of the food or feces, 
a careful study of composite samples for the various periods was made 
and the analysis of the composite sample for the period accepted as a 
true representative composition of the food or excrement during that 
period. It was found also, in so far as the labor and time were con- 
cerned, that it was just as convenient to have all twelve of the subjects 
under observation at once as to divide them into squads of six each and 
alternate the periods of observation of each squad with periods of rest. 
For example, in the analysis of the bread for the tables the daily 
samples were composited and the analyses made for twelve persons as 
easily as for six. The same is true for each article of diet and for the 
analysis of the excrementitious material. By this arrangement the 
analysts were able to complete the analytical work during the periods 
of recreation and to devote more time to the classification and tabula- 
tion of the data. Tin 1 burden of the analytical work was thus dimin- 
ished one-half, while its accuracy and efficiency were not sacrificed in 
any respect, but on the contrary rather increased. 

The analyses of the foods and feces were made in the Division of 
Foods under the supervision of AW I). Bigelow; the conduct of the 
food table, the study of the body weights, and the urinalyses were 
under the charge of K. ( J. Weber, and the microscopic tests were con- 
ducted by B. J. Howard. 

Owing to other arrangements the surgeons in connection with 
the Marine Hospital Service found themselves unable to give the 

479 



480 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 

time necessary to the regular inspection of the physical state of the 
young men under observation, and this inspection was undertaken by 
the Chief of the Bureau. A thorough physical and medical examina- 
tion was given to each applicant before his admission to the table, in 
order to be certain that those admitted to the experimental work were 
in a perfectly sound physical state and for at least one year previous 
to the beginning of the experimental work had not suffered from 
any severe illness. In this respect the same means were employed 
and the same care exercised as in the experiment with borax, the 
squad having been chosen, thoroughly examined as described, and 
placed upon the permanent diet for about a week before the regular 
period of observation began, on October 19, 1903. 

The main experiment on salicylic acid is referred to as Series VI, 
following Series V of Part I on boric acid, while Series XI is a sup- 
plemental, special study conducted at a later date to determine certain 
effects on the urine, the importance of which had been suggested by 
the work of Series VI. It will be noted from the schedules following 
that the work of Series VI began on October 19, liM*:',, and was com- 
pleted on December 7, a period of fifty days, excluding the preparatory 
work, which began about October 15. Series XI consisted of a pre- 
liminary study of three men from March 29, 19<>;>, to April 9, and a 
special study of four men from April 27 to May 16, a total of thirty- 
two days under observation. 



SERIES VI. 
ADMINISTRATION OF THE PRESERVATIVE. 

SCHEDULE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

In Table I are given the dates of the periods and subperiods of the 
observations, which are useful in ease their duration is not repeated in 
the text. In Table II are given the data showing the administration 
of the salicylic acid for each of the periods and subperiods and the 
quantities given to each individual daily. 

Table I. — Dates of periods and subperiods in Series VI 



Period and subperiod. 



Date of 
begin- 
ning. 



Date of 
ending. 



Fore period 

First subperiod . . . 
Second subperiod . 

Preservative period . . . 
First subperiod . . . 
Second subperiod. 
Tbird subperiod .. 
Fourth subperiod . 
Fifth subperiod . . . 
Sixth subperiod.., 



After period 

First subperiod . . 
Second subperiod 



1903. 
Oct. 19 
...do... 
Oct. 24 

Oct. 29 
...do... 
Nov. 3 

Nov. 8 
Nov. 13 
Nov. 18 
Nov. 23 

Nov. 28 
...do... 
Dec. 3 



1903. 
Oct. 28 
Oct. 23 
Oct. 28 

Nov. 27 
Nov. 2 
Nov. 7 
Nov. 12 
Nov. 17 
Nov. 22 
Nov. 27 

Dec. 7 
Dee. 2 
Dec. 7 



Table II. — Schedule of administration of preservative, Seri>* VI. 

IX TABLETS. 





Period and date. 


Nos. 1. 2, 
1-12. 


No. 3. 


Fir-i Bubperiod: 

October 29,1903 ' 


Grams. 
0.2] 

.21 
.21 
.21 
.21 


Grams. 



;;n. p.)()3 


o 


81 1903 





November 1, 1903 


o 


'. L908 











Total per individual . . 


1.05 


o 








Second subperiod: 

November 3, 1903 


.42 
. 12 
. 12 
. 12 

. 12 


21 


i. 1908 


.21 


5, 1908 


.21 


6,1908 


.21 


7, 190 


21 








Total per individual . . 


2. 10 


1.05 









481 



482 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 



Table II. — Schedule of administration of preservative, Series VI- — Continued. 

IN CAPSULES. 



Period and date. 


No-. 1,2, 
4-12. 




Third subperiod: 

November 8, 1903 --- -- 


Grams. 

.71 


Grams. 

0. 12 


9, L908 




. 12 


10, L908 




. 12 


11,1 903 


.42 


12. L903 


. 1 ' 










3.70 


•M0 








Fourth subperiod: 

November 13,1903 


L2 

1.2 
1.2 

1.2 
1.2 


- 


14 1903 




8 


1"> ' 




- 


l»;. 1903 




- 


17, 1903 


.8 










G.O 


4.0 








Fifth Bubperiod: 

Novemb r I s , 1903 


i..; 
1.6 
1.6 
1.6 

i.e. 


1.2 


19, 1903 


1.2 


■'(i, 1903... 


1.2 


21, L903 


1.2 


22, 1903 


1.2 










8.0 


6.0 








sixth subperiod: 

November 23,1903 

"1 L903 


2. 

2.0 

2. 
2.0 

2.0 


1.6 

L.6 


28 1 '»(>:; 


1.6 


26 1903 


1.6 


27 1903a 


1.6 










10.0 


8.0 








Total per individual I' 


30. 85 


21. 15 







"No. •; took no preservative on November 27, making his total doae for the sixth subperiod 8 
grams instead of 10, and tin- total for the entire preservative period 28.85 grams. 

The only notable variation in the administration of the preservative 

occurred in (lie case of No. :5. who, on account of a slight indisposition 
which developed during the fore period, did not begin to take the 
preservative until the second subperiod. 

METHOD <)F ADMINISTRATION. 

The preservative was administered in two forms, considered to be 
most convenient, namely, in tablets and in capsules. Objections have 
been urged against this manner of administering the preservative, and 
it has even been stated in some criticisms of the borax experiment 
that the use of this method i- sufficient ground for the rejection of all 
the data collected relative to the injurious effects of the preservative 
upon the metabolic processes, because of the alleged irritant effects 
of preservatives so administered as compared with the effects pro 
duced by t he same bodies as found in the foods themselves as purchased 
on t he market. 

It i- hardly necessary to call attention to the futility of such an 
objection. Were the preservatives employed poisonous bodies, in the 
ordinary sense of the term, producing a direct mechanical effect upon 
the membranes of the mouth, esophagus, and stomach, there might he 
some ground for criticising their ingestion in the form of tablets or 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 483 

capsules. In the case of the preservatives employed, however, which 
in the quantities used produced no such effects, the objections are 
entirely groundless. A preservative administered in this way at the 
time of the meals, as was always the case, is at once thoroughly 
incased in the food, is rapidly mixed with the contents of the stomach 
during the process of digestion, and could not in any way exert any 
injurious effect b} T reason of the form of its administration. More- 
over, this method of exhibition in connection with injection into the 
blood is one commonly followed in medical and pharmacological 
experiments. 

QUANTITY OF THE PRESERVATIVE. 

It will be seen that the quantities subjected vary from 210 milli- 
grams a day at the beginning of the preservative period to as much 
as 2 grams a day at its close, the object in this arrangement being to 
determine progressively the limit of toleration for ordinary medicinal 
doses. With a substance whose activity is as limited as that of sali- 
cylic acid, it is evident that it would be impossible within any reason- 
able time to secure any idea of its ptrysiological effect by administering 
mere traces of the reagent. On the other hand, the quantity used, 
namely, 30.85 grams, over a period of thirty days, an average of a 
gram a day, while not excessive, is sufficient to permit of a study of 
the effects of this substance upon the metabolic processes. 

EXCRETION OF THE SALICYLIC ACID. 

Tracing the history of salicylic acid in the organism is a somewhat 
difficult procedure. Soon after the exhibition of salicylic acid it or 
its derivatives appears in the urine, and it is evident that the kidney 
is the principal excretory organ. Owing to the changes in the com- 
position of the salicylic acid resulting in the formation of salicyluric 
acid and other decomposition products, a comparison of the amounts 
excreted in the urine with the quantity given is a difficult operation. 
Table III shows in milligrams the quanthVv of salicylic acid adminis- 
tered and the amount thereof recovered in the urine. In the course 
of five days after the cessation of the administration of the salicylic 
acid nothing but a mere trace was found in the urine. In fact, in some 
cases only traces were left after four day-. 

In this connection attention is called to the difficulties attending the 
exact determination of salicylic acid and the products obtained there- 
from in its passage through the body. The method used in these 
investigations for determining salicylic acid is as follows. 

METHOD FOR DETERMINING SALICYLIC ACID IN THE URINE. 

Make alkaline with sodium hydrate i!.~> or 50 cubic centimeters of 
urine, according to the amount of salicylic acid administered, and 
evaporate, with the addition of a little sand, to a thick sirup. Rub 
this mass with a pestle, after adding 50 cubic centimeters of 98-99 per 



484 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



cent alcohol, decant the alcohol on a filter paper and repeat the extrac- 
tion five or six times. Transfer the precipitate to a rilter and wash 
until no test for salicylic acid can be obtained by evaporating 10 cubic 
centimeters of the extract to dryness, taking up with petroleum spirit 
and testing in the usual way. 

Evaporate the extracts to free them from alcohol, take up with 
water, acidify, extract with ether, and evaporate until free from ether. 
Dissolve the salicylic acid in hot water and make up to a definite 
volume at room temperature and make up aliquot portions of this 
solution to 100 cubic centimeters in Nessler\s jars. 

Add 5 cubic centimeters of a 0.5 per cent ferric alum solution to 
one of these jars and mix thoroughly, noting the depth of color. 
Make up a set of standards from a solution containing 0.1 milligram 
per cubic centimeter of salicylic acid so that they approximately match 
the color developed in the test just described. That is, if the color 
developed approximates L.2 milligrams make up the standards so that 
they will contain 1.18, 1.20, and 1.22 milligrams of salicylic acid. 
Then compare a new solution of the sample with these samples, mak- 
ing the comparisons immediately after adding the ferric alum solution, 
as the color fades rapidly. The comparisons should be made in tripli- 
cate and are accurate to 0.02 of a milligram. 

Blanks run by adding salicylic acid to normal urines averaged 95 
per cent of the acid recovered. Extracts of urines passed during the 
preservative period were heated to 156 t<> volatilize the salicylic acid 
and the residues weighed as salicyluric acid. In every case the residues 
were so small as to be negligible. 

The samples of feces tested gave no indication of the presence of 
salicylic acid. 

Table III. — s<iiici//lc <ifi<! ingested "ml recovered in urine, Series 17. 





No 


. 1. 


\. 




No 


.3. 


No 


.4. 






<t . 








- . 




- 


Period. 




s * 








u 

- ? 




n E 
3 g 








V 
o 


z g 




z g 




: t 






a 5 


= •- 


J 




1 






fl 




I/-/.--. 




Q 


< 


< 


Pn ervatlve pei lod: 


Mgs, 


.»/</.-•. 


.»/«/*. 


M</s. 


Mg». 


Kg*. 


Mas. 


First Bubperiod, Oct. 29-Nov. 2.. 


1,060 


816 


| n ,,, 








ii 


1,060 




. »nd Bubperiod, Nov. 8 7 


2, 1(H) 




■1, 100 




1,060 


:;n 


2, KK) 


676 


I bird uubperiod, No\ ,8 12 


8,700 


I. II.. 


::. 700 


1,811 


_'. too 


608 


8,700 


L.980 


Fourth Bubperiod, Nov. 18 17... 


6,000 


■'. 787 


6,000 




i.ui in 


1,769 


6,000 


2, 769 


Filth Bubperiod, N->\ . i^ 22 


8,000 




B, 1 


1,898 


6,000 


•J, 710 


8,000 


:;. 998 


Sixth robperiod, Nov. 28-27 


Id. nun 


i ' 


10,000 


1,946 


8,000 




10,000 


6,010 


Total, '»i. 20 Nov. Ti 




18,269 


80, H. r )0 


I 1,841 


21,160 


8, 687 


30, 860 


14,848 






142 


i 028 


178 


846 


290 




196 






am. i period: 


















nbperiod— 


















Nov. 28 l"«-. -' 


(1 


■ '1 





180 


it 


129 







Dec. l 







Tr. 

Ft. tr. 






i 1 ti- 
ll n 




ii 


Ft.tr. 

•0 


ii 




Tr. 


I'- Z 





i .ml Bubperiod — 



























II 
(1 


Ft. tr. 












II 







i 































SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



485 



Table III. — Salicylic acid ingested and recovered in urine, Series VI — Continued. 





No 


.5. 


No 


.6. 


No 


.7. 


No 


.8. 


Period. 


6 

a: 

O 


t -"a 

as 
< 


5 

p 


» . 

§ S 

as 

< 


03 

gg 
O 

Q 


& 


6 
/. 
o 


~ o 
£ u 
~ ? 

sS 
< 


Preservative period: 

First subperiod, Oct. 29-Nov. 2. . 

Second subperiod, Nov. 3-7 

Third subperiod, Nov. 8-12 

Fourth subperiod, Nov. 13-17 . . . 

Fifth subperiod, Nov. 18-22 

Sixth subperiod, Nov. 23-27 


Mgs. 
1,050 
2, 100 
3,700 
6,000 
8,000 
10,000 


Mgs. 
302 
439 
1,947 
3,606 
4,422 
4,853 


Mgs. 

1,050 
2,100 
3,700 
6,000 
8,000 
8,000 


Mgs. 
513 
471 
1,070 
2, 516 
3,636 
4,301 


Mgs. 
1,050 
2, 100 
3,700 
6,000 
8,000 
10, 000 


Mgs. 

276 
635 
1,548 
2,346 
3,567 
3,897 


Mgs. 

1,050 
2, b 

3,700 
6, 001) 
8,000 
10, 000 


Mgs. 

281 
750 
1,431 
2, 323 
3.X92 
4,926 


Total, Oct. 29-Nov. 27 


30, 850 
1,028 


15, 569 
519 


28, 850 
962 


12, 507 
417 


30, 850 
1,028 


12, 269 
406 


30, 850 
1,028 


13, 603 

453 








After period: 

First subperiod— 
Nov. 28-Dec. 2 . . 












194 
Tr. 










• 




Very 

ft. tr. 
Very 
ft. tr. 














97 
Tr. 

Ft. tr. 








s 




311 


Dec. 1 


Tr. 


Dec. 2 


Dbtful. 


Second subperiod — 
Dec. 3... 


Tr. 


Dec. 4... 


Ft. tr. 


Dec. 5 














No 


.9. 


. No 


10. 


No 


11. 


No 


12. 


Period. 




i . 
3 & 




i 

58 - 




i 

n S 

3 "~> 








o 


Z > 








Z > 




c > 




Hr, 


DO 

o 


ay 


j. 

z 


= Z 


i 




as 




P 


< 


Q 


< 


A 


< 


p 


< 


Preservative period: 


Mgs. 


Mgs. 


Mgs. 


Mgs. 


Mgs. 


Mgs. 


Mgs. 


Mgs. 


First subperiod, Oct. 29-Nov. 2.. 


1,050 


212 


1,050 


392 


1,050 


360 


1,050 


267 


Second subperiod, Nov. 3-7 


2,100 


820 


2,100 


892 


2, 100 


638 


2, 100 


600 


Third subperiod, Nov. 8-12 


3,700 


1,496 


3,700 


858 


3,700 


1,361 


3,700 


1 , 705 


Fourth subperiod, Nov. 13-17 . . . 


6,000 


2,785 


6,000 


2,399 


6, 000 


2, 459 


6, C00 


2, 597 


Fifth subperiod, Nov. 18-22 


8,000 


3,993 


8. 000 


3,778 


8,000 


3,624 


8, 000 


3, 660 


Sixth subperiod, Nov. 23-27 


10, 000 


5,060 


10, 000 


4,250 


10, 000 


5, 160 


10,000 


4.976 


Total, Oct. 29-Nov. 27 


30, 850 
1,028 


14, 366 


30, 850 
1,028 


12, 569 
419 


30, 850 


13, 602 


30, 850 


13,805 


Average per dav 


479 


1,028 


453 


1,028 


460 






After period: 


















First subperiod— 


















Nov. 28-Dec. 2 





310 





124 





231 





215 


Dec. 1 





Tr. 





Tr. 





Tr. 





Tr. 


Dec. 2 





Ft. tr. 


o 


Tr. 











Tr. 


• Second subperiod— 




Dec. 3 





o 

















Tr. 


Dec. 4 









o 






• 












Dec 5 









DISCISSION OF KKSILTS. 



As before stated, the quantities obtained hy analysis represent 95 
per cent of the actual quantities of salicylic acid in the urine. The 
tcM> as applied show that no weighable quantities of salicyluric acid 
are present in the urine. 

The individual data show in the case of No. 1 a little over one-third 
of the salicylic acid recovered in the urine and the same is true of 
No. 2. A little more than one-third is recovered in the case of No. 3. 



486 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

Almost one-half is recovered iu the case of No. 4. a little over one-half 
in the case of No. 5, a little less than one-half in the case of No. 6, a 
little over one-third in the case of No. 7. almost one-half in the case 
of Nos. s and 9, a little over a third in the case of No. 10, and less than 
one-half in the cases of Xos. 11 and 12. 

The summary for 12 men shows that 11.47 per cent of the salicylic 
acid administered was recovered, an average of 443 milligrams out of 
996. If the correction indicated by the blanks be made a total average 
recovery of 46.8 per cent of salicylic acid unchanged is indicated. 
The balance of the salicylic acid is apparently changed into salicyluric 
acid or other combinations or remains stored in the body. 

The difference in composition between salicylic acid and salicyluric 
acid is shown by the following formula: 

Salicylic acid, CTi 6 3 = OH.C 6 H 4 .CO.,H. 

Salicyluric acid, C 9 H 9 N0 4 = OH.C 6 II 4 ~CO.NI [.( J] I ,C0 2 H. 

It is stated by most authorities that salicylic acid when administered 
internally is found in the urine partly as salicyluric acid. This body 
is separated from salicylic acid by the volatilization process described. 
The quantities found in our experiments by this method were not 
weighable. 

DAILY MEDICAL AND CLINICAL NOTES. 

INDIVIDUAL DATA. 

No. /.—./. //. S. 

On the first day of the fore period the subject's weight was 53. t5 
kilograms; temperature, lis. 4 ; pulse, two observations, 76 and 80, 
His health was excellent and his physical condition without a Haw. 
No variations of note in physical condition occurred on the succeeding 
days of t he fore period. The temperature on the final day of the lore 
period, October 28, was 98.2 and 98.6 . two observations; the pulse, 
To and 80, and the weighl 53.36 kilograms. The average weighl for 
the entire Tore period was 53.38 kilograms, and the dail\ variations 
were small. 

On the first day of the first preservative subperiod (October 29 to 
November 2) the temperature was a little below the normal, two 
observations being 98.1 and 9T.8 . and the pulse 68 and To per 
minute, respectively. The second day the temperature was normal. 
No marked variation in condition was observed during the first pre- 
servative subperiod except, a slight decrease in weight, the average 
weight for this period being 53.25 kilograms. 

The second preservative subperiod began on November 3 and (dosed 
November T. The temperature was slightly below the normal on 
November 4, reaching 97.9 on the first observation and 98.4 on the 
second. On the 5th the temperature was still slightly below the nor- 



SALICYLIC ACID AXD SALICYLATES. 487 

mal, but the health of the subject was good. On November 6 No. 1 
complained of not having his appetite satisfied by his meals and stated 
that he was hungry, but his health was good. The feeling of lack of 
sufficient food continued on the following day. and there was a slight 
increase in the temperature, three observations having been made, 
registering 98.2°, 99.8 : , and 99°, respectively. The rapidity of the 
pulse was also increased, having registered 82 at 6.20 p. m. There 
was a continued, though slight, falling off in weight during this sub- 
period, the average weight being 53.15 kilograms. 

The third preservative subperiod began on November 8 and closed 
on November 12. On the first day of this subperiod the subject still 
complained of being hungry. His health was good, but the feeling of 
hunger was pronounced on the following day, when the subject entered 
upon his notes, 4 * Don't get enough to eat," and on the following day 
registered the observation, "Could eat more." The feeling of hunger 
continued during the whole of the third preservative subperiod. The 
average weight decreased to 53.05 kilograms. 

The fourth preservative subperiod began on November 13 and closed 
on the 17th. There was a slight increase of temperature noticed at 
the second observation on the 13th, the thermometer registering 99.1° 
and the pulse registering 84 beats per minute. The feeling of hunger 
continued through the fourth subperiod, but no other notable vari- 
ation in the condition of the subject was observed. The weight 
throughout this subperiod remained practically constant, the average 
weight being 53.06 kilograms. 

The fifth preservative subperiod began on November IS and ended 
on the 22d. The feeling of hunger still persisted, and on the 19th the 
subject complained of feeling as though there were a lump in the stom- 
ach, accompanied by continued belching. His temperature was below 
the normal, the two observations being 97. 7 and 97.1 , respectively. 
The feeling of disturbance in the stomach and of hunger continued on 
the 20th, but the temperature was restored to normal. On the 21st 
the patient described himself as feeling uncomfortable in the region 
of the stomach and still hungry. On the 23d he was very hungry 
and the feeling as of a lump in the stomach continued. There was a 
continued loss of weight during this subperiod, the average for the 
subperiod being 52.78 kilograms. 

The sixth preservative subperiod began on November 23 ami ended 
on November 27. On the 23d the patient described his symptoms as 
"Very hungry," with a gnawing feeling in the stomach. The same 
symptoms were also reported for the 24th and 25th of November. 
The average weight for the sixth preservative subperiod was 52.62 
kilograms and that of the entire preservative period 52.99 kilograms. 
Judged by the daily chart, the permanent symptom connected with 
the preservative period in the case of No. l was a feeling of hunger. 



4^ INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

although the ration was exactly that given in the fore period, when no 
sense of hunger was experienced, accompanied during the latter pre- 
servative subperiods with a feeling of distress in the stomach and some 
belching. 

The first after subperiod began on November 28 and ended on 
December 2. On the first day of the after period the subject com- 
plained of a slight cold and sore throat. There was no perceptible 
rise in temperature, however. The cold continued in a mild degree 
on the 29th. but the temperature was slightly below the normal. The 
temperature was normal on the 30th, with slight cold continuing. The 
feeling of hunger had disappeared and did not return on December 
1 and 2. The average weight for the first after subperiod was 52.42 
kilograms. 

The second after subperiod began on December 3 and ended Decem- 
ber 7. A slight cold was reported on the 3d, with temperature slightly 
below the normal. On the 4th the slight cold continued, with almost 
normal temperature. On the 5th the second observation of tempera- 
ture was slightly above normal, 99°, with the pulse at 80. On the 6th 
all symptoms of cold had disappeared and no sense of hunger was 
experienced. On the Tth the temperature was normal and the hunger 
symptom occurred after dinner. The average weight for the second 
after subperiod was 52.31 kilograms, and the mean weight for the 
entire after period 52.37 kilograms. 

No. 2.—W. P. 

At the beginning of the fore period, on November L9, the tempera- 
ture was slightly above 98, the pulse 73 beats per minute, and the 
weight of the body 67.9 kilograms. On Tuesday, October 20, there 

Was a -light rise in temperature, but no other symptoms of a derange 

ment of the normal processes appeared. The temperature was normal 
on the 21st, and no variation from the normal was observed on the fol- 
lowing days, except an occasional rise in temperature after the dinner 
hour. Throughout the whole of the fore period, with very few excep 

tions, this tendency to an increased temperature after dinner was quite 

apparent. The temperature before dinner wa>> perhaps -lightly below 
the normal, the average being only a little above i' s . The average 
weight for the first fore subperiod was 68.43 kilograms and for the 
second subperiod <»v21 kilograms. The final weight on the last day 
of the fore period, October 28, was 67.72, a total loss of 180 grams. 
The average weight for the entire fore period, however, was 68.82 

kilogram-. 

The preservative period began on October 29, on which day there 
was a slight diminution in the normal temperature and a -light inorease 

of Weight, the first weighing being 68.05 kilograms. On the second 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 489 

day of the first preservative subperiod the temperature was slightly 
above the normal, but no other symptoms of abnormality were observed. 
This increase in temperature also continued during- the 31st, and on 
November 1 the temperature was again normal and the weight had 
increased to 68.35 kilograms, followed by a fall on November 2 to 
67.85 kilograms. The average weight for the first preservative sub- 
period was 08.01 kilograms. 

The second preservative subperiod began on November 3 with normal 
temperature and a weight of 08.05 kilograms. On the 5th of Novem- 
ber No. 2 was reported as feeling well with the exception of a slight 
headache. There was also a slight depression of temperature after 
dinner in this case instead of before. On the 7th of November No. 2 
described himself as "hungry as a bear." Temperature and respira- 
tion, however, remained normal. The weight of the body had fallen 
on November 7 to 67.60 kilograms, the average weight for this sub- 
period being 67.84, a slight decrease as compared with the average for 
the preceding subperiod. 

The third preservative subperiod began on November 8 with all 
symptoms normal. On the 9th No. 2 described himself as still hungry, 
and on the 10th as feeling all right. On the 11th he was normal, and 
the hungry feeling had disappeared. The average weight was 67.80, 
theoretically a very slight decrease. 

The fourth preservative subperiod began on the 13th of November 
with no unfavorable symptoms. On November 14 No. 2 described 
himself as feeling a little feverish and as having a bad headache in 
the morning. On the 15th of November the headache continued all 
day, but the subject was not ill. The headache disappeared on the 
16th. This subperiod closed on the following day with an average 
weight of 67.65 kilograms, the average decrease continuing. 

On the 18th, the first day of the fifth preservative subperiod, there 
were decided pains in the stomach, and the temperature fluctuated 
somewhat, but there were no marked symptoms of fever. The weight 
on this day was 67.63 kilograms. The condition of No. 2 remained 
normal from this time until the beginning of the sixth preservative 
subperiod, on November 23. when he had nausea during the whole 
afternoon. After dinner on the 24th he returned to the dining room 
after a short absence complaining of very Bevere burning pains in the 
stomach,' and was evidently quite ill and in considerable distress. 
After meals on November 25 there were burning sensations in the 
stomach which lasted for a greater or Less length of time, and the 
weight decreased to <>7. 1 I kilograms. On the 26th the patient was 
feeling better, could eat more, ami the appetite was fairly good. On 
the 27th extreme sensitiveness in the stomach was manifested, and 
there was a slight increase of temperature at the dinner hour. The 
7656— No. 84, pi 2— 0G 2 



490 ENFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON 11KALTH. 

preservative period closed November 27. showing an average weight 
of 67.66 kilograms, a slight decrease as compared with the fore period. 

The after period began with a weight of 67 kilograms, temperature 
and pulse normal. No. '2 speedily regained his normal feelings, 
although on the 30th he had considerable headache and again felt sen- 
sations of nausea. These feelings passed away on the 1st of Decem- 
ber and an increased appetite was developed, although the 4 weight 
continued to fall. On December 'i the patient complained of being 
still hungry after having eaten three normal meals during the day. 

The first day of the second after subperiod was characterized by 
unpleasant sensations, nausea, and general discomfort during the 
afternoon. This continued on the following day. The symptoms 
were better on the 5th of December, the nausea having entirely 
passed away at that time. Only normal symptoms were exhibited 
from that time until the end of the after period on December 7. At 
this time the subject was perfectly Well, temperature and pulse nor- 
mal, but continued to lose weight, as the last recorded weight was 
66.65 kilograms and the average for the after period 66.79. 

No. S.—C. P. 

This subject at the time of the beginningof the fore period was in good 
physical condition, although of a rather small stature, Inning a. weight 
of 52. 78 kilograms, normal pulse and temperature. There was a slight 
rise of temperature on tin 4 21st of October, and also a considerable 
quickening of the pulse, showing a decidedly feverish condition. This 
indisposition developed to such an extent that No. 3 did not report for 
observation at the table until October 26. On the 26th the fever still 
continued, the pulse was above the normal, and his weight had fallen 
to 50.54 kilograms. On tin' 28th of October there had been some 
improvement in the subject's condition and his pulse and temperature 
were only slightly above the normal. Owing to this illness the ana- 
lytical data of the fore period are without val lie and the time of the 
first preservative subperiod, October 29 to November -J. became, in 
the case of No. :;, the fore period, at the beginning of which the tem- 
perature and pulse were normal and the weight .")<>. :;i kilograms. No 
medical symptoms of any significance were developed during the fore 
period. The pulse and temperature remained practically normal and 

the weight had increased at the end of the period to 50.43 kilograms. 

the average for the period being 50.42. During the first preservative 

subperiod (November •"> 7 in the case of this subject) the pulse and 

temperature were normal and the weight slightly increased, the aver 
age being .'-".T:; kilogram-. The appetite of No. '■*> increased very 
markedly during i hi- subperiod and he was still hungry after the three 
regular rations had been eaten. A -light cold developed on the 5th of 
November, but was not of any consequence. At the end of this sub- 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 491 

period the patient was in good condition, but was still complaining of 
hunger. His weight had increased to 50.80 kilograms and the pulse 
and temperature were normal. 

During the second preservative subperiod some pain was felt in the 
shoulder, but evidently this bore no definite relation to the diet. Com- 
plaint was made on December 9 of a very empty feeling in the stomach; 
otherwise the subject was feeling well. This condition continued 
throughout this subperiod, with a general feeling that the amount of 
ration eaten was not sufficient to supply the appetite, and the subject 
complained frequently of being hungry. 

The third preservative subperiod (November 13-17) began with pulse 
and temperature normal. The weight had risen to 51.15 kilograms. 
Complaint was made during the first day of severe pains in the stomach. 
This continued during the next day, but the subject still complained 
of being hungry. On the 15th severe pains were felt in the shoulder, 
but normal conditions were restored on the 16th. On the 17th the 
pains in the stomach returned, but the other conditions were normal, 
and at the end of this subperiod the weight of the subject was 51.11 
kilograms: but the average weight was only 50.96 kilograms. 

The fourth preservative subperiod (November 18-22) began with 
marked symptoms of hunger after the usual rations were eaten. On 
the ] 9th constipation was marked and the pains in the stomach con- 
tinued. On the 20th report was made of very severe pains in the 
stomach, continuing during the night, and the constipation continued 
markedly. The general condition was better on the 21st, but the con- 
stipation continued. On the 22d the subject was belching all the time 
with acidity of the stomach and indigestion. This subperiod closed 
with the subject in rather an unfavorable condition, but with an 
increased average weight, i. e., 51.11 kilograms. 

The fifth preservative subperiod (November 23-27) began with 
normal pulse and temperature, but with continued belching, indiges- 
tion, and heartburn, which rendered the subject very uncomfortable. 
On the 21th these symptoms were ameliorated to a certain degree and 
lit' was feeling reasonably well. The symptoms returned, however, 
with renewed vigor on the 25th, with continued burning sensation in 
the throat and stomach, especially after meals, and continuing for about 
two hours. The weight on this day was slightly increased, being 51.54 
kilograms, the average weight for the fifth subperiod being 51.31 
kilograms. The end of the entire preservative period found the 
patient in reasonably good condition, with a strong appetite, pulse and 
temperature normal, and weight 51.60 kilograms, while the average 
weight for the period was 50.93 kilograms. 

The first after subperiod began with a rapidly restored normal con- 
dition, which continued until I lecember 1. when the patient was attacked 
with another severe cold, the temperature having risen at the dinner 



492 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

period to L02 . The appetite, however, was not impaired. The ill 
feelings arising from the cold were increased on the 2d of December, 

although the temperature had fallen somewhat. The weight at the 
close of the subperiod on this day was 51.54 kilograms; the average 
for the subperiod was 51.57 kilograms. 

The second after subperiod began with both temperature and pulse 
slightly above the normal, pains in the chest, and the patient under 
treatment by Doctor Perry, of the Public Health and Marine- Hospital 
Service. The patient was decidedly better on December 4. and the 
temperature and pulse were normal. A slight headache developed on 
the 5th <>f December, but with no other abnormal symptoms. On the 
6th the patient was feeling perfectly well, and the same is true of the 
7th, the close of the after period. On this date the temperature and 
pulse 1 were normal and the weight was 51.55 kilograms. The average 
weight for the after period was 51.60 kilograms, showing a gain in 
weight throughout the observation, in connection with which the sub- 
ject's state of convalescence must be remembered. 

No. 4.—F. E. B. 

No. 4 proved to be one of the best subjects under observation, 
being very steady in his habits and very careful in the entry of data 
intrusted to him. At the beginning of the fore period No. 4 was in 
excellent physical condition, normal in every respect and having a 
weight of 61.08 kilograms. There were no deviations from the nor- 
mal during the entire fore period, at the end of which the weight was 
*;<>.<*):> kilograms, the average weight for the period being 60. To kilo- 
grams. During the first of the preservative subperiods there were 
no symptoms showing abnormality, except perhaps a slight increase 
in the appetite. The weight on the last day of the first preserva- 
tive subperiod was <>o. k 2:'> kilograms, and the average weight 60.53 
kilograms. 

During the second preservative subperiod the symptoms remained 

normal, but there was an increased desire for food, although t la- 
rat ion was not changed. At the end of this subperiod the weight was 

slightly greater than at the beginning, namely, 60.82 kilograms, and 

no marked symptoms of any abnormal condition had been developed. 

The average weight had also increased slightly, to 60.59 kilograms. 

The third preservative subperiod began with a keen appetite, nor- 
mal pulse and temperature. On the 9th of November the patient 

complained of being ravenously hungry, although his weight had not 
sensibly diminished, remaining at 60.60 kilograms. On the L 0th the 

feeling of hunger at the end of the day seemed to be appeased and 

the subject expressed himself ;»> having had enough to eat. The 
weight remained almost constant, namely. 60.64 kilograms. This 
subperiod ended with normal symptoms, a good appetite, but QO 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 493 

unusual feeling of hunger, and with a weight of 60.51 kilograms. 
There was an increase in the average weight to 60.62 kilograms. 

The fourth preservative subperiod began with a good appetite and 
no unfavorable symptoms. At the end of the period there was a 
slight increase in weight, namely, to 60.90 kilograms, and the average 
weight also increased to 60.85 kilograms. 

The fifth preservative subperiod began with a good physical condi- 
tion, normal in every respect. At the close of this period the normal 
conditions were still maintained, with good appetite but not excessive 
hunger, and the weight had risen to 61 kilograms, though the average 
weight slightly decreased, being 60.81 kilograms. 

During the sixth preservative subperiod the patient complained of 
a slight headache but still had a fairly good appetite, though not so 
keen as during the earlier preservative subperiods. The average 
weight for the entire preservative period was 60.67 kilograms, a 
slight decrease as compared with the fore period average. 

At the close of the first after subperiod normal conditions still 
continued, but the weight had fallen to 60.35 kilograms, though 
showing an average of 60.42 kilograms. The second after subperiod 
began with normal conditions, which continued unchanged to the end 
of the period, when the pulse and temperature were normal, and the 
weight was 60.38 kilograms and the average 60.43 kilograms. The 
average weight for the entire after period was 60.43 kilograms, 
showing a continued loss in weight throughout the experiment. 

No. 5.—G. E. C. 

No. 5 began the fore period in good physical condition, with 
temperature and pulse slightly below the normal. His weight was 
59.43 kilograms. No unfavorable symptoms were developed during 
the fore period, the physical condition of the subject remaining 
practically unchanged. During the whole observation there seemed 
to be a slight normal depression of the temperature, which, however, 
was not due to any unusual cause. At the end of the fore period 
No. 5 was in excellent physical condition, with temperature slightly 
below the normal. The weight had risen to 59.94 kilograms, the 
average weight for the entire fore period being 59.76 kilogram-. 

The first preservative subperiod was passed without any unusual 
symptoms, except the continued slight depression of the temperature 
until November li, when a slight headache was developed which con- 
tinued during the whole day. The second preservative subperiod passed 
without any unusual phenomena until the 7th of November, when a 
remarkably strong appetite persisted after the last meal of the day. 
The weight of the subject on this date was 59.83 kilograms, the average 
weight for the subperiod being <;o.o7 kilogram-. The third preserva- 
tive subperiod passed without incident until November L0, when the 



494 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON II1.ALTH. 

patient felt that his appetite was satisfied with the usual rations. On 
the L2th of November, the appetite still remaining normal, the subject 
was not feeling well, having a slight tendency to diarrhea. The 
beginning of the fourth preservative subperiod found the patient feel- 
ing drowsy, hut still with a normal appetite. No other abnormal 
symptoms were developed during this subperiod. 

During" the fifth preservative subperiod the patient remained in a 
normal condition until the 2<»th of November, when symptoms of 
indigestion or uneasiness in the region of the stomach appeared, hut 
the appetite was not noticeably disturbed. These feelings passed 
away on the following day and the subject remained normal during 
the rest of that period. During the sixth preservative subperiod the 
patient continued normal and at the end of the preservative period 
was in good condition, weighing .'»*♦. ,V_! kilograms. The average weight 
for the entire preservative period, however, was ;>!>.71 kilograms, a 
slight decrease as compared with the fore period. 

The patient was in good condition at the beginning of the after 
period and no unfavorable symptoms of any kind were developed; 
the appetite was normal and the food appeared to suit the demands of 
the appetite. At the end of the after period the pulse and tempera- 
ture were normal and the 4 weight was r>9.^ ( .) kilograms, that being also 
the average for the entire period, thus showing a slight continued 
decrease in weight. 

No. 6.—L. M. S. 

This subject began the fore period in normal condition as respects 
both temperature and pulse and with a weight of 58.12 kilograms. 
No unusual symptoms developed during the fore period excepting 
perhaps a slight tendency to constipation. At the end of the fore 
period the patient's condition remained normal hut with a slight loss 
of weight, which had fallen to .'.7.1s kilograms. The average weight 
for the fore period, however, was somewhat higher, i. e., 58.06 kilo- 
grams. 

During the preservative period the condition of the subject re- 
mained normal without any notable symptoms during the first and 
second siibperiods until the 5th of November, when complaint was 

made of a feeling of hunger after the usual rations of the day had 

been consumed. There was a gradual but not marked los^ of weight. 

and the subject continued to complain at times of leaving the table 

\er\ hungry. The appetite remained good during the third preserva- 
tive Bubperiod, and on the 9th of November a slight cold in the head 

developed without any marked increase in temperature. There was 
a considerable fall in weight on that date, which was ascribed to a little 
unusual exercise. A slight cold continued on the 1 < >t 1 i of November, 
but otherwise the subject was feeling well and the appetite was still keen, 



SALICYLIC A(II) AXD SALICYLATES. 495 

the feeling of hunger continuing during the next day. On Novem- 
ber 12. at 3.40 p. m., the patient was seized with cramps in the abdo- 
men but not of a very severe character. At the beginning- of the 
fourth preservative subperiod the feeling of hunger had disappeared, 
but the slight cold in the head continued without notable rise of tem- 
perature. The cold continued on the 14th, with the feeling of uneasi- 
ness in the stomach, which feeling disappeared on the loth, the cold 
continuing but not in a disturbing degree. Normal conditions were 
restored on the 16th. On the 17th the subject was still hungry after 
taking the usual meals and had an uneasy feeling in the stomach. 
During the fifth preservative subperiod the feeling of hunger per- 
sisted. A tendency to diarrhea developed on the 19th, and there was 
some discomfort from indigestion. A little cold persisted during the 
following days but not of any serious nature, and the sensation of 
hunger continued. The sixth preservative subperiod began vith 
pains in the stomach and abdomen but with the feeling of hunger con- 
tinuing. On the 21th the pains in the stomach were marked, especially 
after meals; the slight cold continued but without notable increase of 
temperature. Although still hungry on the 25th, there was a feeling 
a- of a lump in the stomach and other unpleasant sensation-, described 
a- " unusual" feelings in the stomach. This indisposition continued 
on the 2*Jth. and the temperature was slightly below the normal. At 
6.45 p. m. of this day considerable nausea developed, and most of the 
dinner was vomited. A cold and sore throat were complained of on 
the ^Tth. the last day of the preservative period. The temperature 
on the afternoon of this day was considerably above the normal, and 
the weight was 56.51 kilograms, the average weight for the entire 
preservative period being 56.94 kilograms, a decided decrease. 

At the beginning of the after period the temperature was normal, 
but a slight sore throat persisted which continued also on the follow- 
ing three days. The feeling of hunger also was reported at times 
during this period. In the second after subperiod there was a slight 
headache and some continued cold, but the cold in general was better. 
The weight continued to diminish. On the 5th of December normal 
symptoms were fully reestablished in every particular, but there was 
a slight feeling of indigestion after dinner. Bight grains of quinine 
had been taken in the preceding two or three days. On December 6 
normal symptoms and normal appetite were reestablished, and these 

continued until the end of the after period, at which time the weight 

w a- 55.80 kilograms. 

To summarize, the average weight of No. »; for the fore period was 
58.06 kilograms; for the preservative period. ;.»;.:m kilograms; and 
for the after period, 55.87 kilograms, showing a lossof 1.12 kilograms 
in the preservative period from the fore period and 1.07 kilograms in 



496 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OH HEALTH. 

the after period from the preservative period, a total loss during- the 
experiment of 2.19 kilograms, in connection with which, of course, 
the cold from which the subject suffered must be remembered. 

No. ;.—./. -V. B. 

At the beginning of the fore period tin 4 weight of No. 7 was 68.3 
kilograms, and the temperature and pulse were normal. He was in 
excellent physical condition, no organic disease of any of the vital 
organs was found, and he had had no serious illness for a long period. 
The first fore subperiod passed without any unusual incident. At the 
beginning of the second subperiod the weight had fallen to 67.90 kilo- 
grams, but no other disturbances were noted. At the close of the 
fore period the weight was 67.55 kilograms and the average weight 
for the fore period 67.91 kilograms. 

The preservative period opened with the subject in good condition, 
though somewhat inclined to indulge in vivid imagination and to dis- 
cover symptoms of trouble which did not exist. No unusual symp- 
toms were manifested during the first preservative subperiod, but at 
the close of the second subperiod the symptoms of hunger appeared, 
the subject not feeling that the rations, which were entirely sufficient 
to satisfy his hunger during the fore period, were enough. On 
November 7 lie first complained of indigestion, and at the beginning 
of the third preservative subperiod was feeling reasonably well. 
During November !> a very bad headache was developed, which lasted 
during the afternoon, and on the following day there was an uneasy 
Bensation in the stomach. The general appearance of the subject at 
this time was not as good as at first, but no specific complaints were 
made. During the night of November 12 the subject was feeling quite 
ill and was not well throughout the following day. On the 14th the 
symptoms of malaise had largely disappeared, but not entirely. 
Headache developed again on the 15th, and the feeling of hunger 
seemed to be accentuated. Insomnia was complained of on the night 
of the L5th, and the statement was made that for two preceding nights 
difficulty in sleeping, especially in the early morning hours, had been 
experienced. Insomnia continued during the 17th. and the headache 
also persisted during thai day. On the L9th symptoms of indigestion 
were clearly manifested, especially in the afternoon, but the Bensation 
of hunger still continued. On the 20th of November the symptoms 
of indigestion increased, ami the subject was feeling very ill. There 
seemed also to be a slighl depression of the temperature. On the -1st 

the weight fell below 67 kilograms. The indigestion became nmre 

pronounced, and the headache also continued. The appetite failed on 

the 22d, and some difficulty was experienced in taking the full ration. 

At the beginning of the sixth preservative subperiod the weight 



SALTCYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 497 

had fallen to 66.80 kilograms and the illness of the preceding days had 
passed away; the appetite was restored and a sensation of hunger was 
complained of after the regular meals. This feeling of hunger, con- 
tinued for several days, and on the 26th the illness before complained 
of again appeared but passed away on the following day. 

The subject started on the after period with a weight of 66.90 kilo- 
grams, pulse and temperature normal, but complaining of constipa- 
tion. On the 29th he felt quite well, but during the succeeding days 
there was a continued loss of weight, although the regular rations 
selected at the fore period were eaten and the subject felt well. • In 
the second part of the after period the weight fell below 66 kilograms, 
but the subject was feeling well. This condition of health was con- 
tinued to the end of the after period. The weight on the last day of 
the after period was 66.83 kilograms and the average weight for the 
after period was 66.34 kilograms. 

Comparing the average weights of the three periods, we have for 
the fore period 67.91 kilograms, for the preservative period 67.i >v 
kilograms, and for the after period 66.34 kilograms. 

No. 8.— W. C. L. 

No. 8 was a somewhat peculiar subject, very conscientious and very 
attentive to eveiy detail, but much inclined at all times to imagine 
that he had some specific or general trouble. The data which were 
obtained with No. 8, therefore, are of peculiar interest. He was in a 
very good physical condition at the time of the beginning of the 
experimental work and in the physical examination revealed no lesion 
of any vital organ, nor had he suffered from any severe disease for a 
period of more than a year. His weight at the beginning of the fore 
period was *'»1 .">< I kilograms and his temperature and pulse were normal. 
He entered the preservative period weighing 60.65 kilograms. On 
the 1st of November a slight headache was developed early in the 
morning, which continued until the afternoon, when, after the subject 
had slept for forty minutes, it disappeared. An unpleasant feeling 
in the abdomen was experienced at the same time. It should be stated 
here that during the whole of the observation No. 8 took regularly a 
given quantity of laxative, administered in such a way that it could 
not interfere with any of tin 1 observations, inasmuch as it was the same 
during all the periods. A feeling of languor was experienced on the 
4th of November, and it was reported as having been experienced for 
several preceding day-. A slight headache was noted on the 5th of 
November, hut it passed away after breakfast; the subject felt tired 
on waking. A sore knee with which he entered the preservative 
period gave him some little trouble at this time. due. as he explained, 
to hitting it accidentally. On the 8th of November a slight tendency 



498 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVE < > X HEALTH. 

to diarrhea was developed, but this was followed on the succeeding 
day by a period of constipation. Abdominal pains were experienced 
on the eight of November 10, but in general the subject was feeling 
better. There was pain in the stomach on the night of the 11th, 
hut the feeling of languor and indisposition to exertion had passed 
away. A feeling of weight in the stomach was also noted. Abdomi- 
nal pains, though slight, continued on the l^th. On the 13th a 
feeling of indigestion was experienced, but it passed away within a 
short time. A small quantity of food was lost by belching on the 14th, 
but not to exceed a spoonful. On the L5th the subject was feeling 
quite well again, and this condition continued until the lsth, when a 
slight headache developed with a tendency to diarrhea. Slight head- 
ache was also experienced on the 19th and the bowels continued loose. 
On the 20th the subject felt exceedingly well, although there was a 
very slight headache after dinner. This favorable condition continued 
until the 22d and then was interrupted only by a slight headache with 
a tendency to drowsiness. Headache continued on November 23 and 
*24. with slight pains in the stomach and abdomen and with a drowsy 
feeling coming on early in the evening. A slight abdominal disturb- 
ance was noticed on the 25th, while a slight headache continued on 
the 26th and on the afternoon of the 27th. 'Pin 1 subject closed the 
preservative period with a weight of 60.13 kilograms and feeling 
reasonably well. His average weight for the whole preservative 
period was 60.62 kilograms, and for the fore period 61.20 kilograms. 
The first day of the after period the headache continued, hut the 
subject felt much better after luncheon. The second day the subject 
felt well, except for a slight feeling of uneasiness in the stomach. 
Headache came on about an hour before dinner with pains in the hack 
and some weariness. No unpleasant feelings were experienced during 
the 30th, but aslight feeling of laziness or drowsiness. A slight cold 
developed on December Land the temperature at dinner was 99.6 . 
Some symptoms of this cold had been manifested for several days 
before, but no account had been made of it until this day. Slight 

pains in tlie'back were experienced on the 2d of December, but other- 
wise tin 1 subject was feeling well. Some little headache was expe- 
rienced on the 3d of December. An abscess formed on a tooth at this 
time which kept the subject awake during the night of the 4th of 

I >ecember and he felt correspondingly ill during the day. The abscess 
was opened on the .Mh of December ami the subject felt much better, 
but slept only half t he night. On i he 6th all bad sy in ptoms haddisap 
peared. The subject closed the after period feeling in excellent con- 
dition in Bpite of the trouble which he had had with his tooth. The 

final weight on the last day of the after period was 59.87 kilograms, and 
bis average weight during the after period was 59.84 kilograms, show- 
ing a progressh «• loss in weight. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 499 

No. 9.—G. W. L. 

The weight of No. 9 at the beginning' of the fore period was 62.10 
kilograms. The temperature was very slightly above the normal and 
the rate of pulsation 8± per minute. The general physical condition 
was good. This subject had suffered from no serious disease within a 
} r ear and had a long history of good health. Physical examination 
disclosed all the organs in sound state and performing their normal 
functions. There was but little variation in the condition of No. it 
during the fore period. The pulsation remained at about the original 
rate, which was slightly above normal. The average weight for the 
fore period was &2r2o kilograms, but the weight on the last day of the 
fore period was exactly that of the first day. namel} T , 62.10 kilograms. 

No. 9 entered the preservative period in good condition. The first 
day there was a slight increase of temperature, almost 1 degree, but 
not sufficient to indicate a fever. This condition passed away, and on 
the second day the usual normal conditions were restored. The first 
preservative subperiod passed without any unusual incident. No. 9 
did not, as most of the others had done, complain of being hungry 
during this period. Normal conditions were continued until Novem- 
ber 3. when a slight cold was noticed, with an increase of temperature 
of about three-fourths of a degree. This condition continued on the 
following day, a slight degree of fever being manifested, with head- 
ache and a feeling of drowsiness during the day. These symptoms 
evidently were to be attributed to the cold rather than to the preserva- 
tive. The conditions were very much improved on the 5th instant; in 
fact, with the exception of a slight cold in the head, the conditions 
were normal. The slight cold continued but without any inconveni- 
ence on the 6th instant, and the temperature and pulsation were nor- 
mal. At this time there was a loss of weight amounting to about half 
a kilogram. This loss of weight was due in part to a rather larger 
evacuation than usual. Conditions were practically normal on the 7th 
with the exception of a slight continuation of the cold. All condi- 
tions were reported as favorable on November !'. during the second 
preservative subperiod, but a dislike for mutton and land) was 
expressed when these meats were served. There was a -light increase 
of the cold on November L0, but without any unpleasant results. 
During the night of the LOth a restless condition which interfered to 
some extent with sleep developed, and on November L2 the cold was 
worse, but without any increase of temperature or other unfavorable 
symptoms, 

No. '.* entered the fourth preservative subperiod feeling reasonably 
well and weighing 61.90 kilograms, almost the same as at the begin- 
ning of the period. There was a complaint of slight blurring of the 

vision during the previous day, and though the cold in the head was 



500 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

better, a pain in the region of the kidneys developed. This did not 
persist, however, and on the following day No. 9 was in good condi- 
tion. Some pain in the eye-- was noticed on November IT. 

The fifth preservative subperiod found No. 9 with exactly the same 
weight as at tin 1 beginning of the fore period, namely, 62.10 kilo- 
grams. He complained of coughing slightly at night and of some 
nocturnal perspiration, but this was of an entirely unimportant 
character. 

At the beginning of the sixth preservative subperiod No. 9 weighed 
ni'.Tn kilograms and was in excellent condition, feeling better even 
than at any period during the progress of the experiment. The appe- 
tite was excellent, and on November 26. the subject felt hungry after 
dinner. 

At the end of the preservative period, namely, November i>7. No. !» 
weighed *>'2AD kilograms and was feeling in excellent condition. The 
average weight for the entire preservative period was (52.22 kilograms, 
a- compared with W'I.'I^k the average of the fore period. 

The beginning of the after period found No. 9 in excellent condi- 
tion, and he passed through the entire after period without any inci- 
dent worthy of attention, save that he complained of hunger on every 
day of the first subperiod, but made no such complaint during the 
second subperiod. 

The weight of No. 9 at the end of the after period was 62.30 kilo- 
grams, temperature and pulse normal, and all the functions of the 
body apparently properly discharged. This ease is quite in contrast 
with most of the others. First, in the fact that no unpleasant symp- 
toms were observed even with the largest doses of salicylic acid; and, 
second, that the feeling of hunger, which was so commonly manifested 
during the first periods of the administration of the salicylic acid in 
the other cases, Was not noticed in this, but the symptoms of hunger 

developed decidedly aftei the cessation of the doses of the salicylic 

acid. 

Judged, therefore, simply by the medical history no unfavorable 

Symptoms of any kind were noticed during the whole course of 

observat ion. 

No. i<>. /;. />. n. 

No. In began the fore period weighing .'>7.1<> kilograms. Physical 
examination revealed no defects in any of the organs of the body. 

There had been no previous disease of an\ consequence within a year 
and no tendency to any organic disturbances was found. The fore 
period passed without any incident worthy of reeord. The tempera 
ture and pulse remained normal during the entire time. At the close 
of the fore period the weight of No. L0 was 56.99 kilograms and all 
the function- of the body were normally discharged. The average 

weight for the entire fore period was 56.91 kilograms. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 501 

At the beginning of the preservative period the weight of No. L0 
was 50.95 kilograms; temperature and pulsation normal. During the 
first preservative subperiod he did not report any unusual hunger. 

During the second subperiod he remained in excellent condition, 
without any apparent disturbance of any of the functions of the body. 
A slight colcl developed at the beginning of the third preservative sub- 
period on November 8, but it was of no consequence and passed away 
on the following da} T . 

At the beginning of the fourth subperiod the weight of No. lo was 
57.32 kilograms. A feeling of fullness was reported by the subject on 
that day. There was a slight depression of temperature amounting to 
about three-tenths of a degree. No unfavorable symptoms were mani- 
fested during the rest of this period. 

At the beginning of the fifth preservative subperiod the weight of 
No. 10 was 57.26 kilograms and he was in excellent condition. 

At the beginning of the sixth subperiod the weight of No. 10 was 
57.10 kilograms, the temperature and pulse normal, and he was feel- 
ing very well. At the close of the sixth preservative subperiod the 
weight of No. 10 was 57.10 kilograms and no unfavorable symptoms 
had developed. No. 10 did not even complain of the hunger which 
was a characteristic symptom in most of the other cases. The average 
weight of No. 10 during the preservative period was 57.33 kilograms. 

The subject entered the after period in excellent condition and on 
the second day complained of being hungry. He again complained of 
hunger on December 1. 

At the beginning of the second after subperiod his weight was 56.30 
kilograms and he still complained of being hungry. On December 4 
No. 10 was taken ill and was unable to appear at his meals. On the 5th 
he reported for duty with a temperature about 1 degree above the 
normal and with a pulse of 90 per minute. He complained of fending 
weak, his stomach was out of order, and his tongue coated. His con- 
dition was somewhat improved on the following day. but he did not 
feel entirely well. On the 7th the temperature and pulse were normal 
again and No. 1<> reported himself as feeling well. The subject's 
weight on the last day of the after period was 52.2 kilograms, having 
lost about 4 kilograms from his illness. 

It does not appear that in the above case the administration of the 
salicylic acid had any apparent effect either in increasing or decreas- 
ing the appetite or affecting in any way the ordinary functions of the 
organs of the body. 

No. 11. — A. /•'. M. 

The weight of No. 11 at the beginning of the fore period was 65.46 

kilograms. His temperature and pulse were normal. During the 
whole of the fore period No. 11 remained in excellent condition and 
no variations of any consequence in his condition wen noted. His 



502 [NFLTJENCE OF POOD PEESERVATIVBS ON HKALTH. 

weight on the last day of thb fore period was 64.95 kilograms and his 
average weight for the period 65.36 kilograms. 

He entered upon the preservative period in excellent physical 
condition. There were no unfavorable symptoms developed during 
the first preservative subperiod nor was there any complaint of 
hunger. A feeling of hunger was reported after dinner on November 
7. the end of the second subperiod, the usual amount of food not having 
satisfied the craving. 

The third preservative subperiod found No. 11 in excellent condi- 
tion, weighing 64.89 kilograms, and with normal pulse and tempera- 
ture. During the night of November 9 he was restless and had a 
slight headache throughout the following day. On the 11th decided 
symptoms of indigestion developed, but without disturbing the tem- 
perature or pulse. The subject was feeling better on November 12 
and entered the fourth preservative subperiod in fairly good condi- 
tion, weighing 64.85 kilograms and with normal pulse and tempera- 
ture. These normal conditions continued during the whole of the 
fourth preservative subperiod. 

The weight of No. 11 at the beginning of the fifth subperiod was 
64.27 kilograms. Slight symptoms of Indigestion appeared at this 
time, especially after luncheon. No. 11 was feeling better on the fol- 
lowing day and no further unfavorable symptoms were reported until 
November 22, when a slight headache was noticed. 

At the beginning of the sixth preservative subperiod No. 11 weighed 
<>4.<K-> kilograms and was suffering from a slight febrile attack, the 
temperature rising to 1<M> and the pulsation to 90. I Ieadache persisted 
during the day. with a fever following and general weakness. Symp- 
toms of a sore throat were developed and slight headache persisted 
during the following day, but the temperature was normal. On the 
evening of the 24th he indulged in unusual exercise, but without dis- 
comfort. On the 25th No. 11 was again feeding in excellent condi 
tion. and this continued until the close of the preservative period. 
His average weight during the preservative period was 64.59 kilograms. 

No. 11 entered the after period weighing 63.98 kilograms and with 
a normal temperature and pulse. Theappetite increased during the 
after period, and on December 2 No. 11 complained of hunger after 

dinner. The second after subperiod passed without any unusual 

Incident. No, 11 fell remarkably well during this time and weighed 
•it its close 63.52 kilograms. His average weight for the entire after 
period was 63.57 kilograms. In the case of No. LI, as is seen, there 
were do yen marked symptoms, t hough in the absence of any cold or 
influenza of any description the feelings of headache and indigestion 
which weir developed from time to time could justly be attributed t<> 
tie- preservative thai was administered. These symptoms, however, 
in do case were yery serious nor did they cause any lasting discomfort. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 503 

No. 12;— R. 11. R. 

No. 12 was one of the very best men of the class. His weight at 
the beginning of the fore period was 69.50 kilograms; his tempera- 
ture and pulse were normal. No unfavorable symptoms of any 
description were developed during the entire fore period and his 
average weight was 69.70 kilograms. 

No. 12 entered the preservative period in excellent condition, weigh- 
ing 69.80 kilograms, and with normal pulse and temperature. No 
unfavorable symptoms were recorded during the first preservative 
subperiod. A good deal of mental work was required on November 
8. probably incident to his studies. The amount of exercise taken on 
November 5 was less than usual. No. 12 having experienced a feeling 
of drowsiness on that day with a sensation of fullness in the head and 
a slight headache which persisted during the entire day. He was 
nervous during the night of the 5th, but there was some improvement 
in his feelings during the 6th. On this date also there were symp- 
toms of a slight cold in the head and the feeling of fullness in the head 
continued. There was also a loss of appetite, and the urine discharged 
during the day was more cloudy than usual. The loss of appetite 
continued during the following day, but otherwise No. 12 was feeling 
very much better. 

The third preservative subperiod began with a severe headache which 
lasted all day. but there was some improvement in the appetite. He 
complained of feeling very hungry at dinner time. The headache 
and other unfavorable symptoms had passed away on the 9th, and the 
feeling of hunger was increased. On the 10th, however, tin 1 appetite 
failed again partially, and symptoms of a bad cold were manifested, 
but without any marked increase in temperature or pulsation. 

No. 12 was better on November 11, but on tin 1 following day he was 
not so well. He had a feeling of fatigue, although he had not taken 
an}^ more than the usual amount of exercise, and the symptoms of 
hunger persisted. 

The fourth preservative subperiod was marked by a slight loss of 
appetite and a headache which continued during the day. Otherwise 
No. 12 was feeling very well. On the 14th lie was extremely nervous, 
and had not slept well during the previous night. The headache and 
a sense of dryness in the mouth and throat continued throughout the 
day. and the headache persisted during the following day with a loss 
of appetite. The headache continued during the day of November 16, 
but otherwise the symptoms were more favorable and the subject 
improved. The unfavorable symptoms had passed away on the 17th. 
and a feeling of hunger was manifested. 

The fifth preservative subperiod found No. 12 in the possession of 
n good appetite and without any indisposition of any kind. The rest- 
Less condition, however, returned on the night of the lMh and lasted 



504 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PKESEEVA TINTS ON II KALI 11. 

throughout the night, but did not interfere with tin 1 appetite the fol- 
lowing day. On the 20th No. 12 was in excellent condition again. 
The feeling of hunger continued on the 22dof November with a head- 
ache which lasted all day, preceded by a restless night, No. V2 report- 
ing that he had very little sleep the night before. 

The sixth preservative subperiod found No. 12 in good condition, 
weighing 70.15 kilograms and with normal temperature and pulse. 
During the remainder of this subperiod he felt very well, and the 
close of the preservative period found him in excellent condition, 
weighing To. 22 kilograms and with normal temperature and pulse. 
The average weight for the entire preservative period was 7<>.n:; kilo- 
grams, an increase as compared with the average weight of the fore 
periods, 69.70 kilograms. 

In the beginning of the after period No. 12 weighed 69.95 kilo- 
grams, with a temperature just a trine below the normal and with 
normal pulsation. 

During the first day of the alter period No. 12 experienced a con- 
siderable degree of hunger, which was not entirely satisfied by the 
dinner. This feeling of hunger continued for two or three days, but 
with no other unfavorable symptoms. No. 12 continued to feed better 
during the whole of theafter period and at its close weighed 69.8 kilo- 
grams. His average weight during the after period was f> ( .*.S7 kilo 
grams, a slight Increase over that of the fore period, but a slight 
decrease as compared with the preservative period. 

From the above description it is seen that No. 1*2 suffered very little 
during the administration of the preservative save from headache and 
fullness in the head and sometimes a disposition to drowsiness. The 
feeling of hunger, which was very marked in this case, was especially 
pronounced in tin 1 after period, and this, while similar to two or three 
cases, is quite different from the experience of most of the other 
subject-. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

A general review of the medical data shows in some Instances decid- 
edly unfavorable symptoms attending the use of the salicylic acid, 
while in a minority of cases no symptoms of ;i distinctly unfavorable 

character can he attributed to the use of the preservative. In the 
majority of cases there was a strong feeling of hunger developed dur- 
ing the administration of the preservative, especially during its early 
stages, although the rations served were not less in quantity and were 

of the game quality as those which were provided during the fore 

period. In at least t hree of the cases perhaps four the feeling of 
hunger which was developed was noticeable chiefly during the after 
period. The general conclusion, therefore, judged by the medical 

history of all t he cases considered as a whole, is that in some instances. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 505 

and probably the majority, the administration of the preservative 
developed unfavorable conditions, while in the minority of the cases 
it seemed to have practically little effect one way or the other upon 
those who consumed it. 

BODY WEIGHTS. 
VARIATIONS IX BODY WEIGHTS. 

In order to bring this important factor into prominence and to ren- 
der a comparison easier, the changes in body weights of the individuals, 
daily and by periods, are expressed in graphic form in figs. 1 and 2, and 
the general average for nine men, by periods, is also given. The data 
for total and average weights, by periods, on which the lines of aver- 
age weight in the charts are based may be found in Table IV. on the 
relation between the food weights and body weights, under which head 
these data are discussed in greater detail. The daily variations are 
shown only by the broken lines, of which the straight lines give the 
average. 

It is seen that No. 1 experienced a marked loss of weight during the 
preservative period and a greater loss during the after period. In 
the case of No. 2, the same condition exists, but in a still more marked 
degree. The case of No. 3 is especially interesting. This subject at 
the opening of the experiment weighed 52.78 kilograms, but after the 
second day of the fore period was taken ill with the grippe and was 
confined to his room until October 26. On his return to the table his 
weight had decreased to 50.54 kilograms. A new ration was selected 
as suited to his condition of convalescence and calculated to restore 
normal conditions. The graphic chart shows that there was a slight 
tendency throughout the preservative period toward a gain in weight, 
amounting as a whole throughout the preservative period of 25 days 
to 0.51 kilogram, but when the preservative was withdrawn the 
weight suddenly rises and the average for the after period show- a 
very marked increase, amounting t<> again of 0.73 kilogram for the ten 
days of that period. It is certainly indicated in this instance that the 
preservative inhibited to a marked degree the assimilation of the food. 
as a ration had been allowed which would meet the needs of the body 
in repairing and building up tissue after a short illness. 

In the case of No. 4 the weight during the preservative period was 
almost identical with that of tin 4 fore period, but there was a -light 
loss of weight during the after period. The same conditions obtain 
in the case of No. 5. No. 6 shows an extreme case of yery decided 
loss of weight amounting to about 1 kilogram in both the preservative 
and the after period-. No. 7 loses more than half a kilogram in 
the preservative period and about a kilogram in the after period. 
No. 8 lost ,( .-~' s kilogram in the preservative period and 0.78 kilogram 

7656— No. 84, pt 2—06 3 



506 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



OCTOBER 



NOVEMBER 



^^Sw^{3^w^^SS«S-c^JK)^^fi^NCD©o r N«llC^N©5gw^^^ww^S8^^ln^^ 




' HMMtflw . 



rTmmTTTTTrrrnTiTim- 



FORE PERIOD PRESERVATIVE PERIOD AFTER PERIOD 

]"i'.. l.— -Daily and average body weights for Serlei VI, Not. 1-8. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



507 



in the after period. In the case of No. 9 the weight remains practi- 
cally constant throughout the whole series, there being only a tendency 
to decrease in weight, which was more pronounced in the after period. 
Xo. 10 showed a considerable increase "in weight during the preserva- 
tive period and a slight loss during the after period covered by his 
illness, the average weight for the after period being practically the 
same as that of the fore period. It will be observed, however, that 
Nos. 3, 9, and 10 are excluded from the general summary, the data in 



OCTOBER 



NOVEMBER 




PORE PERIOD PRESERVATIVE PERIOD AFTER PERIOD 

Fig 2.— Daily and average body weights for Series VI, Nob. 9-12, and summary. 

these cases, owing to variations introduced by sickness and other 
external causes, not being considered strictly comparable. Xo. 11 
shows a considerable loss of weight during the preservative period, 
amounting to <>.7T kilogram, and a still more marked loss during the 
after period, of 1.03 kilograms. No. 12 shows a slightly increased 
weight during the preservative period. 0.33 kilogram, and a very 
slight loss in the after period, resulting in a slight gain for the entire 
series, i. e., 0.17 kilogram. 



508 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

The data showing the average effect produced on the nine men 
completing the series arc plotted in the chart shown in fig. 2. It is 
evident that this effect is toward a loss of weight during the pre- 
servative period and an increased loss during the after period. In 
other words, the larger relative loss produced during the after period 
i>- due doubtless to the momentum, as it may be called, of the effects 
produced during the preservative period. 

RATIO OF FOOD WEIGHT TO BODY WEIGHT. 

In Table IV are shown the results' of the study made of the quantity 
of food consumed a- compared with the body weight. 

The average weight of No. 1 for the fore period is 53.3s kilograms, 
for the preservative period 52.99 kilograms, and for the after period 
52.37 kilograms. It is seen that there is a slight lo^s of weight during 
the preservative period and a slightly greater loss during the after 
period. Tin 1 average weight of moist food administered during the 
fore period is 2,427 grams and of dry food 467 grams. The daily 
weight of moist food consumed is 4.55 per cent and of the dry food 
0.87 per cent of the weight of the body. During the preservative 
period the average daily quantity of moist food consumed Is 2,421 and 
of dry food 474 grains. The moist food consumed daily is L57 per 
cent and the dry food 0.89 per cent of the weight of the body. Dur- 
ing tin- after period the quantity of moist food consumed daily is 2,3 U> 
grams and of dry food 476 grams. The moist food consumed is 4.4X 
pel- cent and the dry food 0.91 per cent of the weight of the body. 
It will be noticed that the quantity of dry food consumed during the 
various periods is almost constant, being least in tin 4 fore period and 
greatest in the after period. The loss of weight therefore can not be 
ascribed to any diminution of the quantity of food, the latter having 
been -lightly increased. 

In the case of No. 2 the average quantity of moist food consumed 
during the fore period i- 2, 669 grains and of dry food 604 grain-, 
being 3.9] per cent and 0.88 percent, respectively, of the weight of 

the body. During the preservative period (he quantity of moist food 
consumed by No. 'J. is 2,908 grams and of dry food 598 grams, being 
4.30 and 0.88 per cent, respectively . of the weight of the body. Din- 
ing the after period the average quantity of moist food consumed by 
NO. 'i i> ii.s7<'> grams and of dry food 612 grams daily, being 4.30 and 
<».:»i per cent, respectively, of the weight of tin 1 bodj . 

The average weight of NO. 2 during the fore period is 68.32, during 
the preservative period r>7.r>r>, and during the after period 66.91 kilo- 
grams. There is thus seen a progressive loss of weight which con- 
tinued through the after period, although i he quantity of food 
remained practical!} the same, but was diminished by a few grams 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 509 

during the preservative period and increased by a few grams during 
the after period. 

The data for No. 3 are only fragmentary, as has already been 
explained, and therefore are of little value for experimental purposes. 
During the second subperiod of the fore period the quantity of moist 
food consumed daily by No. 3 is 2,610 grams, equivalent to 530 grams 
of dry material, or 5.18 and 1.05 per cent, respectively, of the weight 
of the body. For live subperiods of the preservative period the weight 
of moist food consumed daily is 2,568 grams, equivalent to 592 grams 
of the dry material, corresponding to 5.04 and 1.16 per cent, respec- 
tively, of the weight of the body. During the after period the quan- 
tity of- moist food daily consumed is 2,524 grams, equivalent to 621 
grams of dry food, 4.89 and 1.20 per cent, respectively, of the body 
weight. The average weight of No. 3 during his fore period (five 
days) is 50.42 kilograms, during the five subperiods of the preservative 
period 50.93 kilograms, and during the after period 51.66 kilograms. 
No. 3 therefore presents a progressive gain in weight and also an 
increased quantity of dry food consumed. The explanation of this 
condition in connection with the illness of the subject has alread} T been 
discussed under body weights. 

The average weight of moist food consumed daily by No. 4 in the 
fore period is 2,311 grams, equivalent to 535 grams of dry material, 
these data corresponding to 3.80 and 0.88 per cent, respectively, of 
the weight of the body. For the preservative period the average 
quantity of moist food consumed daily is 2,378 grams, equivalent to 
556 grams of dry material, corresponding to 3.92 and 0.92 per cent, 
respectively, of the weight of the body. For the after period the 
quantity of moist food consumed daily is 2,408 grams, corresponding 
to 569 grams of dry material, equivalent to 3.98 and 0.94 per cent, 
respectively, of the weight of the body. The mean weight of Xo. 4 
for the fore period is 60.73, for the preservative period 60.67, and 
for the after period 60.43 kilograms. The loss of weight is practically 
negligible during the preservative period, and becomes a small though 
noticeable quantity for the after period, notwithstanding the slightly 
increased quantity of food. 

The quantity of moist food consumed daily by No. 5 during the 
fore period is 2,357 grams, corresponding to 558 grams of dry mate 
rial. These data represent 3.94 and 0.93 per cent, respectively, <»t" 
the body weight. For the entire preservative period the average 
daily quantity of moist food consumed is 2,346 grams, equivalent to 
563 grams of dry material and corresponding t<> :>.:»:; and 0.94 per 
cent, respectively, of the weight of the body. During the after 
period the average daily quantity of food consumed is 2,382 grams, 
corresponding to 564 gram- of dry material, equivalent to t.Ol and 



510 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 

0.95 percent, respectively, of the weight of the body. The average 
weight of No. 5 for the fore period is 59.76, for the preservative 
period 59.71, and for the after period 59.33 kilograms. There is 
scarcely any change of weight between the fore period and the pre- 
servative period, but a decided loss during the after period, in spite 
of a slightly increased quantity of food. 

The average quantity of moist food consumed daily during the fore 
period by No. b' i> 2,289 grams, corresponding to 537 grams of <1 im- 
material, equivalent to 3.94 and o.!e_> per cent, respectively, of the 
weight of the body. During the preservative period the mean daily 
quantity of moist food consumed is 2,372 grams, corresponding to 556 
grams of dry material, equivalent to 4.17 and 0. 98 per cent, respec- 
tively, of the weight of the body. During the after period the quan- 
tity of moist food consumed daily is 2. 275 grams, corresponding to 
561 grams of dry material, equivalent to 4. 07 and 1 per cent, respec- 
tively of the weight of the body. The mean daily weight of No. 6 
during the fore period is 58.06, for the preservative period 56.94, 
and for the after period 55.87 kilograms. These data show a very 
decided loss of weight during the preservative period, although the 
quantity of dry food consumed was somewhat greater than in the 
fore period. This loss of weight was continued through the after 
period and the total decrease was considerable, namely 2.19 kilograms. 
The amount of dry food consumed increased throughout the series. 

The quantity of moist food consumed daily by N<>. 7 during the fore 
period is •2.'2^- > > grams, corresponding to 481 grams of dvy material, 
equivalent to 3.24 and 0.71 per cent, respectively, of the weight of the 
body. During the preservative period the daily quantity of moist 
food consumed is •_'.:;.".:» grams, corresponding to 482 grams of dry 
material, equivalent to 3.47 and 0.72 per cent, respectively, of the 
weight of the body. During the after period the quantity of moist 
food consumed daily by No. 7 is 2,261 grams, corresponding to 488 
grams of dry material, equivalent to 3.41 and 0.74 per cent, respect 

ively, of the weight of the body. The average weight of No. 7 during 

the fore period is 67.91, during the preservative period 67.28, and 
during the after period 66.33 kilograms. There Is thus observed a 
considerable lose of weight during the preservative period as com 
pared with the fore period (630 grams), and an increased loss of weight 
during t he after period (950 grams). The respect ive quantities of food 
consumed are almost the same for the three periods. There is, how 
ever, an increase of 7 grams of dix food daily in the after period over 

the fore period, and of «', grams daily in the after period over the ]>re 
-•■native period. This continued I OSS of weight, attended as it is wit 1 1 

a slight increase of the weight of food consumed, can only be attri 
buted to the persistent effects of the preservative upon the metabolic 
processes. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 511 

The average quantity of moist food consumed daily by No. 8 during 
the fore period is 3,338 grams, corresponding to 531 grams of dry 
material, equivalent to 5.15 and 0.87 per cent, respectively, of the 
weight of the body. During the preservative period the average daily 
quantity of moist food consumed by No. 8 is 3,408 grams, correspond- 
ing to 575 grams of dry material, equivalent to 5.62 and 0.95 per cent, 
respectively, of the weight of the body. During the after period the 
quantity of moist food consumed daily by No. 8 is 2,966 grams, corre- 
sponding to 587 grams of dry material, equivalent to 1.96 and 0.98 per 
cent, respectively, of the weight of the body. The average weight of 
No. 8 during the fore period is 61.20, during the preservative period 
60.62, and during the after period 59.8-1 kilograms. The data here 
show also a progressive decrease in weight which was continued 
through the after period, although both in the preservative period and 
in the after period the quantity of dry material consumed is greater 
than in the fore period. This continued depressing action of the 
preservative on the metabolic processes as a whole, shown in decreased 
weight, is quite as marked in the case of No. 8, if not more so, as in 
that of No. 7, for although the actual decrease in weight is slightly 
less, the amount of dry food taken by No. 8 was appreciably greater, 
namel} T , for No. 8 an average daily increase of on' grams, as compared 
with an increase of only 7 grams for No. 7. 

The average quantity of moist food consumed daily by No. 9 is 
2,833 grams, corresponding to 631 grams of dry material, equivalent 
to 1.55 and 1.02 per cent, respectively, of the weight of the body. 
During the preservative period the average quantity of moist food 
consumed daily by No. 9 is 2.m'>~ gram-, corresponding to 624 grams 
of dry material, equivalent to 4.61 and 1 per cent, respectively, of the 
weight of the body. The average daily quantity of moist food con- 
sumed by No. 9 during the after period is 2.579 grams, corresponding 
to 623 grams of dry material, equivalent to 4.15 and 1 per cent, 
respectively, of the weight of the body. The average weight of No. «.' 
during the fore period i- t'r2.'2:>. during the preservative period 62.22, 
and during the after period 62.11 kilograms. These data show no 
marked change in the weight of the body during the entire progress 
of the observation, though the tendency is toward a decrease. 

The average daily quantity of moist food consumed by No. L0 is 
2,710 grams, corresponding to 660 grams of dry material, equivalent 
to 4.76 and L.16 pel' cent, respectively, of the weight of the ImmIv. 

No. L0 consumed daily during the preservative period 3,029 grams of 
moist food, corresponding to t'>7»'> grams of dry material, equivalent to 
5.28 and L. 18 per cent, respectively, of the weight of the body. Dur- 
ing the after period No. L0 was ill during the second subperiod and the 
data for the first subperiod are therefore taken as the average f»>r the 
whole after period. These data show that No. 1" in the after period 



512 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

consumed daily 2,897 grams of moist food, corresponding- to 659 
grams of dry material, equivalent to 5.09 and 1.16 per cent, respect- 
ively, of the weight of the body. The average weight of No. 10 
during the fore period is 56.91, during the preservative period 57.33, 
and during the after period 56.90 kilograms. These data show a con- 
siderable increase in weight during the administration of the preserva- 
tive and a slight loss during the after period, doubtless, due to the 
illness occurring at that time. 

The quantity of moist food consumed daily 1>\ No. 1 1 during the 
fore period is 3.013 kilograms, corresponding to 621 kilograms of dry 
material, and equivalent to 4.61 and 0.95 per cent, respectively, of the 
weight of the body. During the preservative period No. 11 consumed 
daily 2,997 grams of moist food, corresponding to »',:_>•_> grams of dry 
material, equivalent to 4.04 and 0.96 per cent, respectively; of the 
weight of the body. During the after period No. 11 consumed daily 
3.07-1 grams of moist food, corresponding to 615 grains of dry mate- 
rial, and equivalent to 4.s4 and 0.97 per cent, respectively, of the 
weight of the body. The average weight of No. 11 during the fore 
period is 65.36, during the preservative period 04.r>l>. and during the 
after period 63.56 kilogram-. These data show a decided tendency 
toward a decrease in the body weight, although the amount of food 
remained practically the same in the fore and preservative periods; 
this tendency continued during the after period,- and is not explained 
by the slight decrease in the weight of dry food consumed in that 
period, namely, 6 grams per day. 

The average daily quantity of moist food consumed by No. 12 during 
the fore period is 2,806 grams, corresponding to 660 grams of the 
dry material, and equivalent to 4.03 and 0.95 per cent, respectively, 
of the weight of the body. During the preservative period No. 1^ 
consumed daily 2,788 grams of moist food, corresponding to 653 grams 
of dry material, and equivalent to 3.98 and 0.93 per cent, respectively, 
of the weight of the body. During the after period No. L2 consumed 

daily 2,628 grams of moist food, corresponding to 640 grams of dry 
material, and equivalent to 3.76 and 0.92 per cent, respectively, of the 
weight of the body. The average weight of No. \-± during the fore 
period is 69.70, dining the preservative period 70.03, and during the 
after period 69.87 kilograms. These data show a slight increase of 
weight during the preservative period, which increase was somewhat 
diminished during the after period, leaving the average weight for 
that period L70 grams greater than the average for the fore period. 

It i- also t<> he note* I t hat in this ease 1 he anion nt of dry food decreased 

an average of 1 grams a day in the preservative period, and L3 grams 

additional in the after period, presenting a very -light tendency in the 

opposite direction to that manifested in the majority of cases, namely, 

an increase in drv food and a decrease in weight. This might indicate 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 513 

that the condition of No. 12 was such that the salicylic acid adminis- 
tered had a medicinal value, and shows the fallacy of depending on 
individual results in such a study. These figures, whatever their 
explanation, receive full weight in the summary for nine men given 
in Table V. The data, for the three men excluded. Nos. 3, 9, and 10, 
while given in detail, are not included in the averages of the summary 
for the reason that illness on the part of No. 3 rendered the data in 
his case not strictly comparable, and certain marked irregularities in 
the balances for Nos. 9 and 10 could only be explained on the basis 
that they had violated the rules of observation and so invalidated the 
data. 

The data for the nine men, averaged by periods, are as follows: 

Bod}' weight- .for the fore period, 62.71 kilograms; moist food con- 
sumed, 2,601 grams; dry food, 555 grams; mean percentage of body 
weight represented by the moist food, 1.15; by the dry food, 0.88. 

For the entire preservative period the average weight of the nine 
men is 62.27 kilograms; the amount of moist food consumed daily, 
2,661 grams; the amount of dry food. 561 grams; the average per- 
centage of the body weight represented by the moist food is 1.27, and 
by the dry food, 0.91. 

In the after period the average daily weight for the nine men is 
61.61 kilograms; the amount of moist food, 2.571* grams: the amount 
of dry food, 568 grams;. the average percentage of the weight of the 
bod}' represented by the moist food is 1.19. and by the dry food, 0.92. 

This summary shows that the average body weight declined con- 
sistently throughout the experiment, the average total loss of weight 
being 1.1 kilograms. The quantity of dry food consumed, however, 
gradually increased, rising from 555 grams for the fore period, t<> 564 
in the preservative period, and to 568 in the after period, an average 
daily increase of 9 grams during the preservative period and 4 grama 
additional during the after period. These data show a distinct ten- 
dency as a whole on the part of the preservative to diminish the 
weight of the body notwithstanding an increase in dry food consumed. 

The graphic presentations of the variations in body weight as dis- 
cussed above and given in the tables are to be found in figs. 1 and 2. 



514 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table IV. — Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body 

weight, Series VI. 

[Averages are per day.] 





No. 1. 


No. 2. 


Period . 


Body 
weight. 


Weight of food. 


Average 
daily ratio 

of food 

weight to 

body weight. 


Body 

weight. 


Weighl of food. 


Average 
daily ratio 

of food 

weight to 

body weight. 




Dry. 


Moist. 


Dry. 


Moist. 


Dry. 


Moist. 


Dry. 


Moist. 


Fort period. 

Fir-t Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 


Kilos. 
267. 18 

53. 44 


Oram*. 

2, 394 
479 

2, 275 
155 


Grams. 
12, 335 
2,467 

11,930 
2, 386 


P. ct. 
0.90 


P. ct. 

4.62 


Kilos. 

342. 16 
68.43 

341.05 
68. 21 


Grams. 

2,999 
600 

3 040 


Qrams. 

13, 346 
2,669 

IS 348 


P. ct. 
0.88 


P. ct. 

3. 90 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


266.58 
53. 32 


.85 


4.48 


89 3 91 


Average 

Entire fore period: 
Total 


608 2,670 












538. 76 

53. 38 


4,669 
467 


24, 265 
2, 427 


.87 


4.55 


683.21 
68.32 


6,039 
604 


26, 694 
2,669 


ss 3 91 


Average 




Prest i rutin period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 










266. 26 
58. 25 

266.77 
53, 15 


2, 360 

2, 338 
468 

2, 340 
468 

2, 305 
461 

2, 568 
514 

'2,-15 
168 


12, 258 

2, 452 

12,385 
2, 177 

11,931 
2, 387 

12.273 
2, 455 

LI, 830 

2, 366 

11,913 
2, 389 


.89 


4.60 


340. 05 
68.01 

339. IS 
67.84 

339. 02 
67.80 

338. 23 

67. 65 

337.69 
67.54 

385.75 

67. 1"> 


2,925 
585 

2,937 
587 

2,996 
599 

3,009 
602 

3,100 

620 

2, 963 
,93 


14,552 
2, 910 

14,656 
2,931 

L4,658 

2,911 

14,891 

2. B78 

14,814 
2,968 

14,264 
2,853 


.86 


1.28 


.88 


4.66 


.87 


1.32 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


265. 25 
63.05 

265.81 
58. 06 

263.88 
52. 78 

263.10 
62. 62 


.88 


4. 50 


.88 


1.29 






Fourth subperiod: 
Total 


.87 


4. 63 


.89 


1.25 


Average 




Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


.97 


4.48 


. 92 


I.:; 1 .' 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


.88 


1.54 


.88 


1.25 


















Ent're preservative 
period: 

Total 


62. 99 


14,226 

171 


72, 623 
2, 121 


-j 


1.57 


2,029.92 

67.66 


17,930 
598 


sT. 2: ;u 
2,908 


.88 


L.80 












After period. 
Flrsl Bubperiod: 

Total 


262.08 
52. 12 

261.67 


2, 825 
16 i 


1 1 , 896 
2, 879 

1 1 . 568 
2.:;i2 


. 89 


1.64 


335. 12 
67.02 

333. 95 
66. 79 


3,021 

cm 

B .''.M 
619 


1 1,069 


.90 


1.20 




2,814 

14,692 
2,988 






Second Bubperiod: 

Total 


. 93 


1. 12 


. 98 


4.40 




is; 














Entire after period: 
Total 


52.87 


1,760 
176 




.'.•1 


1. IS 


669.07 
66.9] 


6,115 
612 


28,76] 

2,876 


.'.»! 


1.80 

















SALICYLIC ACID AXD SALICYLATES. 



515 



Table IV. — Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body 
weighty Series VI— -Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 



No. 3. 



No. 4. 



Period. 


Body 
weight. 


Average 

daily ratio 

Weight of food. of "food 

weight to 

body weight. 


Body 

weight. 


Weight of food. 


Average 
daily ratio 

of food 

weight to 

body weight. 




Dry. 


Moist. 


Dry. 


Moist. 


Dry. 


Moist. 


Dry. 


Moist. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Kilos. 


Grams. 


Grams. 


P. ct. 


P. ct. 


Kilos. 
303. 91 
60.78 

303. 35 
60.67 


Grams. 

2,680 
536 

2,671 

534 


Grams. 

11,270 
2,254 

11,835 
2,367 


P. ct. 
0.88 


P. ct. 
3.71 












Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


252. 11 
50. 42 


2,651 
530 


13,050 
2, 610 


1.05 


5.18 


.88 


3.90 




Entire fore period 
Total 
Average 

Preservative period 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 
Second subperiod 

Total 

Average 
Third subperiod 

Total 

Average 
Fourth subperiod 

Total 

Average 
Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 
Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire preservative 

period: 

Total "1,273.31 

Average 

AfU r jit rim I. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 
Second subperiod 

Total 
Average 

Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



a No. 3 had ouly live preservative Mibperiods. 



51() 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table IV. — Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body 

weight, Series VI — Continued. 



[Averages are per day.] 





No. 5. 


No. 6. 


Period. 


Body 

weight. 


Weight of food. 


Average 
daily ratio 

of food 

weight to 

body weight. 


Body 
weight. 


Weight of food. 


Average 

daily ratio 

of food 

weight to 

body weight 




Dry. 


Moist. 


Dry. 


Moist. 




Dry. 


Moist. 


Dry. 


Moist 


Fort period. 
First Bubperiod: 

Total. 


Kilos. 

298. 15 
59.63 

299. -t5 


Qrams. 
2, 824 

565 

2, 758 

552 


Grams. 

11,689 
2.338 

1 1 . 885 
2, 377 


/'. rt. 

0.95 


P. rt. 
3.92 


Kilos. 

290. 32 
58.06 

290.28 


Gravis. 

2,631 

526 

2, 736 
547 


Grams. 
1 ! . 885 
2,377 

11,000 


P. ct. 
0.91 


/'. rt. 

1 . 1 19 






Second subperiod: 
Total 


.92 


3.97 


. 9 1 3. 79 


Average 

Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 


59.89 




58. 06 


2.200 












597.60 
59. 76 


5, 582 
558 


23, 574 
2, 857 


. 9 I 


3.94 


580. 60 

58. 06 


:.. 867 
537 


22, 885 
2, 289 


. 92 3. 94 










Prest r vat nt period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


299. 45 
59.89 

300.33 
60.07 

298. 56 
59.71 

298. 84 
59.77 

296. 77 

297. 33 
69. 17 


2, 867 
573 

2, 7.'.:; 
551 

2,787 
557 

2,804 
561 

2,862 

572 

2,814 

503 


11,872 
2,374 

11,798 
2,360 

11,596 
2, 319 

11,538 
2, 308 

11.822 
2,364 

11,766 

2, 351 


.96 


8. 96 288. 73 


2,602 

620 

2,721 
544 

2,745 

549 

2,778 
556 

2,874 
575 

2, 960 
692 


11,412 
2, 282 

11,693 
2,339 

11,965 
2, 393 

11,343 
2,269 

12, 185 
2, 187 

12,571 
2,514 


'.mi 3 95 






57.75 




Si cond subperiod: 
Total 


.92 


3.93 


288. 19 
57.64 

283.91 
56.78 

284. 22 


.94 4.06 






Third subperiod: 

Total 


.93 


3.88 


97 4.21 






Fourth subperiod: 
Total 


.94 


3. 86 


3. W 






56 84 

281.77 

56.35 




Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


. 96 


3.98 


1 02 


1 32 






sixth subperiod: 

Total 


.95 


8.95 


281 28 

66. 26 


i ii., 


1 17 


Average 












Entire preservative 
period: 
Total 


1,791.28 

59. 71 


563 


70,882 

2,346 


.94 


8 98 


1,708. 10 
66.94 


16,680 

666 


71,169 
2,372 


.98 


1 17 


Average 














.1/7/ /• period 
ubperiod 

Total 


296 82 


2, 791 

558 

2, 850 
.70 


11.90 1 

2,381 

11,911 
2,882 


.91 


1.01 


280. 10 

56 02 


2, 761 
662 

• S4S 
670 


1 1 . 673 

1I.D77 
2,216 


99 


1 17 


average 

Becond subperiod 
Total 


296. 48 




96 


1 02 


278.56 

... 71 


1.02 


:; 98 


Entire after period 
Total 

Average 













5,641 
64 


2,882 


.95 


4 01 


568 66 


6,609 

661 


2 27 • 


1 00 


1 117 











SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



517 



Table IV. — Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body 
weight, Series VI— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 





No. 7. 


No. 8. 


Period. 


Body 
weight. 


Weight of food. 


Average 
daily ratio 

of food 

weight to 

body weight. 


Body 
weight. 


Weight pf food. 


Average 
daily ratio 

of food 

weight to 

body weight. 




Dry. 


Moist. 


Dry. 


Moist. 


Dry. Moist, 


Dry. 


Moist. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


Kilos. 
341. 27 
68.25 

337. 86 
67.57 


Grams. 

2,317 

463 

2,490 
458 


Grams. 

11,644 

2,329 

10, 386 
2 077 


P.ct. 
0.68 


P.ct. 
3.41 


Kilos. 

307.10 
61.42 

304.88 
60.98 


Grams. 

2.667 
533 

2,644 
529 


Grams. 
17,169 
3,434 

16,214 
3, 243 


P. ct. 

0.87 


P. ct. 
5.59 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


.74 


3.07 


.37 


5.32 


















Entire fore period: 
Total 


679. 13 
67.91 


4,807 
481 


22, 030 
2,203 


.71 


3.24 


611. 98 
61.20 


5,311 
531 


33,383 
3,338 


.87 


5.45 
















Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


337. 53 
67.51 

337. 88 
67.58 

337.82 
67.56 

336.68 
67.34 

335. 85 
67 17 


2,376 
475 

2, 402 
480 

2, 396 
479 

2, 431 

486 

2, 434 

487 


11,771 
2, 354 

11 335 


.70 


3 49 204 fifi 


2,847 
569 

2,777 
555 

2,760 

552 

2, 827 
565 

3,008 
fi0'> 


18 140 OS 


5.96 


Average 




60.91 

304. 34 
60.87 

303. 06 
60 61 

302. 15 
60.43 

302. 08 
60.42 


3 628 






Second subperiod: 
Total 


71 


3.35 


17,766 
3, 553 

16,646 
3,329 

17,357 
3,471 

17,177 
3. 435 

lb, 162 
3,032 


.91 


5.84 




2, 267 






Third subperiod: 
Total 


12, 093 
2,419 

11,839 
2,368 

11,517 
• 2,303 

11,429 

2,286 


.71 


3.58 


.91 


5. 49 






Fourth subperiod: 
Total 


.72 


3 52 


.94 


5. 74 


Average 




Fifth subpenodr 

Total 


.72 


3.43 


1.00 5.69 






Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


332. 62 2, 435 
66.52 487 


.73 


S 44 


302.33 ; 3,040 
60.47 | 608 


1.01 5.02 


Average 













Entire preservative 
period 
Total 


2,018.38 j 14,474 
67.28 482 


69, 984 
2,333 


.72 3.47 


1,818.51 ! 17,259 
60.62 1 575 


102,248 

3. 408 


.95 


5.62 


Average 






' 






After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


332. 20 
66.44 

331.14 
66.23 


2,395 
479 

2,488 
498 


11,026 

2,205 

11,581 

2, 316 


.72 


3.32 


300. 12 


1 S07 


15, 347 
3,069 

1 1,313 


.94 


5 11 




60.02 » 1 

298. 26 :i, 058 
59.65 ! 612 




Second subperiod: 
Total 


. 75 3. 50 


1.03 ISO 




■_', 863 










Kut ire after period. 
Total 


663. 34 
06 38 


4,883 
488 


22,607 74 3 41 


598.38 
59.84 


;.. 865 
587 


29,660 
2,966 


. 98 4. % 




2, 261 

















518 



[NFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table IV. — Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as perccntagi of body 
weight, Seri/s VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 





No. 9. 


No. 10. 


Period. 


Body 
weight. 


Weight of food. 


Average 

daily ratio 
of food 

weighl t<> 
body \\ eight. 


Body 
weight. 


Weight of food. 


Average 

daily ratio 

of food 

weight to 
body weight. 




Dry. 


Moist. 


Dry. 


Moist. 


Dry. 


Moist. Dry. 


Moist. 


Fort j" Hod. 
First Bubperiod: 

Total 


Kilos. 
311.25 
62. 25 

311.20 

02.21 


Grama. Grams. 

3,157 13.0:15 

(131 J, t»(>7 


l'.rt. 
1.01 


/'. ct. 

4.19 


Kilos. 
285.63 

.".7. 13 

283. 17 
56. 69 


Grams. 

3,286 

667 

3, 310 


Grams. I'.ri. 
13. .".10 1.15 


1.73 




13.580 




Second Bubperiod: 
Total 


3,178 15,299 
(136 3.0C.0 


1 . 02 


4.92 


1.17 4.79 




662 2,717 










Entire fore period: 
Total 


622. 15 

62. 25 


6,335 28,334 
634 2,833 


1.02 


4. 55 


569. 10 
56.91 


6,596 ''7.096 


l.io i.:.; 


Average 


660 


2,710 












OtiVi ]» rind. 

Fir-i Bubperiod: 

Total 


310. 98 
62. 20 

310. 73 
62.15 

309. 90 
61.98 

309.86 
61.97 

313.45 
62. 69 

311.71 
62.34 


3,117 15,963 100 


5. 13 


287. 26 
57. 16 

287.60 
67.52 

287. 00 
57. 11 

286. 65 

57. 33 

286. 96 

57. l'.t 

285. in 
57.08 


3, 117 

683 

3, 392 
678 

3,800 

600 

3, 337 
667 

3, 168 
694 

3,371 
071 


16, 629 
3, 326 

15,939 
3,188 

16, 124 


1 . 1 9 .">. 79 




623 3. 193 

;; L30 15,383 

626 3,077 

3,129 14,015 






Second Bubperiod: 

Total 


1.01 


4. '.'5 


Lis :...M 






Third Bubperiod: 

Total 


1.01 


4. 52 


1.1.") 


."». 37 




t ;•_•<; 2,803 

3, 146 13, 552 

(129 2, 710 

3,141 13,850 
(128 2, 770 

3,062 13,246 

(112 2,019 




3,085 

18,827 
2,765 

14,967 

■' 998 






Fourth Bubperiod: 

Total 


1.02 


L37 


1.10 


L82 






Fifth Bubperiod: 

Total 


1.00 


1. 12 


1.21 




sixth Bubperiod: 
Total 


,98 


4.25 


11.077 
2,815 


1. is 


1.93 
















Entire preservative 
pei lod: 
Total 


<i2. 22 


18,725 - 9 

624 2,867 


1.00 


ltd 


1.719. 93 
57.38 


20,285 

070 

3. 298 
659 

(3,293) 

(659) 


90,868 
3,029 

1 1. 1M 
■J. 897 

| 1 1. IMi 


1. is 














. i /ii r period 
Pirgt Bubperiod: 

Total 


310.27 
62.05 

310.87 

•;•_'. it 


:;. 113 
623 

:;, 119 
62 I 


L2.862 
2,570 

12,937 


LOO 


l. I I 


284.50 
a 284 50 


1. 10 


5.09 


Average 

Second Bubperiod: 
Total .. 




1.00 


i. hi 


(1.16) 
















Entire after perfceti: 

1 otal 


621.14 

62. 11 


6,282 




LOO 


4.15 






28,968) 


(1.16 



















a Data observed for flrsl Bubperiod only, owing to illness of .subject during second Bubperiod. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



519 



Table IV. — Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body 
weight, Series IT— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 





No. 11. 


No. 12. 


Period. 


Body 
weight. 


^Weight of food. 


Average 
daily ratio 

of food 
- weight to 
body weight. 


Body 
weight. 


Average 
daily ratio 
Weight of food. 1 of food 
1 weight to 
body weight. 






Dry. 


Moist. 


Dry. Moist. 


Dry. 


Moist. 


Dry. 


Moist. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Kilos. 

328. 24 
65.65 

325. 34 
65.07 


Grams. 

3,120 

624 

3,093 
HI 9 


Grams. 

15,481 

3,096 

14, 651 
2,930 


P. ct. 
0.95 


P. Ct. 

4.72 


Kilos. 

348.18 
69.64 

348. 78 
69.76 


Grams. 

3. 247 
649 

3,356 
671 


Grams. 

13, 352 

2,670 

14. 709 


P. ct. 
0.93 


P. ct. 
3.83 






Second subperiod: 
Total 


.95 


4.50 


.96 


4.22 




2, 942 


















Entire fore period: 
Total 


653.58 , 6,213 
6-3. 36 621 


30, 132 
3,013 


.95 


4. 61 696. 96 


6,603 
660 


28, 061 
2,806 


.95 


4.03 






69.70 




















Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


325. 14 
65.03 

325. 11 

65.02 

323.56 
64.71 

322. 77 
64. 55 

321. 78 
64. 36 

319. 19 
G3.84 


3, 192 
638 

3,087 
617 

3,088 
618 

3,089 
618 

3,143 
629 

3,070 


14,490 .98 


4.46 


350. 66 
70.13 

349. 30 
69.86 

350.10 
70.02 

349. 36 
69.87 

350. 70 


3. 274 
635 

3, 252 
650 

3,237 
647 

3,273 

655 

3, 326 
665 

3,230 


14, 331 
2,866 

13, 435 
2,687 

13, 982 
2,796 

14,677 
2, 935 

13, 800 


.93 


4.09 




2,898 

15, 369 
3,074 

15,038 
3,002 

14, 870 
2,974 

14, 476 
2,895 

15.711 






Second subperiod: 
Total 


.95 


4.73 


.93 


3.85 






Third subperiod: 
Total 


.95 


4.64 


.92 


3.99 






Fourth subperiod: 
Total 


.96 


4.61 


.94 


4.20 






Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


.. 


4.50 


.95 


3.93 






70.14 


2, 760 
13.421 






Sixth subperiod: 
Total 


.96 


4.92 


350. 77 
70. 15 


.92 


3. 83 




614 3,142 


646 2,684 












Entire preservative 
period: 
Total 


1, 937. 55 
64. 59 


18,669 89,924 .96 


4.64 


2, 100. 89 
70.03 


19,592 83,646 .93 3.98 




622 2,997 




633 2,788 












After period. 

First subperiod: 
Total 


318. 44 
63.69 

317.20 
63.44 


3,039 IB.fififi 9K 


4.89 


349. 35 


:;, 188 


12.C.7'? 


.91 


s. fia 




608 

3,111 
622 


3, 113 

15, 173 
3. 035 






69. 87 

349. 35 
69. 87 


638 2,534 
3,208 13,612 




Second subperiod: 
Total 


.98 


4.78 


. 92 3. 90 






642 2,722 










Entire after period: 
Total 


635.61 6,150 30,739 97 4 84 fiQS 70 


6, 396 

640 


26,284 


.92 3.76 




£ R15 3.074 




69. 87 





















520 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 



Table V. — Summary for nim nun, by periods, showing average daily ratio of food weight 

to body "< ighi, s, ties VI. 

[Averages are per man per day.] 



Period. 



Fan p> riod. 



First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Becond Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 



> "ntire fore period 

Total 

Average 



PrtservatiiM period. 



First Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire preservative period; 
Total 

Average 



After period. 



Firsl subperiod: 

Total 

a \ erage 

Becond Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 

Total 

rage 



A\ erage daily ratio 
Weight of food. of food weight to 
Body body weight 

weight 



Dry. 



Kilograms. 
2, 826. 51 

62. si 

2,817.67 
62. 61 



(i rums. 

24,879 

25,068 
567 



Moist. 



Dry 



Moist. 



Grams. Pi r >■> nt. Per cent 
US, 171 0.88 4.18 



.89 
2,577 



5,644.08 

62. 71 



2,815.04 
62. 56 

2,813.06 
62.51 

2,804. id 
62. 32 

2,801.88 
62. 27 

2,794.58 
62. 10 

2,7*5.^5 
61.89 



L6.8] I. L6 
62. 27 



2,776.88 
61.70 

2, 768. 68 
61.68 



5,544.96 
61.61 



49, 942 
555 



234,129 
2,601 



25,194 



25,008 
556 

25,137 
559 

26,281 
562 

26,177 
582 

25,608 



L52, 100 
564 



26,098 



26,014 
578 



718,634 
2 661 



116,158 



L15.991 
2,578 



51,107 282,144 

I 



,90 



92 



1. 12 



120,71] 
2,682 


39 


L 29 


2, 676 


.89 


1.28 


119,641 

119,977 

2 666 


.90 


1.27 


.90 


1.28 


119,678 
2 660 


,, 


1.28 


118,169 
2,626 


. 92 


1.24 



1.27 



I L8 



I. L9 



I. L9 



MICROSCOPICAL EXAMINATION OF THE BLOOD. 



The blood was examined at staled intervals for corpuscles and hem- 
oglobin, according to the methods described in the borax report. 
Two independent estimates were made 1 by Messrs. B, J. Howard and 
( '. P. Knight, and the average taken as the correct expression for the 
count, with the results shown in Table VI. 

In the case of No. I there was a diminution in the number of red 
corpuscles and an increase in th»' a umber of white corpuscles during 
the administration of the preservative. After the withdrawal <>f the 
preservative the vi'd corpuscles again increased in number and the 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 521 

white corpuscles decreased. There was a slight loss in color also 
during the administration of the preservative, which was partially 
regained in the after period. 

In the case of No. 2 both the red and the white corpuscles increased 
during the administration of the preservative and both diminished 
during the after period. The color of the blood was also less intense 
during both the preservative period and the after period. 

The data for No. 3 have no comparative value and are somewhat 
fragmentary, owing to the illness of the subject. Considered indi- 
vidually the figures show an increase in the number of red corpuscles 
during the preservative period and a slight decrease in the after 
period. The number of white corpuscles also increased during the 
preservative period and decreased in the after period. The color of 
the blood was less intense in the preservative period and partially 
recovered in the after period. 

In the case of No. 4 there was a marked diminution both in the 
number of the red and the white corpuscles and in the intensity of the 
color during the administration of the preservative. There was a 
recovery in the number of both the red and the white corpuscles in 
the after period, but the color continued to fade. 

In the case of No. 5 no comparison can be made with one of the 
tests, as it was lost. The remaining test shows a slight diminution in 
the number of red corpuscles and a very great diminution in the num- 
ber of white corpuscles and also a very slight fading of the. color. 
In the after period the red corpuscles diminished again very con- 
siderably in number. The white corpuscles increased but the color 
faded -till more. 

No. ♦', showed a marked increase in the number of red corpuscles 
during the administration of the preservative, a -light loss in white 
corpuscles, and a -light increase in the intensity of the color. During 
the after period the number of red corpuscles very greatly dimin- 
ished, the number of white corpuscles slightly increased, and the 
color diminished in intensity. 

In the case of N<>. 7 the number of red corpuscles very markedly 
decreased 'luring the administration of the preservative, the Dumber 
of white corpuscles increased, and the color faded very perceptibly. 
During the after period the number of red corpuscles was again 
greatly diminished, the number of white corpuscles -lightly dimin- 
ished, and tin* color -lightly increased, not reaching, however, thai of 
the fore period. 

In the ea-e of No. 8 the number of red corpuscles increased during 
the administration of the preservative and the number of white cor- 
puscles was almosl doubled. The color of the blood wa- -lightly 

decreased. There was a diminution of the red corpuscles during the 
B— No. 84, pi 2—06 1 



522 IXI I.TKXt K OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ox health. 

after period, a very marked diminution of the white corpuscles, and a 
slight fading of the Mood. 

While Nbs. ( .' and lo are excluded from the summary for the rea- 
sons already stated, the individual data may be considered. In the 
case of No. 9 the red corpuscles decreased and the white corpuscles 
increased in the preservative period, while both increased in the after 
period. The color of the blood slightly increased in the preservative 
period, but diminished very decidedly in the after period. 

In the case of No. 10 the red corpuscles decreased, the white cor- 
puscles increased, and the color increased in the preservative period. 
In the after period the red corpuscles again decreased, but very 
slightly, the white corpuscles continued to increase, and the color of 
the blood faded. 

NO. LI showed an increase in the number of red corpuscles during 
the administration of the preservative, an increase in the white cor- 
puscles, and a very slight increase in the intensity of the color of the 
blood. Then' was a decrease in the number of red corpuscles in the 
after period, a slight increase in the number of white corpuscles, and 
a \ fry slight increase in the intensity of color. 

No. 12 showed a considerable increase in the number of red corpus- 
cles, a decrease in the number of white corpuscles, and a marked 
Increase in the intensity of color during the administration of the pre- 
servative. During the after period the number of red corpuscles 
diminished, the number of white corpuscles increased, and the inten- 
sity of color was notably diminished. 

The summary of the number of corpuscles and the percentage of 
hemoglobin in the blood for the nine men. compared throughout the 
series, shows that the average number of red corpuscles for the fore 
period is 5,690,000; for the preservative period, 5,900,938; for the 
after period, 5,450,444. The number of white corpuscles in the fore 
period is L0,609, in the preservative period, L0,714, and in the after 
period, 9,836. The intensity of color, measured by the hemoglobin, 
diminished regularly from the fore to the after period, being repre- 
sented by lot;.i in the fore period, lot. 7 in the preservative period, 
and L03.3 in the after period. There is an apparent tendency on the 
part of the preservative to Increase the number of the red and the 
white corpuscles in the Mood and at t he same t ime to slightly diminish 
the intensity of the color. During the after period the number of 
both the red and the white corpuscles decreases and at the same time 

there i> Mill another slight decrease in the intensity of the color. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



523 



Table VI. — Averages, by periods, of corpuscles and hemoglobin in the blood, Series TT. 





Date. 


No. 1. 


No. 2. 


Period. 


Red corpus- ^Mte 
clesper SgP™ 

CUb m C et m r mi -cub" P mil- 
meter - | limeter. 


Hemo- 
globin. 


meter - limeter. 


Hemo- 
globin, 


Fore period: 


1903. 
1 


( 6. 295. 000 8. 593 


109.2 
108.4 


5, 745, 000 12, 796 


108.6 


Estimate B . . 


L f •><• oo 5.835.000 9.620 


5,380,000 11,768 | 108.6 




M let. 2t>-29 

L\ov. 23-27 

• 

>Dec. 5-7 








Mean 


[ 6,065,000 j 9,107 108.8 


5,562,500 12 r 281 


108.6 


Preservative period: 
Estimate A 


f 5, 475, 000 9, 196 104. 9 
1 5,545,000 ! 11,768 105.4 


6,825,000 
6, 160, 000 


14, 127 
16, 625 


104.7 
105. 1 








[ 5, 510, 000 ! 10, 482 105. 2 


6, 492, 500 


15. 376 


104.9 






After period: 

Estimate A 


f 6, 660, 000 
1 6,350,000 


6, 426 
8,499 


105.6 
107.7 


5,320,000 
5,035,000 


6,039 

6,538 


98.5 
97.1 






Mean 


[ 6,505,000 


7,463 


106.7 


5,177,500 


6,289 


97.8 







No. 3. 


No. 4. 


Period. Date. 


Red corpus- 
cles per 

cubic milli- 
meter. 


White 
corpus- 
cles per 
cubicmil- 
limeter. 


Hemo- 
globin. 


meter - limeter. 


Hemo- 
globin. 


Fore period: 


1903. 


f 5. 385. 000 


8, 966 


98^0 


5,820,000 11,955 
5,232,000 8,686 


106.7 




. II i!7njvnon 


l ) 340 




106.4 


MJct. 26-29 


_,._ ,„_ 






( 5,045,000 9,153 




5,526,000 10,321 106.6 










Preservative period: 


i 


f 


9,086 94.2 
10.087 ; 93.7 


5,105,000 5,511 103.9 
5,095,000 8,032 102.5 


Estimate B 




1 5,833,333 




>Nov. 23-27 








j 


9,587 94.0 


5,100,000 6,772 103.2 






After period: 




( 5,660,000 5,706 97.0 
1 5,760,000 a. 312 95.3 


5,288,000 10.834 100.6 




•Dec. 5-7 


5,495,000 12,702 101.9 




Mean 


{ 5,710,000 7,009 96.2 


5,391,500 11,768 101.3 

I 1 




Date. 


No. 5. 


No. 6. 


Period. 


Red corpus- 
cles per 

cubic milli- 
meter. 


White 
corpus- 
cles per 
cubicmil- 

li meter. 


Hemo- 
globin. 


Red corpus- 
cles per 
cubic milli- 
meter 


White 
corpus- 
cles per 
cubic mil- 
limeter. 


Hemo- 
globin. 


Pore period: 

Estimate A 


1903. 
JOct . 


f 6,010,000 
1 6,828,000 


B, 17.; 


101.6 
106. 9 


5, 500, 000 


13,263 

12, 702 


107.7 
107.8 






M' an | 


[ 6, 169, 000 


8, 570 


105. 8 


6,612,500 


12, 983 107. 5 


Preservative period: 




( f., 110,000 
Lost. 


6, 1 !•"< 
6,912 


103.5 
106. 9 


• ,,790,000 
6, UK), 000 


10,637 
18,917 


108 9 


Estimate B 


Inov.23-27 
pec. 5-7 


108 1 






6, 679 


101.7 


6, 59.-». 000 


12,277 


108. 5 








After period: 


| :>.25.->,000 
| 5,260,000 


8,199 
10,834 


102.7 
L02. 1 


70,000 
5,230,000 


12,243 
16,313 


10:'. J 


K-tiinalc H 


107 








[ 6, 252, 500 


9,517 


102.6 


5,300,000 


13,781 


[06 " 







524 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table VI. — Averages, ?>>/ periods, of corpuscles and hemoglobin in the Hood, Series VI- 

Continued. 





Date. 


No. 7. 


No. 8. 


Period. 


Red corpus- 
cles per 

cubic milli- 
meter. 


White 
corpus- 
cles per 
cubicmil- 

limeter. 


Hemo- 
globin. 


Red corpus- 
cles per 

cubic milli- 
meter. 


White 
corpus- 
do per 
cubic mil- 
limeter. 


Hemo- 
globin. 


Fore period : 


1903. 
1 


f 6, 675, 000 
| 5,950,000 


9,900 


102. 4 


1,880,000 8,032 
4,930,000 9,340 


101.9 


Estimate B 


lot. 26-29 


9,900 


102. 


101.4 


Mean 1 


I 6,312,600 


9,900 102.3 4,905,000 8,686 


101. 7 


Preservative period: 


Inov. 23-27 


f 5, 285, 000 
1 5,030,000 


13,628 94.7 5,580,000 ' 13,795 
1 2, 235 94. 7 6, 125, 1 100 16, 15S 


101 


Estimate B 


99.8 








Mean J 


[ 5,167,500 


12,932 91.7 5,502,500 14,977 100.4 


After period: 


|l>ec. 5-7 


f 1.725,000 
J 5,055,000 


10,249 

12, 702 


99.7 4,850,000 

99.8 4,870,000 7,098 






- 5 


Mean 






( 4,890,000 


11,476 99.8 4,860,000 6,818 


99.3 





Date. 


No. 9. 


No. 10. 


Period. 


Red corpus- 
cles per 

cubic milli- 
meter. 


White 

corpus- 
cles per 
cubicmil- 
limeter. 


Hemo- 
globin. 


Red corpus- 
cles per 
cubic milli- 
meter. 


White 
corpus- 

cubicmil- 
limeter. 


Hemo- 
globin. 


Fore period: 


1903. 
loct. 26-29 

Inov.23-27 


5,376,000 


5.604 


99.3 
106.6 


5,885,000 
6,000,000 


6,07] 


1 10. 9 




5,030,000 7,192 


100. 1 








. 5,202,500 ; 6,398 102.9 


6,942,500 


6, 978 


105. 7 






Preservative period: 


f 4,070,000 
J 1, 185,000 


9.711 


102. 3 
L04.7 


$75,000 
6 t 705, 000 


9,807 


in :; 




110.6 














I 4,127,600 


8,652 


103. 5 


5, 790, 000 


9,170 


111.0 






\tter period: 

Estimate A 


r i. r>o.ooo 


8,810 

10,271 


92. 9 
91. 1 


..,7s0,000 
6,000 


18,076 


ins. l 




\, x c - 1 1 B7fl in mi 


108.0 




Dee. 5-7 










1 


1 

1 1,545,000 


9, 292 


92. 2 


5,717,500 


11,220 


108.1 









Date. 


No. il. 


12. 


Period. 


Red corpus 

cles per 
cubic milli 

meter. 


While 

corpus 

cles per 

cubicmil- 

limeter. 


Hemo 
globin, 


\{n\ corpus 

cles per 
CUbic milli- 
meter. 


White 

corpus 

cles per 

cubicmil 

limeter 


Hemo 
globin. 


Fore- period: 

i stimate A 


loct 
Inoi 


170,000 
1 186,000 


7,192 

6,818 


108.6 

lev ; 


76,000 




in., l 


Estimate H 







7,500 


7,008 




0.500 




105.2 


il Ive period 

limate \ 

Estimate h 


6,725,000 
6, 196, 


11,682 


mi. l 
L07.0 


6, U 

ii.nl 




118.7 

L10 i 


Menu 


6,flli 




108. 8 






112.1 






. riod: 
Estimate B . 


6,610, 

>,94 


1 2, 79i ; 


no. i 
in? i 


i,94 ■ 


ln.219 

LI, 801 


107.7 


Mi mi 


5,777,500 


10, 636 


108. « 


5,900,000 


1.1.775 


107.9 







SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 525 

Table VI. — Average, by periods, of corpuscles and hemoglobin in the blood, Series TT — 

Continued. 

SUMMARY FOR NINE MEN (XOS. 3, 9, AND 10 EXCLUDED). 



Period. 



Fore period 

Preservative period 
After period 



Red corpus-! White 
meter - I limeter- 



Hemo- 
globin. 



5,690,000 I 10,009 106.1 

5,900,938 10,71-1 I 104.7 

5. 450, 444 9, 836 I 103. 3 



WEIGHT AND WATER CONTENT OF THE FECES. 

In Table VII are given the data respecting- the weight and water 
content of the feces for the individuals by periods, together with a 
summary of the data for the nine men compared throughout the series. 

In the case of No. 1 the average content of water in the feces in the 
preservative period is markedly less than in the fore period, and there 
is a still further diminution in the after period. No. 2 also shows 
a diminution in the percentage of water in the feces in the preserva- 
tive period, but this is restored in the after period to almost the 
same content as at the beginning. The weight of the dry feces is less 
both in the preservative period and in the after period than in the 
fore period, while in the case of No. 1 the weight of the dry feces is 
slightly less in the preservative period and greater in the after period. 
The percentage of water in the feces of No. 3 is greater in the preserva- 
tive period than in either of the other periods. The actual weight 
of the dry feces is also greater. No. I shows a diminution in the 
percentage of water in the feces and a slight decrease in weight in 
the preservative period, and almost the same rate of diminution is 
continued in the after period. In No. 5 a like condition obtains as in 
the case of No. 4, but to a somewhat greater degree. In No. 6 there 
is also a slight diminution in the percentage of water, attended with a 
slight decrease in the diy weight, and these conditions continue in an 
increased degree in the after period. In No. 7 there is a marked 
decrease in the percentage of water in the feces in the preservative 
period, while in the after period there is a partial restoration to the 
condition of the fore period. There is a marked diminution in the 
weight of the dry feces in the preservative period, and the dry weight 
is greater in the after period than in the fori' period. No. 8 also shows 
a diminution in the percentage of water in the \'a-(^ in the preserva- 
tive period, but an increase in the dry weight. In the after period 
the percentage of water is higher than in the fore period, and the dry 
weight is greater than in the preservative period and the i*>n> period. 
In No. 9 there is also an increase in the percentage of water in the 
feces, and a marked increase in the weight in the preservative period. 



526 [NFLtJENCB OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

The percentage of water in the after period is slightly greater than in 
the preservative period but the weight is slightly less, but it is still 
greater than in the fore period. In No. 10 there is almost no differ- 
ence in the percentage of water in the preservative period, but there 
is a marked decrease in the weight of the dry feces. In the after 
period there is a slight decrease in the percentage of water and a 
marked increase in the weight of the dry feces. No. 1 1 shows a marked 
increase in the percentage of water in the feces in the preservative 
period and a slight decrease in the weight of the dry feces. In the 
after period there is a smaller percentage of water in the feces than 
in. the preservative period, and also a marked decrease in the weight 
of the dry feces. In No. 1*2 the percentage of water in the i'crr^ in 
the preservative period is slightly increased, hut the dry weight of 
the feces very markedly diminishes. There is a decided decrease 
in the percentage of moisture in the after period, hut a slight increase 
in the weight of the dry feces. 

The summary for the nine men who can he compared throughout 
the series shows that the average 4 daily weight of moist feces during 
the fore period is 89 grams and of the dry feces 22 grams, and the 
percentage of water therein 75.61. For the preservative period the 
average weight of the moist feces is 75 grams, the average weight of 
the dry feces 20 grams, and the percentage of moisture 73.83. These 
data show that the administration of the preservative has a distinct 
tendency to diminish both the percentage of water in the (vrvs and 
also the quantity of dry t'ca^ excreted. 

For the after period the average weight of the moist \\^-i'^ is 7l> 
grain-, the average weight of the dry feces 20 grains, and the percent 
age of moisture 74. \*2. The effect of the preservative therefore is to 
diminish the total quantity of the feces both wet and dry. the average 

amount of dry feces being 2 grams less during the preservative period 
than in the fore period. In the after period the weight of dry feces 

remains the same hut there is an increase of I grains in the weight iA' 

moist feces, which is only L0 grams Less than in the fore period. In 
general there appears to he a distinct influence of the preservative t«» 

diminish the weight of the solid matter excreted in the U^cvs and also 

a tendency to decrease the quantify of water therein. While tin 4 latter 
effect is not marked, it is evident that salicylic acid in the quantities 
administered does not produce any tendency to diarrhea hut rather 
t Ik- opposite effect. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



527 



Table VII. — Weight and water content of feces, by periods, Series VI. 

[Averages are per day.] 



No. 1. 



No. 2. 



Period. 



Fore period. 

First subperiod : 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire fore period : 

Total 

Average 



Feces Water 
moist, in feces. 



Grama. Pi r 

236 66. 

47 



172 
34 



408 

41 



63.97 



65. 69 



Preservative pt riod. 

First subperiod : 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



172 
34 . 



193 
39 



172 
34 



184 
37 



192 

38 



L26 



Entire preservative period: 

Total 

Average 



1,039 
35 



- [ftt r period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



57 



230 
46 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



517 
52 



95 



53. 



Feces 
dry. 



Feces Water 
moist, infeces. 



Grams. 



Grams. 

453 

91 

492 



Per et. 
71.74 



71.15 



Feces 
dry. 



Gvam:<. 
128 



142 

2S 



140 
14 



945 

95 



n.43 



270 

27 



13 



13 



63. 52 



379 



61. 



63. 



110 

22 



62. )s 



194 
19 



359 

72 



400 

80 



419 

84 



464 



237 



70.17 



No. 



Water Feces 
moist, infeces. dry. 



Grams. Per ct 



294 73. .50 
59 , 



68.74 
70. 25 
67.98 



17 



433 | 69.52 
87 



1()7 
21 



124 
25 



131 



138 
28 



132 
26 



327 
65 



119 



80.76 



212 

42 . 



399 69. 96 





267 75. 62 





Grams. 



2,312 
77 



345 



399 
80 



69.38 708 a 1,798 75.47 
24 72 



744 
74 



72. 74 
69. 68 



121 
24 



Lost. 

74. 20 



71. 10 



a No. 3 had only five preservative subperiods. 



133 

■27 



120 

24 



411 
18 



Lost. 



528 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table VII. — ]\'ii</}it and water content of feces, by periods, Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 







NO. 1. 












No. 6. 




Period. 


moist. 


Water 
in feces. 


Feces 

dry. 


moist. 


Water 

in feces. 


dry. 


moist. 


Water 
infeces. 


dry. 


Fort period. 

FiiM Bubperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 
341 

367 
73 


Per ct. 
72. 69 

7n..v, 


(•rums. 
19 

Ids 

22 


Grams. 
599 
120 

52 1 

105 


Per ct. 
77. 96 

76.93 


Grams. 

132 

121 
21 


Grams. 
Ill 

762 

150 


Per ct. 

SI. 20 


drums. 
119 




24 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


141 




•s 






Entire fore period: 

Total . 


708 


71.61 


201 

20 


1,12:5 

112 


77.47 


253 
25 


1,307 
131 


80.11 


260 


Average 


26 






l'ri .<i rvaJtive period. 
First subperiod: 

Total 


260 
52 

322 
64 

311 
62 

289 

• 

77 
71 


67.70 

70.68 
69. 51 
72.64 


84 

17 

20 

98 
20 

85 

17 

117 
23 

20 


572 

111 

329 
66 

ill 
89 

305 
61 

393 

His 


77.96 
72.93 

74. 56 
7:-!. 13 
72. 7 1 
71.80 


126 
25 

89 
18 

113 

2:i 

82 

10 

107 
21 

n:> 
23 


100 

546 

109 

701 
140 

601 

120 

oil 

120 

no 


77. 10 
76.19 
79.60 

mi.:,:: 

72.84 


112 


Average 


22 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


130 




26 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


in 




29 


Fourth Bubperiod: 
Total . 


117 


Average 


28 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


132 




26 


sixth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 


121 
•24 


Entire preservative period: 

Total 

Average 


1 . 923 
64 


69.68 


L9 


■2. I">1 

B2 


71.21 


632 

21 


;;. 136 
116 


78.03 


26 






Afti r period. 
]■ irsl Bubperiod: 

Total 


234 

17 

154 
71 


66.62 

7(1.01' 



78 
16 

106 
21 


354 

71 

282 
56 


71. II 
72.SH 


101 

7s 
If. 


125 
111 


76.79 


L46 


Average 




Second subpei iod: 

Total 






10 






Entire after period: 

Total 


59 


68.71 



184 

is 


64 


71.86 


17'.» 
1^ 


1,089 
L04 


70. '.HI 


210 




24 







SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



529 



Table VII. — Weight and water content of feces, by periods, Series IT— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 







No. 7. 






No. 8. 






No. 9. 




Period . 


Feces 
moist. 


Water 
infeces. 


Feces 
dry. 


Feces 
moist. 


Water 
infeces. 


Feces 
dry. 


Feces 
moist. 


Water 
infeces. 


Feces 
dry. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Gr-ams. 
624 
125 

212 
42 


Per ct. 
85.42 

75. 95 


Grams. 
91 

18 

51 
10 


Grams. 

315 

63 

415 
83 


Per ct. 
76.82 

77.34 


Grams. 
73 

15 

94 
19 


Grams. 
208 


Per ct. 

71 14 


Grams. 
60 




42 

277 | 65.74 
55 


12 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


95 




19 








Entire fore period: 

Total 


836 
84 


83.01 


142 
14 


730 
73 


77.12 


167 
17 


485 
49 


68.04 


155 
16 



Average 

Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod : 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: • 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: • 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire preservative period: 

Total 

Average 



After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



259 
52 



205 
41 



76.03 
76.60 



254 74. 82 
51 



214 78. 49 
43 



271 75. 

54 



119 72. 22 
24 



556 

111 



820 
82 



33 



478 77.40 
96 



466 75.53 



108 556 71. 39 
22 111 



235 68. 93 
47 



114 427 

23 85 



75. 20 
71.56 



511 
102 



204 
41 



77.71 
70.64 



425 78. 37 
85 



114 275 71.66 
23 55 



60 522 73. 37 

12 104 



68. 



1,322 75. 7t 
41 



264 73. 48 70 

53 14 



320 
11 



82. 36 



79. 51 



20 



168 
17 



2, 319 75. 81 



561 2,524 72.15 
19 84 



446 



630 
126 



1,076 
108 



76.21 
83.66 



106 
21 



103 

21 



153 
31 



509 
102 



).95 



73.87 



80.58 



209 

21 



662 
66 



72. '.'6 



159 
32 



106 
21 



108 
22 



16 



139 

28 



113 
23 



133 

27 



179 
18 



530 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table VII. — Weight and water content of feces, by periods, Series VI— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 



Period. 



pt Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



No. 10. 



Feces 

moist. 



Grams. 

500 
100 

312 
62 



PreservaHvt p< Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire preservative period: 

Total 

Average 



After period, 

Flrsl subueriod: 
Total 

Average . 

Second Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



812 
81 



49C 



■ills 

82 



410 

82 



380 
76 



308 
62 



125 

25 



•2.1-27 
71 



157 
91 



"i 157) 
(91 



"i '.Ml i 
91 



Water 

i nieces. 



J', r ct. 
75.00 



74.01 



75. 61 



74.29 
72. 65 



76.33 
74.66 
70.40 



Feces 
dry. 



i, rums. 
125 
25 



17 



74. 17 



73.30 



(73.30) 



No. 11. 



Water Feces 
moist. In feces, dry. 



drums, 
150 
90 

494 
99 



211 
21 



'.Ml 
'.'1 



121 
21 



105 

21 



112 
22 



37 



643 

18 



122 
21 

(122) 
(24) 



505 
101 



in,; 



157 
91 



17;; 

95 



165 



2, 918 

97 



166 
93 



389 

7> 






(2441 



855 
86 



l'< r ct. 
72.90 



73.87 



73.41 



drams. 
122 
24 

129 
26 



No. 12. 



Feces 
moist 



Shrams. 
585 

117 

i:;i 
87 



261 1,019 
25 | 102 



Water 
Lnfeces. 



Pi r ct. 
74.88 



71.22 



7:;. 31 



76.08 
75.65 
76.56 
74.81 

77.17 
73.98 



117 
23 



123 
25 



124 
25 



115 
23 



ins 
22 



121 
24 



341 



576 

115 



367 

71 



337 
67 



75.74 



76.87 



708 

24 



72. 1^ 



111) 



ll»7 
21 



2. 131 
81 



73. 44 



74.18 


75. 35 


76. 22 


73. 97 


71.20 


71.21 



Feces 

dry. 



drams. 
147 
29 



116 

83 



108 71.21 
81 



217 
22 



819 



71.92 



" i)at i observed for subperiod only, owing i<> illness ,.i subject during second period. 



125 

25 



142 
28 



128 
26 



(127 
21 



111 

2:; 



in; 
28 



230 

28 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



531 



Table VII. — Weight and water content of feces, by periods. Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 
SUMMARY FOR NINE MEN. 



Period. 



Fore period. 



Feces Water 
moist, infeces. 



Feces 
dry. 



Grams. 
4,158 
92 I 



First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 3, 862 

Average 86 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



8, 020 
89 



3,415 
76 



3,307 



3, 641 
81 



3S2 
75 



Per ct. 
76.36 



75. 61 



74.67 



/o. nt 



73.88 
74.93 



Grams. 
983 

22 



973 

22 



1,956 
22 



865 
19 



S74 
19 



951 

21 



848 
19 



Period. 



Preservative period — Con- 
tinued. 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod : 

Total 

Average 



Entire preservative pe- 
riod. 

Total 

Average 



After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



Feces i Water Feces 
moist, infeces. dry. 



Grams. 

3,290 

73 

3,116 
69 



P( r ct. 
73. 62 



Grams. 
868 

19 



72. 14 



20,151 73.83 



3,437 



F3.00 



3,657 i 75.17 
81 



094 
79 



74. 12 



908 
20 



1,836 

20 



THE URINE. 

The importance of a stud}' of the urine in connection with the ascer- 
tainment of any effects produced by the administration of salicylic 
acid and other preservatives is evident without comment. In the fol- 
lowing tables are given the results of the observations obtained on the 
urine. The influence of any added preservative upon the volume of 
the urine and the amount of solids therein is quite significant, and 
these points were carefully studied. These studies were conducted 
by F. C. Weber. 

VOLUME, SPECIFIC GRAVITY, AND TOTAL SOLIDS. 

The data given in Table VI II relating to the total solids in the urine 
are calculated from the specific gravity, in harmony with the method 
used in the borax experiment, by the factor 0.245." 

INDIVIDUAL DATA. 

No. l. 
The volume of the urine is decreased dining the preservative period 
and still further decreased in the after period. The specific gravity is 
increased in the preservative period and still further increased, by a 
very slight amount, in the after period. The increase in specific 
gravity is greater in proportion than the decrease in volume, since the 
weight of the total solids excreted is greater in the preservative period 
and still further increased, by a slight amount, in the after period. 



«U. S. Dept. Agr., Bureau of Chemistry, Bui. 84, Part I, pp. 166-16: 



532 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



In this case the volume of the urine is increased and the specific 
gravity diminished in the preservative period. In the after period 
the volume of the urine is considerably diminished below the fore 
period, and its specific gravity is increased above that of the fore period 
and also of the preservative period. The weight of the total solids 
excreted is greater in the preservative period than in the fore period, 
and this weight is still further increased in the after period. 

No. 3. 

The data for No. 3 are somewhat fragmentary and show little change 
in the volume of the urine during the three periods. The specific 
gravity is slightly less in the preservative period, while in the after 
period it rises a very little above that of the fore period. The quan- 
tity of total solids is decreased during the preservative period, while 
in the after period the quantity is the same as in the fore period. 

No. 4- 

In this case there is a slight increase in the volume of the urine in 
the preservative period and a still further slight increase in the after 
period. The specific gravity is high through all the periods, being 
slightly greater in the preservative and again slightly increased in the 
after period. The total quantity of solids excreted is greater in the 
preservative period and continues to increase in the after period. 

No. f>. 

There is a slight increase in the total volume of the urine in the 
preservative period and a greater increase in the alter period. The 

specific gravity is slightly higher in the preservative period and 

slightly lower in the after period than in *he fore period. The total 
quantity of solid matter excreted in the urine is greater in the pre 

servative period and still somewhat greater in the after period. 

No. 6. 

There is a notable increase in the volume of the urine in the pre- 
servative period, hut this increase is only partially maintained in the 
alter period. The specific gravity of the urine is high and almost the 

same in the fore and preservative periods and slightly bigher in 
the alter period. The quantity of total solids excreted is notably 
greater in the preservative period, with a slight loss in weight in the 

after period. 

Vo. 7. 

There i- a notable inorease in the volume of the urine in the pre- 
servative period in this case, while in the after period the volume is 

only -lightly greater than in the fore period. The specific gravity of 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 533 

the urine in the after period, while slightly greater than in the pre- 
servative period, is still far below that of the fore period. The total 
weight of solids excreted is, in this case, less in the preservative period 
than in the fore period and still less in the after period. No. 7 in this 
respect differs from live of the six cases already cited. 

No. 8. 

In the case of No. 8 there is a slight decrease in the volume of the 
urine in the preservative period and a very notable decrease in the 
after period. The volume of the urine is very great in the case of 
No. 8 and the specific gravity corresponding^ low, being slightly 
greater in the preservative period and notably greater in the after 
period than in the fore period. The quantity of solids excreted in the 
urine is slightly greater in the preservative period and still further 
increased in the after period. 

No. 9. 

The volume of urine in this case is greater in the preservative period 
and slightly greater in the after period than in the preservative period. 
The specific gravity is slightly higher in the preservative period, and 
in the after period it is almost the same as in the preservative period. 
The total weight of solids excreted is greater in the preservative period 
and almost the same in the after period as the preservative period. 

No. 10. 

There is a notable increase in the volume of the urine in this case 
in the preservative period, and the volume in the after period is almost 
identical with that of the preservative period. The specific gravity 
is less in the preservative period and still further diminished to a 
slight extent in the after period. The weight of the solids excreted 
is greater in the preservative period and almost the same in the after 
as in the preservative period. 

No. 11. 

The volume of the urine in the case of No. 11 is less in tin 4 pre- 
servative period and is almost- the same in the after as in the preserva- 
tive period. The specific gravity of the urine in the preservative 
period is increased and in the after period is only slightly less than in 
the preservative period. The total solids excreted are high and are 
slightly less in the preservative period and still further diminished in 
the after period. 

No. i.'. 

The volume of the urine in this case is notably diminished in the 
preservative period and increased over the preservative period in the 
after period, but not to the volume of the fore period. The specific 



534 [NPLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 

gravity Ls notably higher in the preservative period, and in the after 
period it is still higher than in the fore period. The weight of the 
.solids excreted is slightly greater in the preservative period and still 
further increased in the after period. 

MM MARY FOR X I \K MEN. 

The average effects produced upon the nine men who completed tin 4 
observations show that the volume of the urine in the preservative 
period is almost the same as that of the fore period, being only 7 
cubic centimeters greater. In the after period the volume is slightly 
less than in the fore period, being diminished by 47 cubic centimeters. 
The average specific gravity of the urine in the preservative period Is 
-lightly higher than in the fore period and in the after period is again 
slightly increased as compared with the preservative period. The 
quantity of solids excreted is increased in the preservative period and 
still further increased by half a gram a day in the after period. 

The general effect therefore upon the urine is that no notable change 
i- produced in the volume of the urine due to the administration of 
the preservative. There is, however, a distinct increase in the specific 
gravity of the urine under the administration of the preservative, due 
t«» a decided increase in the weight of the solids excreted. This effect 
is continued to a certain extent in the after period, during which even 
a larger quantity of solids is excreted than during the preservative 
period. 

It is just to conclude from the above data that the administration of 
the salicylic acid increases the katabolic activities of the organs, result- 
ing in an increased excretion of solid matters in the urine. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



535 



Table VIII. — Urine determinations — Volume, specific gravity, and total solids — Series VI. 

[Averages are per day.] 





No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


Period. 


Vol- 
ume. 


Specific 

gravity 

at 

25°/25° 
C. 


Total 
solids 
(factor 
0.245). 


Vol- 
ume. 


Specific 
gravity 

at 
25°/25° 

C. 


Total 
solids 
(factor 
0.245). 


Specific 
Vol- S™"* 

ume. | 250/250 
C. 


Total 
solids 
(factor 
0.245). 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


cc. 

6,830 
1,366 

6,685 


1. 0161 
1.0187 


Grams. 

269.4 

53.9 

306.3 
61.3 


a 5, 663 
1,133 

6,485 
1,297 


1. 0254 
1. 0192 


Grams. 

352.4 

70.5 

305.1 
61.0 


cc. 


Grams. 








Second subperiod: 

Total 


4,820 1.0213 
964 


251. 5 




1,337 


50.3 






Entire fore period : 

Total 


13,515 
1, 352 


i.om 


575.7 
57.6 


12, 148 
1,215 


"i."0223' 


657.5 
65.8 






Average 










Preservative period. 

First^ubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 


5,840 
1,168 

6,745 
1,349 

h 5, 715 
1,143 

5,930 


1.0210 
1. 0190 
1. 0220 
1.0216 


300.5 
60.1 

314.0 
62.8 

a 307. 9 
61.6 

313.8 
62.8 

311.3 

62.7 

318.7 
63.7 


6,080 
#,216 

7,170 
1,434 

5,960 
1,192 

5, 645 
1,129 

7,330 
1,466 

7,065 
1,413 


1. 0207 
1. 0188 
1. 0231 
1. 0240 
1. 0204 
1. 0195 


308.4 
61.7 

330.3 
66.1 

337.3 
67.5 

331.9 
66.4 

366.4 
73.3 

337.6 
67.5 


4, 485 
897 

6 4, 888 

978 

4,970 
994 

5, 420 

1,084 

5,130 
1,026 


1. 0123 
1. 0213 
1.0214 
1. 0197 
1.0206 


135. 2 
27.4 

a 255. 




51.0 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


260.6 




52.1 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


261.6 


Average 


1,186 


52.3 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


6, 050 
1,210 

5, 940 
1,188 


1.0210 
1.0219 


258. 9 




51.8 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 






















Entire preservative period: 
Total . 


36,220 

1,207 1.0211 


1, 866. 2 
62.2 


39, 250 
1,308 


Tom' 


2,011.9 
67.3 


'•24, 893 
996 


1.0190 


1,171.3 




46.8 






After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


5,820 
1,164 

5,660 
1, 132 


1.0222 
1. 0227 


316. 5 
63.3 

314.8 
63.0 


5,630 
1,126 

5, 720 
1,144 


1.0248 
1.0249 


342. 1 
68.4 

348.91 
69.8 


5, 020 
1,004 

4.410 
882 


1.0204 

1.0233 


250. 9 


Average 


50.2 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


251.9 


Average 


50.4 






Entire after period: 

Total 


11,480 
1,148 


'i.*6'225' 


631.3 
63.1 


11,350 
1, 135 


i.0249 


691.0 
69.1 


9,430 

943 


1.0219 


502.8 


Average 


50.3 











a Average aided in order to complete record. 

l> Four-day composites; average added in eacli ease in order to complete five-day period. 

"No. 3 only had five preservative subperiod-. 



;,:;<; 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 



Table VIII. — Urine determinations — Yohnih, specific gravity, and total solids — S 

IT — Continued. 



[Averages are per day.] 





No. 1. 


No. 5. 


No. 6. 


Period. 


Vol- 
ume. 


Specific 
gravit; 

at 

25 /25° 

C. 


Total 

1 solids 

(factor 

0.24.'. i. 


Vol- 
ume. 


Specific 
gravitj 

at 
C. 


Total 
solids 
\ factor 


Vol- 
ume. 


Specific 

g ravin 

at 
2". 25 

C. 


Total 
solids 
(factor 
0.245). 


Fore period. 

Flrsl subperiod: 

Total 


<■<■. 

4,995 
999 

1,835 
967 


1 . 0257 
1.0263 


Grams. 

314.5 
62. 9 

311.6 
62. 3 


-v. 

4, 620 
92 V 

6,665 

1,133 


1.0261 
1.0199 


drums. 
296. 1 
59.1 

276. 2 

.V). 3 


7_7 
770 


1.0272 
1.0267 


Grams. 

212. 2 
is 1 


Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


251.9 
50.4 


Entire fore period: 

Total 


9,830 
983 


i."626u" 


626. 1 
62.6 


10,285 
1.029 


"i'0230' 


571.6 

:.7.2 


7. I<> 
7 !'.» 


'L0269 


194 1 


Average 


l'.'. 1 


Prist r rat in j,i rtod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


l. 180 
896 

I.Ti:. 
943 

4,960 

992 

:.. ll.-. 
1,083 

... 170 
1,094 

."., 966 


1.0291 
1.0286 
1.0273 
1.0261 
1.0246 
1.0248 


3ft. 4 
53.9 

330.4 

6(1. 1 

331.7 
66. 3 

346.2 
69.3 

329.7 
66. 'J 

355. 2 

71.1) 


1. 7211 
'.Ml 

:.. 785 
1,157 

5,410 
L.082 

5,900 
1,180 

:.. 765 

l.i:.:: 

5, 170 
1,034 


1.0257 
1.0206 
1.0231 
1.0222 
1.0227 
L.0250 


297.2 

:.'.•. 1 

292.0 

:.s. 1 

306.2 

61.2 

820.9 
64.2 

320. 6 
64.1 

316. 7 
63. 3 


4,070 

Ml 

i. 186 


1.0273 
1.0250 


• 

•'72.2 


Average 


54. 1 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


274.7 

5 1 . 9 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


a 1, Iiki 1.0275 
B20 

a 1. 188 1.H27:: 
'.Ms 

1,545 1.0278 
909 

I. 180 L.0263 
896 


276. ;; 


Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


l> 306. 8 




61. 1 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


301.0 




CO. s 


Total 




Average 


1,193 


67 7 


Entire preservative period: 
Total 


31,006 
1,034 


f.'iVjiV;' 


2,012.6 
67.1 


32,760 
L.092 

1.21:: 

5,095 
1,619 


"i.0232" 


61.8 


876 


'l.'u2.:s" 


1 . 722. 7 


Average 


57.4 


After period. 

Firs! subperiod: 

Total 


.. ii . 
1,089 

., 180 
1,086 


t.0257 
1.0280 


342.8 

71.1 


L.0210 
L.0248 


811.9 
62. 1 

61.9 


1. I:;:. 
1,150 


L.0274 

1.0277 


277. 6 


A rerage 

Second subperiod: 

Total 


281.6 


\\ erage 








Entire alter period: 

'Total 


10,625 

1. in- 


i.'tViv.V 


698 i 


ll. L58 
l. 116 


T0229' 


621.5 
62. 2 








\ \ erage 









" Four daj compo ■■■ added la each case in order to complete Bve-day period, 

b Average added In order t.. complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



537 



Table VIII. — Urine determinations — Volume, specific gravity, and total solids — Series 

IT— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 



Period. 



Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Preservativt p< Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Seed] id subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

S'xth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire preservative period: 

Total 

Average 



Aft/ rpt Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



No. 7. 



Vol- 
ume. 



Specific T . - 

g Tt y S8- 

oco/o^o (factor 

0.245). 



cc. 

5, 180 

1 . 036 



4,000 
800 



9,180 
918 



1.0228 



1.0295 



1. 0262 



Grams. 

289. 4 

57.9 

289.1 

57.8 



No. 8. 



2X8; Totai 

Vol- gra J lt3 solids 

ume, .,-A.,-o (factor 

-\- n 0.245). 



cc. Grams. 

8, 090 1. 0128 253. 7 
1,618 50.7 



10,925 1.0105 
2,185 



281.0 

56. 2 



19,015 
1,902 



53 b' 

53.. 



No. 9. 



Vol- 
ume. 



^ravhv Total 

g Vt solids 

250:250 (factor 



cc. 

5, 515 
1,103 



1 . 02 14 



5.720 1.0238 
1,141 



Grams. 

329. 7 
65. 9 

333.5 
(if.. 7 



11.235 663.2 

1,124 1.0241 06.3 



,430 



5,340 
1,068 

4,960 
992 

5, 560 
1,112 

4,820 
964 

6, 495 
1,299 



1.0224 


1. 0210 


1.0202 



1.0195 


1. 0223 


1.0199 






243.1 
48.6 



274. 7 
54. 9 



245. 5 
49.1 



265. 7 
53.1 



263.4 
52.7 



316. 7 
63.3 



31,605 
1,053 1.0209 



1,835 1.0205 
967 



1.7 15 1.0216 
949 



95s 1.0211 



1,609.1 

53. 6 



242. 8 
18.6 



251.1 
50. 2 



9,360 

1,870 

9, 500 
VJ00 

9,800 
1,960 

a 8, S00 

1,760 

10,810 
2,162 

8, 210 
1 . 642 



1.0113 
1.0119 
1.0113 



1.0126 



1.0111 
1.0146 



25S. 
51. 



277. 
55. 



271. 
54. 



271 
54. 



60.4 



293. 
58. 



760 
152 



570 
111 



275 
055 



1 < /•> 
, 355 



56,470 1,671.3 34, 



1.8S2 1 



.0123 



1,146 



9,720 1.0131 
1,944 



6,350 1.0186 
1.270 



312.0 

62. 1 



5,160 

1.032 



289. 1 a 6, 394 

57.9 1.279 



193. 9 
19. 1 



16,070 

1,607 1.0150 



601. 1 
60. 1 



1 1 . 55 1 
1,155 



1.0261 
1.0244 



1.0257 
1. 0268 
1 . 0259 

1.0231 



372. 6 
71.5 



333. 6 

M. 7 



341.2 
68. 2 



365. 7 
73.1 



334.8 

C>(\. 96 



76. 7 



1.0251 



2.131.4 
71.0 



338. 8 
67.8 



1.0243 380.6 
76.1 



1.0256 



710. I 

71.9 



a Pour-day composites; average added in each case in order to complete five-day record. 
7656— No. 84, pt 2—00 5 



538 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table VIII. — Urine determinations — Volume, specific gravity, and total solids — Series 

TY— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 



Period. 



No. 10. 



Vol- 
ume. 



Specific T , 

e»?<* I .lis; 



No. 11. 



Vol- 
ume. 



Specific 

gravity 

at 

25°/25° 

C 



Total 
solids 

( factor 
0.245) . 



No. 12. 



Vol- 
ume. 



Specific 
gravity 

at 

25°/25° 

C. 



Total 
solids 
i factor 
0.245). 



Fort period. 

First Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

sixtli Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire preservative period: 

Total 

Average; 



■ After period. 

Firsl Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 
Total 



cc. 

4,240 
848 

1,640 
928 



1.0252 



1.0240 



drams. 

261.8 

52. 1 

272.8 
54.6 



cc. 

a 6. 256 

1,251 

5,890 
1,178 



1.0234 



<i rams. 

71.7 

340. 6 
68. 1 



cc. 
6,180 

6, 140 
1 . 228 



1. 0214 



1.0201 



881 I 



1 . 0246 



534.6 



12,146 

1, 216 



1.0235 



599.2 12,320 
69.9 ' 1,282 



1,910 
982 



1,166 



5, 955 
1,191 



5, 330 
1,066 



5, 106 

1,021 



4, 060 
812 



31,190 
1,089 



5, L90 
L088 



5, 190 
b 1,088 



10,880 



l,i 



1.0217 



1.0202 



1.0197 



1.0220 



1.0222 



1.0222 



L.0218 



L.0218 



L.0218 



261.0 
52. 2 



57. 7 



287. 4 
57. •"> 



2S7.3 
57. 5 



277. 7 
55. 6 



274.5 

54.9 



1,676.4 



277.2 



277.2 



554. 1 

,. i 



5, 800 
1,160 



6,080 1.0238 
1,216 , 



5, 235 
1,047 



6, 165 

1,093 



5, 330 
1,066 



6, 675 

1,115 



1.0256 



1.0254 



1.0270 



L.0229 



1,116 



L.0262 



L.0228 



6, 765 
L.168 



6,630 L.0245 
L.126 



11,896 

l.i m L.0247 



373.8 
74.8 



70.9 



65.6 



310.1 
68.0 



70.5 



312. 8 
62. 6 



2,062.1 

68. 7 



822.0 



337. 9 



66.0 



4,770 
95 1 

6,170 
1,084 

5,840 
1,168 

6, no 
1 , 082 

5, 545 
1,109 

5,970 
1,194 



1,090 



1,198 

..77" 
1,154 



LI, 785 
1,174 



1.0209 



1.0242 



1.0248 



1.11236 



1.0247 



1.0250 



L.0244 



L.0246 



L.0225 



L.0244 



l 0235 



" Pour-daj composite; average added in order t«> complete flve-daj record, 
b No. in out second after Bubperiod; average of first after Bubperiod used. 



Oram*. 

324. 
64.8 

306. 9 
61.4 



630. 9 
63.1 



56.6 



314.1 
62. 8 



137.7 
67. 7 



327. 1 



339.6 
67.9 



71. 1 






828. B 
844.9 



673. 7 
67. 1 



SALICYLIC ACID AXD SALICYLATES. 



539 



Table VIII. — Urine determinations — Volume, specific gravity, and total solids, Series 

IT— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

SUMMARY FOR NINE MEX. 



Period. 



Total 
volume. 



Average Specific T t , 
volume gravity at •J t { gj" 
>erman. 25/25° C. sonas - c 



per 



First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Fore period. 




105, 924 



First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Preservativt period. 



49, 540 



54, 990 



51,980 
52, 713 
55, 665 
54, 870 



5, 504 
1,101 

6,110 

1 , 222 

5, 770 
1,155 

5,857 
1,171 

6,185 

1.237 

6,097 
1,219 


1. 0231 



1.0215 


1.0226 


1.022G 


1.0224 


1. 0221 



2,656.2 

5<J. 

2,761.7 
61.4 

2, 742. 2 
60.9 

2,824.4 

62.8. 

64.2 

2, 897. 

c.l. 1 



Entire preservative period: 

Total 319, 

Average I 



■:,s 



35, 529 
1,184 



771.0 
62. 1 



First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod : 

Total 

Average 

Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



AfU r period. 




101,678 



5, 630. 
62.6 



a Average figures in this column show the averages per man per day. 
PRESENCE OF ALBUMIN AND THE REACTION OF THE I KINK. 

The urine was also examined for albumin, and its reaction was deter- 
mined from time to time during the progress of the experiment. The 
quantity of albumin present at each test was not estimated, the exam- 
ination being confined to ascertaining its presence. In Series VI. 
therefore, a comparison as to the relative quantity of albumin presenl 
in the three periods can not be made, as was done in Pari I in the case 
of boric acid. The degree of aeiditv was determined in terms of 

standard alkali. 

No. i. 

There is no albumin in the urine of No. 1 at the beginning of the 
fore period, but at the end there is a minute trace. There is no appear- 
ance of albumin during the preservative period. The reaction of the 

urine in this ease i^ amphoteric in the fore period and was not deter- 
mined in tin 4 other period-. 



540 [NFLT7ENCE OF Fool) PRESEBVATIVES ON 1 1 KALTI 1. 

No. '. 

A trace of albumin occurs in the urine of No. 2 during the whole 
period of observation. The reaction of the urine is amphoteric in the 

fore period, and it becomes acid in the preservative period. 

No. ■:. 

No albumin is found in the urine of No. 3 during any period o\' 
observation. The acidity of the urine increases during the adminis- 
tration of the salicylic acid. 

No. 4. 

The observations in the case of No. 4 are practically the same as in 
the case of No. 3. 

No. ■->. 

There appeals to be no definite change produced in the case of No. 5 

by the action of the salicylic acid either upon the small quantity of 

albumin present or upon the relative acidity. The urine is strongly 

acid during the fore period, and also strongly acid during the presen a- 

,tive period. 

No. 6. 

The data in the case of No. 6 indicate practically the same absence 
of effect as those of No. 5. 

No. 7. 

No albumin is observed in the case of No. 7 at any time during the 
observation. The reaction of the urine is alternately acid and ampho- 
teric, and the preservative appears to have had no influence in deter 
mining the condition. 

No. 8. 

No albumin appears in the case of the urine of No. s at any time. 
The reaction of the urine under the influence of the preservative 
becomes amphoteric. In this case there appears to have been a very 
slight influence on the pari of the drug administered to diminish the 
acidity of the urine and to produce an amphoteric condition thereof. 

No. :>■ 

No albumin is present in the urine at any time of the observation. 
The reaction of the urine is amphoteric at one time during the fore 

period, hilt acid the iv-t of the t line. 

Vb. W. 

No albumin is found in this case at any time. During the adminis 
nation of (he salicylic acid the reaction of the urine changed from 
amphoteric to Btrongly acid. The apparent effect in this case ia 
exactly the opposite of that produced in the case of No. 8. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 541 

No. 11. 

A very minute quantity of albumin is noticed in the urine during 
the administration of the salicylic acid. The reaction of the urine 
changed from amphoteric in the fore period to acid during the pre- 
servative period. 

No. 12. 

No albumin occurs in the urine daring the periocjs of observation. 
The reaction of the urine is changed from amphoteric in the fore 
period to stronghvacicl in the second preservative subperiod. becoming 
amphoteric again in the third preservative subperiod. 

In so far as these data are concerned no effect upon the presence of 
albumin nor upon the relative acidity can be attributed to the admin- 
istration of the salicylic acid. A more detailed study of these points, 
leading to more definite results, is to be found under Series XI, 
page 726. 

RATIO OF SULPHUR. SULPHATES, AND PHOSPHORIC ACID TO NITROGEN 
EXCRETED IX THE URIXE. 

In Table IX are found the data showing the ratio of sulphur, sul- 
phates, and phosphates excreted to the nitrogen in the urine. The 
total weight of nitrogen excreted, the total weight of sulphur, the 
total weight of sulphur as S0 3 , and the total weight of phosphorus as 
F 2 5 served as a basis for determining the ratios. 

The object of this study was to ascertain whether or not the adminis- 
tration of salicylic acid changed in any definite way the ratio of these 
bodies to the total nitrogen excreted. When the ratio increases it 
shows that there is a loss in the quantity of the substance under con- 
sideration excreted in relation to the total nitrogen, and when the 
ratio decreases it shows that there is an increased quantity of that 
substance in relation to the total nitrogen. 

INDIVIDUAL DATA. 

No. 1. 

The dala show a slight decrease in the ratio of sulphur to nitrogen 
and of sulphuric acid to nitrogen during the administration of the pre- 
servative, while the ratio of the phosphoric acid to the nitrogen 
remains unchanged. In the after period there is a >till further 
decrease in the ratio of sulphjir to nitrogen, while (he ratio of sul- 
phuric acid to nitrogen i> restored to its original magnitude. There 
is a notable increase in the ratio of the phosphoric acid to nitrogen in 
the after period. 

There Is a marked decrease in the magnitudeof the ratio of sulphur 
to nitrogen and of phosphoric acid to nitrogen in the preservative 



542 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 

period, while the ratio of sulphuric acid to nitrogen remains unchanged. 
In the after period there is a still further slight decrease in the ratio 
of the sulphur to the nitrogen, while the ratio of phosphoric acid to 
nitrogen rises to a greater magnitude than in the fore period. The 
ratio of sulphuric acid to nitrogen remains unchanged. 

No. S. 

The ratio of sulphur to nitrogen in the preservative period is the 
same as in the fore period. The ratio of sulphuric acid to nitrogen is 
the same in the preservative period as in the fore period. There is a 
slight decrease in the preservative period in the ratio of phosphoric 
acid to nitrogen. In the after period there Is a notable decrease in 
the ratio of sulphur to nitrogen and a slight decrease in the ratio of 
sulphuric acid to nitrogen, and the ratio of phosphoric acid to nitro- 
gen is higher than in the preservative period, hut not so high as in 
the fore period. The fore period was. however, interrupted by the 

Illness of the subject. 

No. 4. 

A slight increase is noted in the ratio of sulphur and sulphuric acid 
in the preservative period and a slight decrease in the ratio of phos- 
phoric acid. There is a further decrease in the sulphur and sulphuric- 
acid ratios in the after period. There is. on the other hand, an increase 
in the phosphoric-acid ratio in this period. 

No. 5. 

A notable decrease in the sulphur ratio is found in this case in the 
preservative period, while the ratios of sulphuric acid and phosphoric 
acid remain unchanged. In the after period there is a still further 
-light decrease in the sulphur ratio, do change in the sulphuric-acid 
ratio, and a notable increase in the phosphoric-acid ratio. 

No. 6. 

A slight decrease of the sulphur and sulphuric-acid ratios is noticed 
in this case in the preservative period and a slight increase in the 
phosphoric-acid ratio. In the alter period there is a notable decrease 

in the sulphur ratio, a Btill further slight decrease in the sulphuric 

acid ratio, and a slight increase in the phosphoric-acid ratio. 

No. 7. 

A notable decrease in the sulphur ratio is indicated in this case in 
the preservative period, a slight decrease in the sulphuric acid ratio, 

and a liea\ \ increase in the phosphoric acid ratio. In the after period 

the sulphur ratio is restored in part to it- original magnitude and the 
sulphuric acid rat io exactly (<> its original magnitude. There is a very 
notable increase in the magnitude of the phosphoric-acid ratio. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 543 

No. 8. 

There is noticed here for the first time a decided increase in the sul- 
phur ratio in the preservative period, while the sulphuric-acid and 
phosphoric-acid ratios remain unchanged. In the after period there 
is a slight falling off in the sulphur ratio as compared with the pre- 
servative period, no change in the sulphuric-acid ratio, and a notable 
increase in the phosphoric-acid ratio. 

No. 9. 

There is a slight diminution in the magnitude of the sulphur and 
sulphuric-acid ratios in this case and a notable loss in the phosphoric- 
acid ratio during the preservative period. In the after period the 
sulphur ratio is increased beyond its original magnitude, the 
sulphuric-acid ratio is restored to the figure for the fore period, and 
there is an increase in the magnitude of the phosphoric-acid ratio over 
the preservative period, but it does not quite reach the magnitude of 
the fore period. 

No. io. 

There is no change in the sulphur and sulphuric-acid ratios in the 
preservative period in this case and a slight diminution in the mag- 
nitude of the phosphoric-acid ratio. In the after period there is a 
slight loss in the magnitude of the sulphur and sulphuric-acid ratios 
and a notable increase in the phosphoric-acid ratio. 

No. 11. 

The ratios of sulphur and sulphuric acid are smaller in this case in 
the preservative period and that of phosphoric: acid larger. In the 
after period there is a still further diminution in the magnitude of the 
sulphur ratio over the preservative period, no change in that of the 
sulphuric acid, and a still further slight increase of ratio of the phos- 
phoric acid. 

No. 12. 

We have here the third instance of an increase in the magnitude of 
the sulphur ratio in the preservative period, accompanied with a slight 
decrease in that of the sulphuric-acid ratio and the phosphoric-acid 
ratio. In the after period the sulphur ratio is -lightly diminished as 
compared with that of the preservative period, the sulphuric-acid ratio 
remain- unchanged, and there is a notable increase in the magnitude 
of the phosphoric-acid ratio. 

-i mm im V"K NINE HEN. 

Combining into one expression the nine ratios which are complete 
and comparable, it is seen that there is a notable diminution in the 
ratio of sulphur and a slight diminution In the ratio of sulphuric acid 



544 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 

to nitrogen in the preservative period. The ratio of phosphoric acid 
to nitrogen remains unchanged. The tendency to reduce the magni- 
tude of the ratio of sulphur to nitrogen i> maintained in the after 
period, whereas there is no further diminution of the magnitude of 
the ratio of sulphuric acid in that period. Tin' ratio of the phosphoric 
acid, however, is very markedly increased in the after period. A 
general review of these data indicates that the administration of the 
salicylic acid tended to increase the relative excretion of sulphur to 
nitrogen, and that this tendency was continued in quite a marked 
degree in the after period. There i- scarcely any effect produced by 
the salicylic acid upon the relative quantities of sulphuric acid and 
nitrogen excreted. There seems to he a marked tendency on the part 
of the preservative to produce a condition which diminishes the rela- 
tive amount of phosphoric acid to nitrogen excreted, but this full effect 
is not shown until the after period. 

In general, it may be said that the disturbing influence upon the 
relative quantities of these bodies excreted as compared with nitrogen 
is not very great, but that there is a marked tendency to disturb in a 
measurable degree the relative metabolic changes which the sulphur 
undergoes in relation to nitrogen as determined by the constitution of 
the urine. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



545 



Table IX. — Urine determinations — Ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates to 

gen — Series VI. 

[Averages are per day.] 
No. 1. 



nitro- 



Period. 


Quantity. 


Ratio. 


Nitrogen. 


Sulphur. 


so 3 . 


P2O5. 


S:N. 


S0 3 : N. 


P.,<)- : X. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 

59. 83 
11.97 

67.99 
13.60 


Grams. 

4.002 

.800 

4.252 
.850 


Grams. 
8.674 
1.735 

9.800 
1.960 


Grams. 
10. 723 
2. 145 

10. 963 
2. 193 


1:15.0 


1:6.9 


1:5.6 






Second subperiod : 

Total 


1:16.0 


1:6.9 


1:6.2 










Entire fore period: 

Total 


127. 82 
12.78 


8.254 

. 825 


18. 474 

1.847 


21. 686 

2. 169 


1:15.5 


1:6.9 


1 : 5. 9 












Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


66.40 
13.28 

69.68 
13.94 

a 68. 95 
13.79 

(18. 55 
13.71 

71.33 
14.27 

74.07 
14.81 


4.415 
.883 

1. 654 
.931 

4.376 

. 875 

4.720 
.944 

4.429 
.886 

4.621 

.924 


9.800 
1.960 

10. 239 
2. 048 

9.974 
1.995 

10.342 
2. 068 

10. 539 

2. 108 

10. 502 
2.100 


11.271 
2. 254 

12. 343 

2.469 

11.596 
2. 319 

12.216 
2.143 

11. 737 
2. 347 

11.345 
2.269 


1:16.0 


1:6.8 


1 : 5. 9 






Second subperiod: 

Total 


1:15.0 


1:6.8 


1:5.6 






Third subperiod: 

Total 


1:15.8 


1:6.9 


1:5.9 






Fourth subperiod: 
Total 


1:14.5 


1:6.6 


1 : 5. 6 






Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


1:16.1 


1:6.8 


1:6.1 






Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


1:16.0 


1:7.1 


1:6.5 














Entire preservative period: 
Total 


418. 98 
13.97 


27. 215 
.907 


61.396 
2.047 


70. 508 
2. 350 


1:15.4 


1:6.8 


1:5.9 








'After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


69.61 
13. 92 

70. 86 
14.17 


4.580 
.916 

4.771 
.951 


10.150 
2. 030 

10.279 
2. 056 


10.418 

• 

10. 924 
2.185 


1:15.2 


1 : 6. 9 


1:6.7 






Second subperiod: 

Total 


1:14.9 


1:6. 9 


1:6.5 










Entire after period: 

Total 


140.47 
14.05 


9. 351 
.935 


20. 129 
2.043 


21.312 
2. 134 


1:15.0 


1 : 6. 9 


1:6.6 
















a < >ne day's average added in order to complete record. 



546 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table IX. — Urine determinations — Ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates to nitro- 
gen — & ries VI— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. 2. 



Period. 




Quantity. 






Ratio. 




Nitrogen. 


Sulphur. 


so 3 . 


1\«>. 


S : N. 


S0 3 : N. 


P 2 5 : N. 


, ■< rind. 

Firsl Bubperiod: 

Total 


(i rams. 
85. 34 
17.07 

72. 37 
14.47 


Grams. 
5. 148 
1.090 

1.643 

. 929 


Grams. 

12.016 
2. 40:5 

10.454 
2. 091 


Grams. 

16.025 
3. 205 

14.267 
2.853 


1:15.7 


1:7.1 


1:5.3 






Second subperiod: 

Total 


1:15.6 


1:6.9 


1:5.1 


Average 










Ep-tire fore period. 

Total 


157.71 
15.77 


10.091 
1.009 


22. I7(> 
2. 247 


30. 292 


1:15.6 



1:7.0 


1 : 5. 2 










PreservaUvt period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


71.87 
14. 37 

72. 49 
14.50 

77. 12 
15.42 

71.30 
1 L26 

82. 10 
16. 12 

76.80 
15.36 


4.621 

.924 

4.517 
.903 

5. 108 

1 . 022 

L616 

. 90S 

5.212 
1.042 

5. 57 1 

1. lir, 


9. 971 
1.994 

10.181 
2. 036 

10. 835 

•J. 167 

10.940 
2. L88 

1 1 . 596 
2.819 

11.092 
2.218 


11.71 1 
2.943 

16. 061 
3. 212 

L5.734 

3.147 

14.903 
2. 981 

15.979 

::. L96 

14.271 
2.854 


1:15.6 


1:7.2 


1:4.9 






Second subperiod: 

Total 


1:16.0 


1:7.1 


1: 1.5 






Third subperiod: 

Total 


,,,, 


1:7.1 


1:4.9 






Fourth subperiod: 

Total 




1:15.8 


1 6. 5 


1:4.8 






Fifth subperiod: 
Total . 


1:16.8 


1:7.1 


1 : ■">. 1 






Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


1:18,8 


1 :6.9 


1 : :>. 1 














Entire preservative period: 
Total 


151.68 

15.06 

77. 92 
15.68 

79. '.i7 
15.99 


29.548 

. 985 

.'.. L28 
L.025 

5. 268 

1.051 


64.615 
2.164 

11.170 

2. 28 1 

11.860 

2. 272 


91.662 
3. 055 

11.075 

2. SI 5 

l i.986 

2. '.»97 


1:15.8 



1 7.0 


1:4.9 






A jli r ji' rind. 

Flrsl Bubperiod: 

Total 


1:15.2 


1:7.0 


1 : 5. 5 






Second Bubperiod: 

Total 


1:16 2 


1:7.0 


1 : 5. :: 














Entire alter period: 

Total 


167.89 

15.79 


L0.891 
L.089 


22.680 


29.06,1 


UX6.2 


l:7.o 


1 5 l 















SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



547 



Table IX. — Urine determinations — Ratio of sulphur, sidphates, and jriiosphates to nitro- 
gen — Series VI— Continued. 





[A 


verages are per day.] 
ISTo. 3. 






• 


Period. 


Quantity. 


Ratio. 


Nitrogen. 


Sulphur. 


so 3 . 


P 2 5 . 


S:N. 


S0 3 : N. 


P 2 5 : N. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 

\ 

63.19 
12. 64 


Grams. 

4.126 
.825 


Grams. 
Brol 

9.091 
1.818 


(reams. 
cen by illness. 

10.700 1:15.3 
2.140 


1:7.0 








Second subperiod: 

Total 


1:5.9 










Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average : 


63. 19 
12.64 


4.126 

. 825 


9.091 

1.818 


10. 700 
2.140 


1:15.3 


1:7.0 


1:5.9 


Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


56. 15 
11.23 

«57.33 

11.47 

54.57 
10.91 

57. 67 

11.53 

55. 51 

11.10 


3.664 

.733 

3. 665 
.733 

3.588 
.718 

3.740 

.748 

3.699 

.740 


7.965 
1.593 

8.260 
1.652 

7.773 
1.555 

8.141 
1.628 

7.777 
1.555 


10. 899 
2. 180 

10.410 
2.082 

10.487 
2. 097 

9.919 

1.984 

9.234 

1.847 


1:15.3 


1:7.0 


1:5.2 






Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 


1:15.7 


1:6.9 


1:5.5 


1:15.2 


1:7.0 


1:5.2 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


1:15.4 


1:7.1 


1:5.8 


1:15.0 


1:7.1 


1:6.0 






First, second, third, fourth, 
and fifth subperiods: 
Total 


''281.23 
11. 25 


18. 356 
.734 


39. 916 
1. 597 


50. 949 

2. 038 


1:15.3 


1:7.0 


1:5.5 














After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


53. 56 
10.71 

55.08 
11.02 


3. 619 
.724 

4.013 
.803 


7.480 
1.496 

8. 388 
L.678 


9.036 
1.807 

9. 967 

1.993 


1:14.8 


1 : 7. 2 


1:5.9 






Second Rubperiod: 

Total 


1:13.7 


1:6.6 


1:5.5 












Entire after period: 

Total 


108. 64 
10.86 


7. 632 
. 763 


15. S68 
1 . 587 


19. 003 
1.900 


1:14.2 


1:6.8 


,,,7 


A\ iTiiK*' 











"One day's average added in order to complete record. 
bNo. 3 had only live preservative subperiods. 



548 



INFLUENCE OF Food PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 



Table IX. — Urine determinations — Ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates to nitro- 

iji a — Si vies VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 



Period. 


Quantity. 




Ratio. 




Nitrogen. 


Sulphur. 




P«0 6 . 


S:N. 


30 v 


P 2 O s : N. 


Fort period. 

Fir-t subperiod: 

Total 


drams. 
73. 78 
14.76 

71. 91 

14.39 


Grams. 
1.906 
.981 

4.574 

.915 


Grams. 

10.719 

2.144 

10.724 
2. 1 15 


Grams. 

12.7-7 
2. 657 

14.505 

2.901 


1:15.0 


1:6.9 


1:5.8 






Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


1:15.7 


1:6.7 


1:5.0 






Entire fore period: 

Total : 

Average 


1 15. 72 
14.57 


9. 179 
.948 


21.443 
2.144 


27. 292 
2. 729 


1:16.4 


1 :6. 8 


1 ::.. 3 








Preservative p< Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


70.07 

11.01 

74.59 
14.92 

68.50 

13. 70 

72. 07 

11. 11 

66.08 
13.22 

71.91 
14.39 


1. Ill 
. 889 

1.724 
.946 

1.548 

.910 

1.559 
,912 

1.299 

.860 

1.766 
. 953 


10.268 

2. 054 

10.675 
2.135 

10.267 
2.053 

10.224 
2.045 

9. 726 
1.945 

10.391 
2.078 


13.813 
2. 769 

15.277 

13. 640 

14.891 

2. 978 

18.402 
2.680 

13.839 

2. 70s 


1:15.8 


1 :6. 8 


1 :5. 1 


l:i:.. s 


1:7.0 


1:1.9 


1:15.1 


l :6. 7 


1 :5. 


1:15.8 


1:7.0 


1:4.8 






Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


1:15.4 


1 :«'.. 8 


1:1.9 


sixth subperiod: 

Total 


,:,,, 


1:6.9 


- 









Entire preservative period: 

Total 


11. 11 


27.340 

.911 


61.561 
2.052 


84.891 


1:15.5 




1 :6. 














After period. 
Fir-t Bubperiod: 

Total 


72.04 

11. U 

74. II 
14.89 


1.787 

.917 

1.848 

. 970 


10.0 In 
2. 124 

10.888 
2.178 


12.959 

2. 692 

1 1.038 


1:15.2 


l ... - 


1 ::.. .', 






Second subperiod: 

Total 


1 :!.'.. 1 


1:6.8 


l :..:; 














Entire after period: 

Total 


1 Hi. is 

14.65 




21.608 
2. 161 


26. '.'97 


1:1.".. 3 


l 6. - 


1 :•'.. 1 















SALICYLIC ACID AXD SALICYLATES. 



549 



Table IX. — Urine determinations — Ratio of siUphur, sulphates, and phosphates to nitro- 
gen — Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

ISTo. o. 



Period. 



Quantity. 



Nitrogen. Sulphur. 



Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



rutin period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire preservative period: 

Total 

Average 



After period. 

Firs! subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire alter period: 

Total 

Average 



Grams. 
69. 53 

13.91 

61. 86 
12. 37 



Grams. 
4. 565 

. 913 

3. 711 

.712 



131.39 
13.14 



8.276 

.828 



68. 19 

13. 70 



69.02 

13.80 



07. 90 
13.58 



13. 88 



72. 81 
14.56 



68. 66 

13. 73 



4.312 
.868 

4.495 

.899 

4.566 

.913 

4. 632 
. 926 

4. 670 



4. 534 
.907 



so 3 . 



p.-0 5 . 



Grama. 
9.933 
1.987 

8.588 
1.718 



Grams. 

12. 890 

2. 578 

11.896 
2.379 



is. 521 
1.852 



9. 733 
1.947 



9. 545 
1.909 



9. 760 
1. 952 



9. Ml 

1.968 



10.216 
2.043 



9. 430 
1 . 886 



24.786 

2. 479 



12. 791 

2. 55s 



13.595 
2.719 



13. 579 
2. 716 



13.216 
2. 643 



13.087 

2.617 



Ratio. 



S:X. 



SO.,:X. 



1:15.2 
1:16.7 



1:7.0 
1:7.2 



P«O s : X. 



1:15.9 



1:7.1 



1:15.8 
1:15.4 
1:14.9 



416.26 
13.88 



27. 239 



58. 525 
1.951 



a 69. 30 
13.86 

70. 67 
14.13 



L516 

.903 



«.i.:;7:; 
1 . 875 



1.677 10.211 

. 935 2. 048 



139.97 

11.00 



'.•.193 
.919 



P.'. 611 
1.961 



12.408 
2.482 I. 



1:15.0 
1:15.6 
1:15.1 



to. (>,(> 
2.623 



11.883 

2. 377 



L2.738 

2. lis 



1:15.3 



1:15.3 

1:15.1 



1:7.1 



1:7. 1 
1:6.9 



21.621 
2. I'-.J 



1:15.2 



1:7.1 



a One day's average added in order to complete record. 



1:5.4 

1 :5. 2 



1:5.3 



1:7.0 1:5.4 

1:7.2 1:5.1 

1:7.0 1:5.0 

1:7.1 1:5.2 

1:7.1 1:5.6 

1:7.3 1:5.5 



1:5.3 



1:5.8 

1:5. 5 



550 



[NFLUENCE OF FOOD PBESEBVATIVES OX HEALTH. 



Table IX. — Urine determinations — Ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates to nitro- 
gen — Series IT— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

:no. 6. 





Quantity. 




Ratio. 




Nitrogen. Sulphur. 


so 3 . 


P«<V 


S:N. 


SO, : X. 


P,>0 5 : N. 


Fan period. 

First BUbperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 

59.40 


Grams. 
4. (K8 


Grams. 

1.816 

8. 555 
1.711 


Grams. 

9.814 
1.963 

10. 010 
2.002 


1:14.7 


1:6.5 


1:6.1 




11.88 

57.71 3.796 
11. 64 . 759 




Second BUbperiod: 

Total 

Average 


1:15.2 


..... 1 *:!. 


1:5.8 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



117.11 
11.71 



7.834 



17. 635 
1.764 



19. 824 

1 . 982 



1:14.9 



1:6.6 



1:5.9 



Preservatm period. 
Fir>t BUbperiod: 

Total 


65.93 
13.19 

68. 19 

13.70 

a 70. 76 

11. 1.") 

a 73. 26 
L4.66 

74.36 

1 1.-7 

63. i" 
10.68 


4.090 

.818 

4. 521 

. 904 

L748 
.950 

6.066 
1.013 

1.800 
.960 

4.890 

. 878 


9. 621 

1 . 92 1 

9. 966 
L.993 

L0.660 

2. 132 

ll.:2l 

2. 30.") 

10.899 
2. L80 

9. 757 

1.951 


11.315 
2. •_'(•>:'» 

12. 020 

■l. ml 

11.275 
•_'. 255 

11.928 

2.386 

11.011 
2. 2( 9 

9.990 

1 . ".''.is 


1:16.1 


1:6.9 


1:5.8 






Second BUbperiod: 
Total 


1:15.1 


1:6.9 


1:5.7 






Third BUbperiod; 

Total 


1:14.9 


1:6.6 


1 :('.. 3 






Fourth BUbperiod: 

Total 


1:14.5 


1:6.4 


1:6.1 






Fifth BUbperiod: 

Total . 


1:15.5 


1:6.8 


1 :6. 7 






sixth BUbperiod: 

Total 


1:12.2 




1:5.8 














Entire preservative period: 

Total 


106.20 
18.64 


27.614 
.920 


62. 127 
2.081 


67. 572 
2. 252 


1:11.7 


1:6.5 


1:6.0 












Ajli r pi rind. 

First BUbperiod: 

Total 


66. 12 
18.22 

54 90 
10.98 


1.846 
.869 

4.611 
. 922 


9. 1 1 1 
l . 889 

1 . 999 


9.180 
1.836 

10.707 

■2. 1 1 1 


1:15.2 


1:7.0 


1 :7. 2 


Average 

Second BUbperiod: 

Total 




1 : 1 1 . '.» 




1 ■ 1 














Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 


121.02 
12. hi 




19. 112 
L.941 


19.887 

1 . 989 


1:13.5 


l :6. 2 


1:6.1 










a One day 's average added in order to complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



551 



Table IX. — Urine determinations — Ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates to nitro- 
gen — Series IT— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. 7. 



Period . 




Quantity. 






Ratio. 




Nitrogen. 


Sulphur. 


S0 3 . 


P2O5. 


S : X. 


S0 3 : X. 


P 2 5 :N. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 
56. 57 
11.31 

63.00 
12.60 


Grams. 

3.756 

.751 

4. 280 
. 856 


Grams. 
7. 956 
1.591 

9.288 
1.858 


Grams. 

8.547 
1.709 

8.480 
1.696 


1:15.1 


1:7.1 


1:6.6 






Second subperiod: 

Total 


1:14.7 


1 : 6. s 


1:7.4 








Entire fore period: 

Total 


119.57 
11.96 


8.036 

.804 


17.244 
1.724 


17.027 
1.703 


1:14.9 


1:6.9 


1:7.0 










Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 


50. 72 
10.14 

56. 98 
11.40 

51. 24 
10.25 

49. 15 

9.83 

52. 92 

10. 58 

64.17 
12. 83 


3.513 
.703 

4.085 

.817 

3.368 
.674 

3.564 

■ m 

3.870 
.774 

6.424 
1. 285 


7.425 
1.485 

8. 715 
1.743 

7.341 
1.468 

7.539 
1.508 

8.184 
1.637 

9.054 
1.811 


7. 354 

1.471 

7.903 
1.581 

6.597 
1.319 

6.450 
1.290 

6.989 
1.398 

8.379 

1.676 


1:14.4 


1:6.8 


1:6.9 


1:13.9 


1:6.5 


1:7.2 


1:15.2 


1:7.0 


1:7.8 






Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


1:13.8 


1:6.5 


1:7.6 






Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


1:13.7 


1:6.5 


1:7.6 






Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


1:10.0 


1:7.1 


1:7.7 


Average 












Entire preservative period: 
Total 


325. 18 
10.84 


24.824 
.827 


48. 258 
1.608 


43. 672 

1.456 


1:13.1 


1:6.7 


1:7.4 


Average 












After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


52.80 
10.56 

56. 09 
11.22 


3.650 

.730 

3.891 

.778 


7. 697 
1.539 

8.180 

1.636 


5.802 

1.160 

6.596 

1.319 


1:14..") 


1 : 6. 9 


1:9.1 


Average 




Second subperiod: 

Total 


1:14.4 


1 : 6. 9 


1:8 5 


Average * 




Entire after period: 

Total 


ins. gg 
10.89 


7.541 

. 76 1 


15.877 
L.588 


12. 398 
1.240 


1:14. 1 
! 


1:6.9 




1:8.8 


Average 









552 



INFLUENCE OF POOD IMIKSKKVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table IX. — l'riitr determinations — Ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates to nitro- 
gen — Series VI— < Jontinued. 

[Averages arc per day.] 

No. 8. 



Period. 


Quantity. 


Ratio. 


Nitrogen. 


Sulphur. 


so 3 . 


p 2 o 6 . 


- V 


SO : \ 


1\.0 5 :X. 


Port {a Hod. 
Fir^-t subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 
52.91 

Id. 5s 

55. 50 
11.10 


Grams. 

:;. 689 
. 738 

. 798 


Grams. 
7.653 
L.531 

8.019 
1.604 


Grams. 
8.818 

1.764 

8.740 
1.748 


1:11.3 


1 : 6. 9 


1:6.0 


1:13.9 


1:6.9 


1 : 6. 4 








Entire fore period: 

Total : 


108. 11 
10.84 


7.677 
. 768 


15.672 
1.567 


• 
1.756 


111.1 


1 : 6. 9 


1 : 6. 2 








Prest rvativt p< riod. 
First subperiod: 

Total 


52. 73 
10.55 

54.44 
10.89 

51.74 
L0.35 

a 50. L6 
10.03 

57.62 

1 1 . 52 

55. 75 
11.15 


:;. Ill 
. 688 

3.610 
.-,'11 

3. (175 
. 735 

3.731 
.716 

:;. 827 
.766 

3.949 

. 790 


7.611 
1 . 522 

7. 885 
1.577 

7. 252 

1.450 

7.711 
1.549 

7.893 

1 . 678 

s. 17:; 
1 . 695 


1.776 

9. 600 

1.900 

3. 320 
L.764 

- 388 
1.778 

L.686 

7. 783 

1 . 557 


1:15.3 


1 : 6. 9 


1:5.9 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


1:1.".. 1 


1:6.9 


1 ■ •">. 7 






Third Bubperiod: 

Total 


1:14.1 


1:7.1 


1 : 5. 9 






Fourth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fiit h Bubperiod: 

Total 


1:13. 1 


1:6.5 


1 : 5. 6 


1:15.1 


1:7.:: 


1:6.8 






sixth subperiod: 

Total 


1:11.1 


1:6.6 


1:7.2 


Average 





Entire preservative period: 
Total 

Average 



period. 
mbperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 
Total 

Average 



322. 1 1 

in 75 


22. 223 
.711 


16.856 

1 . 562 


52. 305 

1.711 


1:11.5 


1 : .;. '.' 


1:0.2 










60.36 

1 ! 07 


1.209 
.842 

I. L66 
.838 


1.707 
1 . 768 


7. :;s7 

1. 177 

7.938 
L. 588 


1:11.3 


1:7.1 


1 : s. 2 


59. L8 
11.84 


1.11 2 


1:6.7 


1 : 7. 5 








L19.54 
L1.96 




17.822 
L.732 


15.325 


1:14.8 


1:6.9 


1:7. s 









a One day's average added In order to complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



553 



Table IX. — Urine determinations — Ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and p>hosphates to nitro- 
gen — Ser ies VI— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. 9. 



Period. 



Quantity. 



Nitrogen. Sulphur 



S0 3 . 



P 2 O s 



Ratio. 



S : N. 



SO a :N. P,O s :N. 



Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fiftli subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire preservative period: 

Total 

Average 



After period. 

Firal subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



Grants. 
70.26 
14.05 

67. 15 
13.43 



137.41 
13.74 



72. 12 
14.42 



66.12 
13. 22 



69.10 
13. 82 



67.84 
13.57 



63. 35 
12. 67 



73. 44 
14. 69 



411.97 
13.73 



64. !•"> 

12.89 



70. 20 
14.04 



131.65 
13.47 



Grams. 
4.671 



4. 547 
.909 



Grams. 
11. 663 
2.333 

11. 354 
2.271 



Grams. 
11.857 
2.371 

10. 410 

2. 082 



1:15.0 



1:14. 



9.218 
. 922 



23. 017 
2. 302 



22. 267 
2.227 



1:14.9 1:6.0 



4.948 
.990 



4.570 
.914 



,956 



4.567 
.913 



4.072 
.814 



4.864 
.973 



12. 355 
2.471 



11.411 
2. 282 



11. 936 
2.387 



11.404 
2. 281 



10. 168 
2.034 



12.145 
2. 429 



11. 750 
2.350 



11.997 
2.399 



12. 249 
2.450 



13. 981 
2.796 



10. 919 
2.184 



12. 805 
2. 561 



1:14.6 



1:14.5 



27. 801 
.927 



59. 419 
2.314 



4.345 
. 869 



4. 578 
.916 



10. 849 
2. 170 



11.431 

2. 286 



73.701 1:14.8 
2.457 



10. 123 

2. 085 



12.531 

■2. 506 



1:14.8 



1:15.3 



S. 923 

. 892 



22. 280 

2. 228 



22.954 1:15.1 1:6.0 

2. 295 



1:6.0 



1:5.8 



1:5.8 



1:5.9 



1:15.6 1:6.2 



1:15.1 1:6.0 



1 : 5. 9 



1 : 5. 9 
1:6.1 



1:5.9 
1:6.5 



1:6.2 



1:6.1 

1:5.5 



1:5.6 
1:4.9 
1:5.8 
1:5.7 



1:5.6 



1:6.2 



7666— No. 84, pt2— 06 



554 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table IX. — Urine determinations — Ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates to nitro- 
gen — Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day. J 

No. lO. 



Period. 


Quantity. 


Ratio. 


Nitrogen. 


Sulphur. 


so 3 . 


P,.0 5 . 


S:N. 


S0 3 :N. 


P 8 6 :N. 


Fort p< riod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Gravis. 
63. 81 
12. 76 

62. 78 
12. 56 


Grams. 
L215 

.813 

4.301 
.860 


Grams. 

10.525 
2. 105 

10. 740 
2. 148 


<iniiu.<. 
10. 727 
2. 145 

11.600 
2. 320 


1:15.1 


1:6.1 


1:5.9 






Second subperiod: 
Total 








1:14.6 


1:5.8 


1:5.4 






Entire fore period: 

Total 


126. 69 
12.66 


8. 516 
. 852 


21.21,5 
2. 126 


22. 1527 
2.233 


1:14.9 


1:6.0 


1:5.7 














Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


61.96 
12.39 

71.36 
14.27 

67. 35 
13.47 

61.61 

12.32 

64.37 
12.87 

17.99 

9. 60 


3. 997 
.799 

4.786 
. 957 

4. 073 
.815 

4. 264 
.853 

1. 135 

.827 

3. 934 
.787 


9.981 
1.996 

11.951 

2. 390 

10. 170 
2. 034 

10.647 

2. 129 

10.325 
2. 065 

9. 823 
1.965 


10.851 
2. 170 

12. 768 
2.551 

11. 612 

2. 322 

11.513 
2. 303 

10. S23 
2. L65 

9. 7 1 1 
1.949 


1:15.5 


1 : 6. 2 


1 : 5. 7 






Second subperiod: 

Total 


1:14.9 


- 1 : 6. 


1:5.6 






Third subperiod: 

Total 


1:16.5 


1:6.6 


1:5.8 






Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


1:14.4 


1 : :.. 8 


1 : 5. -1 






Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


1:15.6 


1:6.2 


1:5.9 






Sixth subperiod: 
Total 










1:12.2 


1: 1.9 


1:4.9 






Entire preservative period: 
Total 


374.64 
12.49 


26. 189 
.840 


62. 897 

2. 097 


(17.311 
■_'. 2 1 1 


1:11.9 


L:6.0 


1:5.6 


Average 










After period. 
ubperiod: 

Total 


59. 7 1 
11.95 

Sick. 


1.088 
.807 

Sick. 


10.070 
2.014 

Sick. 


9. I'.IS 
1.900 

Sick. 


1:14.8 


1:5.9 


1 : 6. 3 


Average 

Becond Bubperiod: 














*:::::::: :: 














Entire- after period: 

'i otal 


1 1 . 96 


L088 

. M 17 


10.070 
2.014 


9. 498 

1.900 


1:14.8 


I. 1.9 


1:6.3 















SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



555 



Table IX. — Urine determinations — Ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates to nitro- 
gen — Series VI— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

!N"o. 11. 



Period. 


Quantity. 


Ratio. 


Nitrogen. 


Sulphur. 


so 3 . 


P 2 5 . 


S:N. 


SO :i :N. 


P 2 5 : N. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 

a 80. 83 

16.17 

77.69 
15.54 


Grams. 

4.673 

.935 

5.325 
1.065 


Grams. 
10.510 
2.102 

11. 768 

2. 354 


Grams. 
14. 139 
2.828 

14. 489 
2. 898 


1:17.3 


1:7.7 


1:5.7 






Second subperiod: 

Total 


1:14.6 


1:6.6 


1:5.4 










Entire fore period: 

Total 


158. 52 
15.85 


9.998 
1.000 


22. 278 
2. 228 


28. 628 

2.863 


1:15.9 


1:7.1 


1 : 5. 5 


Average 










Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


85.49 
17.10 

77.64 

15.53 

73.34 
14.67 

67.82 

13.56 

75.63 
15.13 

69.97 
13.99 


5.469 
1.094 

5. 338 
1.068 

4. 455 

.891 

4.602 
.920 

5.021 
1.004 

4.661 
.932 


12. 714 
2. 543 

11. 686 

2. 337 

10. 679 
2.136 

10. 198 
2.040 

11. 204 
2. 241 

10. 291 
2.058 


13. 572 
2. 714 

12. 829 
2. 566 

12.616 
2. 523 

11. 968 

2.394 

12. 792 
2.558 

10. 648 
2. 130 


1:15.6 


1:6.7 


1:6.3 






Second subperiod: 

Total 


1:14.5 


1:6.6 


1:6.1 






Third subperiod: 

Total 


1:16.5 


1:6.9 


1:5.8 






Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


1:14.7 


1:6.7 


1:5.7 






Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


1:15.1 


1:6.8 


1:5.9 






Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


1:15.0 


1:6.8 


1:6.6 















Entire preservative period: 
Total 


449. 89 
15.00 


29. 546 
. 985 


66. 772 
2. 226 


74. 425 
2.481 


1:15.2 


1:6.7 


1:6.0 










After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


68.49 
13.70 

67. 67 
13.53 


4. 854 
.971 

4.780 
. 956 


9.616 
1.923 

10. 708 
2.142 


10. 377 
2.075 

11.710 
2. 342 


1:14.1 

1:11.2 


1:7.1 

1:6.3 


1:6.6 


A verage 




Second subperiod: 
Total 


1 • :. 8 


Average 












Entire after period: 

Total 


136.16 
13. 62 


9.634 
.963 


20.324 
2.032 


22. (1ST 
2. 209 


1:11.1 


1:6.7 


1:6.2 


Average 













" < toe 'lay's average added in order to complete record. 



556 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table IX. — Urine determinations — Ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates to nitro- 
gen — Series 1 1 — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 
No. 13. 



Period. 


Quantity. 


Ratio. 


Nitrogen. 


Sulphur. 


so 3 . 


P--0 5 . 


S:N. 


S0 3 :N. 


P 2 :N. 


Fort period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 
76. 69 


<,'ra /us. 
5.166 
1.033 

4,918 

. 98 1 


Orams. 

11. 182 
2.296 

10.487 
2. 097 


drains. 
12. 731 
2.546 

12.956 
2.591 


1:14.8 


1:6.7 


1 : 6. 




15.94 

72.02 

14.40 




Second subperiod: 

Total 


1:14,6 


1:6.9 


1:5. 6 






Entire fore period: 

Total 




1 18.71 


10.084 
1.008 


21.969 

2. 197 


25.686 
2. 569 


1:14.7 L:6.8 


1 : .">. 8 




1 1.87 










P tSi r rut iri pt Hod. 
First subperiod: 

Total 


65. 06 

13.01 

75. 17 


L236 
.847 

6. 129 
1.026 

4. 906 
.981 

1.784 
.947 

5. 17:; 
L.035 

L978 
. 996 


9.683 
L.987 

. 11.864 

2. 273 


11.591 
2.818 

13.235 
2.647 


1:15.4 1:6.7 


1:5.6 






Second subperiod: 

Total 


1:14.7 


1:6.6 


1 : •">. 7 




L5.03 




Third subperiod: 

Total 


74.75 
L4.95 

70.(11 
l LOO 


10.769 L4.425 
2.154 2.885 

10.626 12.930 
2.125 2.fi8fi 


L15.2 


1 : 6. -i 


1 : 5. 2 






Fourth Bubperiod: 

Total 


1:14.8 


1:6.6 


1 : :». 1 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


74. 17 
1 1 89 


11.279 
2. 256 

11.092 
2.218 


12.088 
2. 08 

L3.015 

•». Boa 


1:11. 1 


1:6.6 


L:6.2 


sixth subperiod: 

Total 


75. 28 
L5.06 


1:16.1 


1 : 6. 8 


1 : •">. S 
















Entire preservative period: 

Total 


484.74 

11. 19 


29. 15] 

. 972 


64.812 
2. L60 


77. 28 1 

'J. .'.7(1 


1:14.9 


1:6.7 


1:5.6 














AJti r i" Hod. 
Firsl subperiod: 

Total 


7::. 67 
1 1.7:; 

76.80 
L5.86 

150. 17 
L5.06 


1.999 
L.O00 

5. U. i 
L.088 


11.023 
2. 205 

11.821 
2.264 


11.870 

2. 37 1 

12.694 

■ 


1:11.7 


1 : 6. 7 


1 : 6. 'J 






Second Bubperiod: 

Total 


1:14.9 


1:6.8 


1:6. i 














Entire after period: 

Total 


in. 168 
L.016 


22.844 
2.284 


24.564 


1:14.8 


1:6.7 


1 : 6. 1 


Average 













SALICYLIC ACTD AND SALICYLATES. 



557 



Table IX. — Urine determinations — Ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates to nitro- 
gen — Series I I — Continm •« 1 . 

[Averages arc per man per (lay.] 
Summary for nine men. 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



214.96 
13.50 



79.729 
. 886 



17."). 700 212.779 
1.952 I 2.364 



Preservativi i>< Hod. 

First Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average,' 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



59G. 7G 
13.26 



618. .50 
13.74 



004. 30 
L3. 13 



591 . 70 
13.15 



027. 32 
13.94 



010. 01 
13.56 



Entire preservative period: 

Total 

Average 



3,648.62 
13.51 



After period. 
First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



010.31 
13. 57 



610.68 
L3.67 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



1,220.89 



38. 571 
. 857 



11.073 

.913 



40.123 
. 892 



11.301 

.918 



13.892 

. 975 



211.710 
.900 



86. 820 
1.929 



90. 256 

2.006 



37. 537 
1.945 



88. 977 

1 . 077 



91.534 

2. 034 



90. 082 

2. 002 



L05.333 
2.341 



112.763 
2.506 



108.282 

2. 400 



107.300 
2.386 



105.550 

2.3 If. 



101.078 
2.250 



1:15.5 



1:15.2 



5:;5.212 
1.982 



640.996 1:11.0 
2.:;7i 



41.014 
.911 



12. 170 

. 037 



83.190 

. 92 1 



1.017 



01.7:',:', 
2.039 



03.051 

2.088 



102.331 1:11.3 
2.271 



170.35s ] 

1.993 2.181 



1:11.' 



Period. 


Quantity. 




Ratio. 




Nitrogen. 


Sulphur. SO,. 


I',*);,. 


S:N. 


S0 8 :N. 


I',0,:N. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Qrams. 

r,l L88 

13.00 

600. 08 

13.3:! 


Grams. 

40.212 
.894 

39. 487 


Grams. 

ss. 023 
1.950 

87. 083 


Grams. 

106. 474 

2. 300 

106.305 

2. 302 


1:15.3 


1:7.0 


1 : 5. S 






Second subperiod: 

Total : 


1:15.2 


1:0.8 1:5.0 


Average 


.877 1.910 







1:0.0 



1:0.' 



1:0.0 



1:6.9 



1:14.7 1:0.7 

1:15.2 | 1:0.0 
1:13.0 1:6.8 



1:6.8 



1:0.7 



1 : 0. 8 



1 : 5. 7 



1 : 5. 7 

1-5.5 



1 : 5. 
1:5. 5 
1.5.0 
1 : 0. 



1 : 5. 7 



1 : 0. 5 



1:0.0 



1:0.2 



CHANGES IN THE RELATIVE QUANTITIES OF BUIPHUB COMPOl NDS 
EXCBETED IN THE HEINE. 

The changes which the urine may undergo in reaped of its relative 
content of sulphur compounds are of great physiological importance. 

For (In- purpose of determining the extent of any such changes an 
elaborate study was made of the total sulphur, sulphates, and other 
sulphur compounds excreted in the urine. To this end aotonlj \\a> 
the total sulphur determined, but also the amount ocean-ring naturally 
as sulphate- and that occurring as ethereal compounds of sulphur or 
as neutral sulphur. The data were compared with the respective 
quantities of sulphur administered in the food and the ratio of ethereal 



558 [NPLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

to inorganic sulphates determined as well as the ratio of the sulphur 
in different forms to the nitrogen in the urine. The particular object 
in view was to determine whether or not the total quantity of sulphur 

in the urine was affected by the administration of the preservative 
and whether the kinds of sulphur, as related to each other, were 
changed in any definite proportions. This required the determination 
of the total nitrogen in the urine, the total sulphur, total sulphur as 
Si I . neutral sulphur as SO s , total sulphuric acid as S0 3 , ethereal sul- 
phates as SO ;j , inorganic sulphates as S0 3 , the ratio of the ethereal 
sulphates to the inorganic sulphates and the calculation of the per- 
centage relations of the various kinds of sulphur to the total sulphur, 
namely, the percentage of neutral sulphur as S0 3 , total sulphur as 
>< I . and ethereal sulphates as S0 3 . 

The importance of the urine as an index of changes in metaholic 
activity is fully realized and, without minimizing the importance of 
the constitution of the feces or of the other excretions, it is sufficient 
to call attention to tin* greater magnitude of the urine excretions and 
to their greater significance in relation to the metabolized products of 

the food elements. 

The individual and summarized data on the relation of the pre- 
formed sulphates to the ethereal sulphates and neutral sulphur are 
given in Table X. 

1XDI VI Dl A I. DATA. 

No. 1. 

Inasmuch as the quantities of sulphur in the food vary slightly in 
the different periods, ii Is best to base the discussion upon the per- 
centage «>f the total sulphur occurring under the various forms rather 
than upon the rati 08 alone. The quantities excreted, however, and 
the ratios which have been determined are stated in the table, so that 
full information respecting the whole matter may he available. In 
the case of No. I the percentage of sulphur occurring in the neutral 
state is diminished in the preservative period, while it is very notably 

increased in the after period. The percentage of total sulphur occur 

ring as sulphates is slightly increased in the preservative period 

and notably diminished in the after period. The percentage of total 

sulphur occurring as ethereal sulphates is increased in the preserva- 
tive period and somewhat diminished in the after period, hut not to 
the minimum of the fore period. The percentage of total sulphur as 

inorganic sulphates is the same in the preservative period as in the 

fore period and is slightly diminished in the after period. 

No, 
In the case of N<>. 2 there is an increase in the percentage of neut ral 

sulphur in the preservative period and a still further increase in the 

after period. This is attended with a decrease in the percentage of 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 559 

total sulphates both in the preservative and after periods. There is 
also a decrease in the ethereal sulphur in the preservative period and 
this decrease is continued in the after period. The percentage of inor- 
ganic sulphates is diminished in the preservative period and still 
further diminished in the after period. 

No. 3. 

The neutral sulphur is increased in the preservative period and very 
notably increased in the after period, while the percentage of total 
sulphates decreases in both periods. The ethereal sulphur is very 
low in this case and slightly higher in the preservative period than 
in either the fore or after period. The percentage of inorganic sul- 
phur decreases slightly in the preservative period and very notably in 
the after period.' 

No. 4. 

There is a slight increase in the neutral sulphur in the preservative 
period and a notable increase therein in the after period, with corre- 
sponding inverse changes in the percentage of sulphur as sulphates. 
The percentage of ethereal sulphates is increased in the preservative 
period, with a slight loss in the after period. The inorganic sulphates 
show a loss in the preservative period and a still further slight loss in 
the after period. 

No. 5. 

There is a notable increase in this case of the neutral sulphur in the 
preservative period and a still further slight increase in the after 
period, with corresponding inverse changes in the total sulphur as 
sulphates. The percentage of ethereal sulphates is slightly diminished 
in the preservative period and still further diminished in the after 
period. The percentage of inorganic sulphates is notably diminished 
in the preservative period and again slightly decreased in the after 
period. 

No. 6. 

The percentage of neutral sulphur is slightly diminished in the pre- 
servative period, but very notably increased in the after period, with 
correspending inverse changes in the percentage of total sulphates 
present. The percentage of ethereal sulphates remains practically 
unchanged throughout the three periods, 'lucre is a slight increase in 
the percentage of inorganic sulphates in the preservative period and a 
notable decrease therein in the alter period. 

No. 7. 

This case shows an extraordinary increase in the neutral sulphur in 
the preservative period. This increase is nearly all lost in the after 
period, where the percentage is only -lightly greater than the fore 



500 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

period. There are corresponding inverse changes in the percentage of 
total sulphates present. The percentage of ethereal sulphates is 
slightly increased in the preservative period, but falls in the after period 
to a lower number than in the fore period. The percentage of inor- 
ganic sulphates is somewhat low to begin with, but there is a very great 
loss in the preservative period which is not quite wholly restored in 
the after period. 

No. 8. 

There is a notable loss in this case in the percentage of neutral sul- 
phur in the preservative period, and this loss is partially restored in 
the after period, with corresponding inverse changes in the percentage 
of total sulphates present. There is a slight increase in the percent- 
age of ethereal sulphates in the preservative period, but in the after 
period the number falls below that of the fore period. The percentage 
of inorganic sulphates is very low, being slightly greater in the pre- 
servative and after periods than in the fore period. 

No. 9. 

There is an increase in the percentage of neutral sulphur in the 
preservative period, which is partially lost in the after period, with 
corresponding inverse changes in the percentage of total sulphates 
present. In the percentage of ethereal sulphates there is a loss in the 
preservative period, and this loss is further increased in the after 
period. There is but little change in the percentage of inorganic sul 
phur present in the three periods, a slight decrease occurring in the 
preservative period and an increase in the after period. 

No. 10. 

There is an increase in the percentage of neutral sulphur in tin 4 
preservative period in this case and a corresponding decrease in the 
total sulphates. There is also a slight increase in the percentage of 
ethereal sulphates and a decrease in the percentage of inorganic sul- 
phates. The data for the after period are incomplete. 

No. ii. 

There is a decrease in the percentage of neutral sulphates in this 
case in the preservative period and a very huge increase in the after 
period, wit 1 1 corresponding inverse changes in the percentage of total 
sulphates present. The ethereal sulphates are remarkably low in this 
case and the percentage is slightly higher in the preservative period 
than in either of the others. There is a slight increase in the percent- 
age of inorganic sulphates in the preservative period and a notable loss 
in the after period. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 561 

No. 12. 

In this case there is a decrease in the percentage of neutral sulphur 
in the preservative period, while in the after period the loss is partially 
restored, with corresponding inverse changes in the percentage of total 
sulphates. There is little difference in the percentage of ethereal sul- 
phates in the fore and preservative periods and a notable loss in the 
after period. The percentage of inorganic sulphates is slightly 
increased in the preservative period and is almost the same in the 
after as in the preservative period. 

SUMMARY FOR NINE MEN. 

It is seen that the average quantity of sulphur exhibited in the foods 
is greater in the preservative period than in the fore period, and 
decreases in the after period (Table XVII, p. 645). This fact must 
be taken into consideration in the study of the table in regard to the 
actual weight of the different kinds of sulphur found in the urine, and 
also in connection with the ratio of the ethereal to the inorganic sul- 
phates. This ratio, it is seen, in general is almost 1 : 11, being slightly 
less in the preservative period than in either of the others. The per- 
centage of the total sulphur occurring as neutral sulphur is 0.7 greater 
in the preservative period than in the fore period, and the increase is 
much more marked in the after period, amounting to 1.3 per cent. 
There is a corresponding decrease in the percentage of total sulphates, 
since the neutral sulphur and the total sulphates make up the whole 
quantity of sulphur. The ethereal sulphates and the inorganic sul- 
phates, expressed as S0 3 , together make up the total sulphates. It is 
seen that there is a slight increase in the percentage of ethereal sul- 
phates in the preservative period, while in the after period the per- 
centage of ethereal sulphates falls slightly below that of the fore 
period. There is a slight decrease in the inorganic sulphates in the 
preservative period, and a still further decrease of about the same 
magnitude occurs in the after period. 

A general summary of the data shows that the administration of the 
salicylic acid produces a well-marked tendency to increase the per- 
centage of neutral sulphur with a corresponding decrease of total 
sulphates during the administration of the preservative, and that this 
tendency is continued, as might well be expected, in the after period. 
On the other hand, the administration of the salicylic acid appears 
to have had no notable effect in disturbing the relative percentages of 
ethereal sulphates and the inorganic sulphates in the urine. It must 
be admitted, therefore, in the light of these data, that the principal 
disturbing effect of the preservative has been upon the relative pro- 
portion of neutral sulphur excreted. 



562 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table X. — Urine determinations — Ratio of preformed sulphates to etliereal sulphates and 

ru utral sulphur — Series VI. 

[Averages are per day.] 
No. 1. 





1 


i 

DO 
/. 

(- 
9 

a 

5 
"5 
Eh 


O 

co 

B 

ft 

3 
■j. 

J 

-- 


O 

CO 

"3 
o 


00 

- 
-5 

Pi 

"3 

z 
w 


r. 

BE 
Z) 

"3 

ft 

xC 

, DO 

1 




~'~ 
*S 

3 z 

Z~ 

t : / 

i 

- ' ~- 

- S* 

2 - — 
-~ - 


Results expressed in per 
cent of total sulphur 

in terms oi 


Period. 


- z 

• 1. 

— / 
11 — 


d 

CO 

o 
Eh 


- : 

7 X 
s. 

z ft 

^ ~ 


-id 

2 a 
§1 

if zi 
Oft 

a 


Fort pt riod. 
First subperiod: 

Total 


'trams. 

4.002 

.800 

L.252 

- 


Grams. 
9. 993 

1 . 998 

10.617 
2. 122 


Qrams. 

1.319 
. 263 

.si 7 
. 162 


Grams. 

1.735 

9.800 
1.960 


Grams. 
0.867 

.173 

.989 
.198 


(i rams. 
7. S07 
1.562 

8.811 
1 . 762 


1:9.0 


P. Vt. 

13.2 


/'. ct. 

■ - 


p. ct. 


/'. ct 

7^ 1 


Average 

Second subperiod: 
Total 




1:8.9 


7.7 


92. 3 


9. 3 


83.0 


Average 












Entire fore period: 

Total 


8.254 


20.610 
2.060 


2. 136 
.213 


IS. 474 
L847 


1.856 
.186 


16.618 
1.661 


1:9.0 


10. 1 




9.0 


80. 6 


Average 








Preservativt period. 

Fir-t subperiod: 

Total 


I. 115 

1. 654 

. Ml 

L.376 

. 875 

1.720 

.'.Ml 

1. 129 

L.621 

. 92 1 


L1.024 
2. 205 

LI. 621 
2.325 

10. 927 

- 

11. 786 
2.357 

LI. 069 

2.212 

LI. 589 
2.808 


1 . 22 1 
. 245 

1.3S2 
.277 

.953 
. 191 

1. ill 

. 620 

.lid 

1.037 

.207 


1.960 

L0.239 
2.048 

9. 97 1 

1 . 995 

L0.342 
2.068 

10.539 

2. IDs 

1(1. :,()2 
2. Kid 


1.069 
.214 

.992 
. 198 

1.040 
.208 

1.091 
.218 

L.162 
.282 

L.283 

. 257 


8.731 

1.716 

9.217 
1.850 

B.984 
L.787 

9.251 
L.850 

9. ■ " 
L.875 

9.219 
L . 844 


1 :8. 2 


u, 


88. 9 


9.7 


79. 2 


Average 

Second Bubperiod: 

Total 




1:9.3 


11.9 


88. 1 


- 


79. »'. 


Average 

Third subperiod: 
Total 




1:8.6 


8.7 


91.8 


9. 5 


81.8 


Average 

Fourth Bubperiod: 
Total 




1 :8. 5 


12. 3 


87.7 


9.3 


78. 5 


Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 




1 :8. 1 


1.7 




L0.fi 


B4.8 


Average 

Sixth subperiod: 
Total 




1 :7. 2 


9.0 


91. 


11. 1 


79.9 


Average 












Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 


27.21") 
.907 


2. 266 


<;. 560 
.219 


61.896 

2.(117 


6.687 

.221 


54.759 

1 62 > 


1 :8. 8 


'.'.7 




9. S 


SO. 6 












After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


.'.tic 

1.771 
.964 


ll. L36 
■J. 287 

Ll. 918 

2.882 


L.286 

. 257 

L.684 
. 826 


10. L50 

2. 030 

10.279 


1. inn 
. 220 

L.08] 

.216 


1 sio 

'.I. l'.is 
l.SIII 


1:8.2 


11.2 




9. (i 


79. 1 


rage 

Second Bubperiod: 
Total 






18. 7 




9.1 


77. 2 


Average 














Entire after period: 

1 1 






. 292 


20. 12'' 


2 L81 
.218 


1- 248 


I B. 1 


























SALICYLIC ACID AXD SALICYLATES. 



568 



Table X. — Urine determinations — Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and 
neutral sulphur— Series VI— Continued. 



[Averages are per day.] 
INTo. 2. 



' 


c 


6 

oq 

X> 

X 

O 

H 


C 

X 

X 

r. 
u 
S3 
A 

u 

"3 


6 

X 

o 

Eh 


h 

'■ X 

o 
— 


X 

DO 
'. 

P. 

go 

l 
o 


~ "Z 
X - 

- ~3 


Results expressed in 
per cent of total sul- 
phur in terms of Si > ; . 


Period. 


DO X 

C '-* 


O 

X 




X 


u 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 
Total 


Grams. 
5.448 
1.090 

4. 643 


Grams. 
13. 604 

2. 721 

1 1 . 594 


Grams. 

.318 

1.140 


Grams. 
12. 016 
2.403 

10.454 


Grams. 
1. 235 

. 247 

1. 154 
. 231 


Grams. 

10. 781 

2.156 

9.300 
1.860 


1:8.7 


p. a. 

11.7 


P.ct. 
88.3 


P.ct. 
9.1 


P.ct. 
79.2 


Average 




Second subperiod: 
Total 


18 1 


9 8 


90.2 


10.0 


80 1 


Average 


.929 | 2.320 


.229 1 2.091 












Entire fore period: 
Total 


10. 091 
1.009 


25. 198 

2. 520 


2. 728 
.273 


22. 470 
2.247 


2.389 

. 239 


20. 081 


1-8 4 10.8 89.2 


9. 5 79. 7 


Average 


2.008 








Preservative j/' Hod. 

First subperiod: 
Total 


4.621 
.924 

4.517 
.903 

5. 108 

1.022 

4.516 
.903 

5.212 

1.042 

5. 57 1 
1.115 


11.539 
2. 307 

11. 279 

2. 255 

12. 755 
2. 552 

11.276 
2. 255 

13.014 

2. (102 

13. 918 

2.784 


1.568 
.313 

1.098 
.219 

1.920 
.385 

.336 
.067 

1.418 

.283 

2.826 
.566 


9.971 
1.994 

10. 181 
2.036 

10. 835 
2. 167 

10. 940 
2.188 

11. 596 

2.319 

11.092 
2.218 


1.143 
.229 

1.018 
.204 

1. 120 
.224 

1.061 
.212 

1.180 
.236 

1.130 

. 226 


8.828 
1.765 

9.163 
1.832 

9.715 
1.943 

9.879 
1.976 

10. 416 
2. 083 

9. 962 
1.992 


1:7.7 


13.6 


86.4 


9.9 


76.5 


Average 




Second subperiod: 
Total 1 


1:9.0 


9.7 


90.3 


9.0 


81.2 


Average 




Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


1:8.7 


15.1 


S4.9 


8.8 


76.2 


Fourth subperiod: 
Total 


1:9.3 


3.0 


97.0 


9.4 


87.6 


Average 

Fifth subperiod: 
Total 




1 B.8 


10.9 


89.1 


9.1 


80.0 


Average 




Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


1:8.8 


20.2 


79.8 


8.1 


71.6 












Entire preservative 
period: 
Total 


29.548 

.985 


2.460 


9.166 
.306 


64. 615 
2. 154 


6. 652 
. 222 


57.963 Is 7 


12. 1 


87.6 


9.0 


78.6 


Average 


1.932 
















After pi riod. 

First Bubperiod: 

Total 


5. 123 
1.025 

1.051 


12. 792 

13.154 
2. 632 


1.622 

1.794 
.360 


11.170 
2. 234 

11.360 
2.272 


1.109 

. 222 

1.155 
.231 


10. 061 
2. 012 

10.205 

•'.oil 


1:9.1 


12.7 


• 






■ rage 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

cage 






13.6 


v.. 1 


- - 


77.6 












Entire after period: 
Total 

Average 


10.391 
L.039 

1 


25.946 

2. 594 


3. lit; 
.:'A\ 


'22. 530 


2.264 
.226 


20. 266 

2.027 


1:9.0 13.2 






7>. 1 











564 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table X. — Urine determinations — Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and 
neutral sulphur— -Series VI— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. 3. 







o 

co 

T. 

2 

9 

00 

O 


5 

OQ 
r. 

- 
U 

8 



y. 


X 

Eh 


■j. 

L 

-Z 
'J- J. 

"3 


£ 

DC 

- 

~ 

ft 

"3 




_l - 

y - ~ 
— S 

i> 

z.a 

c ~ir 

ob Aon 

M 


Results expressed 
cent of total si 
in terms of S< 1 . 


in per 

lphur 


Period. 


is 

j. 

y ~ 


6 

w 
5 
c 
H 


5 J? 
i - 

CO 

1 

- - 

- ~ 


H 

•- / 

a 7 

- 

2~ 
- a 


Fort pt Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Qrams. 
1 


Grams. 


Qrams. 

1.212 
.242 


Grams. 
I 

9.091 
1.818 


Grams. 


Grams. 




p. rt. 


Ret. 


/'. Ct 


P. et. 


Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


I 

1126 10.303 
. 825 2. 060 


roken by unless 

1 
0.670 8 i-jl 
.134 1. 684 


1:12.6 11. S 


6.6 si. 7 








Entire fore period: 
Total 


4.126 10.303 1.212 
.825 2.060 .212 


9.091 
1.818 


0.670 8.421 1:12.6 11.8 




6. 5 


si. 7 


Average 


.134 1.684 












Prest mil in period. 

First subperiod: 
Total 


3.664 

. 733 

3. 665 

. 733 

.718 

3.710 

. 748 


9. 149 
1.830 

9.151 

1.830 

8. 959 
1.793 

9.339 
L8fiS 


1.1M 
237 

. 891 

.178 

L.1S6 

.237 

1.198 
.240 

1 . 459 
. 298 


7.965 

1.593 

8. 260 
L.652 

7. 773 
l . 556 

s. Ill 
i . 628 

7.777 
l . 555 


. 520 
.104 

. 591 

.118 

.676 
. 135 

. 656 
.131 

. 723 
. 1 15 


7. 145 
1.489 

7.669 
1.534 

7.097 

1. 119 

7. 485 
1.497 

7.064 

1.411 


1:14.3 


12.9 


S7.1 


5.7 


81. 1 


Average 

Second subperiod: 
Total 




1:13.0 


9.7 


90.3 


6. 5 5 - 


Average 

Third subperiod: 
Total 




1:10.5 


13. 2 




7.6 


79.2 


Average 

Fourth subperiod: 
Total 




1:11.4 


12.8 


87, 2 


7.0 


an 1 


Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 




3. 699 9. 286 
.710 L.848 


1: 9.8 


15.8 


84.2 


7.8 76.4 










First, second, third, 
fourth, and fifth 
subperiods: a 

Total 

rage 

a jii r period. 

i- 1 r - » subperiod: 
Total 


15.8341 

731 1 838 


6.918 

•'37 


39. '.in; 
L.597 


8.166 

. 127 


36. 750 

l. 170 


1:11.6 


12.9 


s7. 1 


6. 9 


90.2 















8.619 

VIA 


9.037 

1 NOT 


.311 

1.632 
. 827 


7. 180 
L.496 

1 678 


. 582 
. 106 

.679 
186 


1.890 

7. Tin 
1 42 


1:13.1 


17.2 






76. 9 


Second Bubperiod: 

Total 1.018 L0.020 

Average -«<>:'. a.oofi 


1:11.1 


16.8 




6.8 


76, '.' 


Entire after period: 

Total 

erage 


















7.632 L9.057 

'Mil, 


819 




1.211 
. 121 


1 166 


1:12.1 


16.7 




6. i 


76. 9 



















" No. 8 bad only five preservative nubperiods. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



565 



Table X. — Urine determinations — Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and 
neutral sulphur — Series TY— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

UNTo. 4. 





3 
x 

O 


so 

o 

CO 
•Jl 

■z 

!- 

- 

X 


d 

CO 
00 

OS- 
ES 

3. 

X 

i- 

"H 


n 



50 

O 


X 
X 

03 

5 


X 

09 


Ratio of ethereal sul- 
phates to inorganic 
sulphates. 


Results expressed in per 
cent of total sulphur 
in terms of S0 3 . 


Period. 


3 
O co 

— 


16 

00 

X 

= = 


c 

1 

Z 

Eh 


g<5 

CO 

- - 

- 2 

£j - 


go 

- ft 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: Grams. 
Total 4. 905 


Grams. 

12. 248 
2.450 

11. 421 
2.285 


Grams. 

1.529 

.306 

.697 
.140 


Grams. 
10.719 

2. 144 

10. 724 

2. 145 


Grams. 

0.694 

.139 

.803 
.161 


Grains. 

10. 025 

2.005 


1:14.4 


P.ct. 
12.5 


P. Ct. 


P.rt. 
5.6 


P. ct. 
81.9 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


4.574 
.915 


9.921 
1.984 


1:12.4 


6.1 


93.9 


7.0 


86.9 


Average 












Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 


9.479 
.948 


23. 669 2. 226 
2. 367 . 223 


21.443 1.497 
2.144 .150 


19. 946 

1.994 


1:13.3 9.4 | 90.6 6.3 84.3 




Preservative pt Hod. 

First subperiod: 
Total 


4.444 


11.097 .829 
2. 220 . 166 

11.796 1.121 
2. 360 . 225 


10. 268 
2.054 

10. 675 

2. 135 

10. 267 
2. 053 

10.224 
2.045 


.905 
.181 

.783 
.157 

.789 
.158 

. 758 

.152 


9.363 
] . 873 

9. S92 
1.978 

9. 178 
1. 895 

9.466 
1.893 

9.009 
1. 802 

9.526 


1:10.3 


7.5 


92.5 


84. 4 


Average 

Second subperiod: 
Total 


.889 




4. 724 
.945 

4.548 
.910 

4. 559 
.912 

4.299 

.860 

L7fi6 

.953 


1:12.6 


9.5 


90.5 


6. 6 S3. 9 


Average 

Third subperiod: 
Total 




11.356 
2.272 

11.384 
2.277 

10. 735 

2. 1 17 

11.901 
2.380 


1.089 
.219 

1.160 
.232 

1.009 

.202 

1.510 
.302 


1:12.0 
1:12.5 


9.6 
10.2 


90.4 
89.8 


6. 9 S3. 5 


Average 

Fourth subperiod: 
Total 


6.7 53.2 


Average 

Fifth subperiod: 
Total 




9.726 .717 


1:12.6 


9.4 


90.6 


6. 7 83. 9 


Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


1.945 

10. 391 


.143 




inn 


12.7 




7. 3 SO. 


Average 


2.078 .17;} 


1.905 






Entire preservative 
period: 
Total 


J7.:;i0 68.269 6.718 
.911 2.276 | .224 


61.551 
2.052 


4 817 56 731 1 




90.2 


7 1 83 1 




.161 L891 


















After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


4. ?M 
.947 


1 1 . 828 


1.210 10.618 
.212 2.124 

1.217 10.888 
.248 2. 17K 


.800 

.160 

.170 


9. si 8 
L.964 

10.038 

■Milis 


1:12.8 


10.2 




83. o 


Second Bubperiod: 
Total 


1.848 

.970 


12. 105 

2. I'l 


1:11.8 


10.1 




7.ii 


Average 












Entire after period: 
Total 


'.1. .".v. 

2. 393 


2.428 21.506 1.650 L9.856 


1:12.0 


10.1 



























566 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 



Table X. — Uri 

neutral sulphur— § ■ 7— Continued. 



: igea are per day.] 
Xo. o. 









i 




r. 


g 


_ g 


ResoJ 


in per 






- 


m 




m 


i 


" jj cent of total sulphur 






to 








3 


— m in terms ol - 


Period. 


£ 


_r 


| 




■ CO 


- Efl 


| c is 


3 S 


H 




5 




| 


DD 



J 


J 


^ll if : 


-3 a ■- = 

ll 6| 




- 


- 


Z 


- 


H 


~ 


- fc 




- — 
























- ibperiod: 






Gram*. 








P. et 




P. Ct 


P. ct. 





1.565 


n.syy 


1. 466 




72 


y. 212 




- 




6.3 


- - 





.913 


- 


- 


-" 


.141 


• . 










- 






















: 


3.711 


. 


ra 




" 


' - 




7.3 




- 


Average 




• 


.136 


" ■ 


.144 


1.574 









Entire fore period: 
: 

Average 


- .' 


2. 144 

.214 


- . 


1. 44U 
.114 


17. OKI 

J • 


1:11. y 


1U. 4 




" 


32 












Fir-t -ubperiod: 




4.342 

.yi3 


11. 224 
11.401 

_ 

- _ 


1.109 
222 

.336 
1.641 

a 

1.41". 

■ 


1.9*7 

- 
- 


J 

.152 

712 
.142 

n 

1 

'- 
.155 

.171 


- 1 

• - 

- • 
1 








7.0 


-_ - 










_ 

riod: 
; 


1:12.4 




- 




78 ' 


Average 

Third »ub period: 
Total 




1:11.5 


14.4 


• 


- 


'• • 




Fourth subperiod: 
1 




1:11.4 


14.9 


- 




n - 




- 77 

1.715 






Total 


- 


12.4 






- 




.Sixth - 



rage 








- 


" 








period: 

J 












- _ 1:11.5 




- 



























; 














1:11.5 










- 

ta] 






1:12.1 


12.3 






- a 





























1.516 


l:Il.y 








- - 


. 


1.810 



















SALICYLIC ACID AXD SALICYLATES. 



567 



Table X. — Urine determinations — Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and 

neutral sulphur — Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 
IN"o. 6. 







O 

00 


o 

X 

X 

= 
Fj 

3 

X 

C 

Z 


O 

X 


X 
X 

E 

= 
- 
— . 

31 X 

"3 

- 
- 
-- 


X 
X 

ft 
- J? 

X w 


x Fj 
- g: 


Results expressed in per 
cent of total sulphur 
in terms of - 


Period. 


x x 


Z- - 

■-.- 

zii 

'— x t. 

- ~- 

- - ft 
•- - - 


'- X 

: ~ '- 


O 

X 

1 


is 

x X 

= = 

- X 

z -. 

- - 

- _= 
^ ft 


-_ X 

— = 

~ X 

H 

- - 


Fort period. 

First subperiod: 
Total 


Gram*. Grams. 
4.038 10.083 

- • 2.01S 

3. 796 9. 479 
. 759 1. 895 


Gram.<. 
1.003 


Grams. 

9 (Ml 


Grams. Grams. 

0.622 B.458 

.124 1.692 

7. 970 
.117 1.594 


1:13.6 


P.ct. 
9.9 


P.ct. 
90.1 


P.ct. 
6.2 


P.ct. 


Average 

Second subperiod: 
Total 


.202 L816 

. 924 8. 555 

.184 1.711 




1:13.6 


9.7 


90. 3 6. 2 


84.1 


Average 












Entire fore period: 
Total 


7.834 19.561 
.783 1. 955 


1926 17.635! 1.207 16.428 


1:13.6 ! 9 8 


90. 2 6. 2 


Average 


.191 | 1.764 .121 1.643 




Preservative period. 

Fir^t subperiod: 
Total 


4. 090 10. 213 
.818 2.043 

4.521 11 WW 


.592 
.119 

1. 323 
. 264 

1.196 

.239 

1. 123 
. 225 

1.087 

.217 

1. 205 

. 241 


9. 621 
1.924 

9. 966 
1.993 

10. 660 
2. 132 

11.524 
2. 305 

10. 899 
2. 180 

i j 


.720 8.910 Ir12_4 


5.8 


94.2 


7 


Average 


.144 L780 

. 709 9. 257 
.142 1. 851 






Second subperiod: 
Total . 


1: 13. 1 


11.7 


-.:; 


6 3 


Average 

Third subperiod: 
Total 


.904 

4.748 

.950 

5. 065 
1.013 

4.800 
. 960 

4.390 


2.257 

11.856 

2. 371 

12. 647 
2. 529 

11.986 

2.397 

10 QC2 




.698 
.140 

.688 
.138 

.700 
.140 

TSfi 


9. 962 
1.992 

10. 836 

2. 167 

10. 199 
2.040 

9.022 
1 . 804 


1:14.3 


10.0 


90.0 


- 


Average 




Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 
Total 


1:15.8 


8.9 


91.1 


5. 4 


1:14.6 


9.1 


90.9 


" - 


Average 




Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


1:12.3 


11 B 


6 7 - 


Average 


2. 192 


1 . 951 . 147 








Entire preservative 
period: 
Total 


27.614 68.953 
.920 2.298 


■J is 


62. 427 
2 081 


4.2.50 RR-177 1:13.7 


9.5 90.5 


6.2 


M.4 




1 42 


1.939 












After period. 

First subperiod: 
Total 


1.346 

4.611 


10.852 

2. 170 

11.514 

2. 302 


1.40S 
.281 

1.546 

.308 


9. 444 
1 . 889 

1 . '.".'4 


. 695 


1:12.6 


13.0 




6. 4 


- 


Average 


.139 1.750 
718 9 250 






Second subperiod: 
Total 


1:12.9 


*13.4 


B 




80. 3 


Average 


.144 1.850 














Entire after period: 
Total 




22. S66 




19. 112 
1.941 


1.418 17.999 1:1" .7 18.2 


- 9 


6.3 


s 


Average % 


. Ill 












1 









5(58 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table X. — Urine determinations— Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphate* and 
neutral sulphur — Series IT— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 
No. 7. 







Z 

CO 

\ 

Cm 

1 

1 

z 


O 

/. 

■r. 

s 

1 

= 
y. 




i 
3 

- 

— ._ 

- z 

■ X 

s 
53 
u 

V 

A 
«j 

W 


3 

■ 

- 

7 Z 
- J - 

z 

a 


= ' = 
- Z 

ZB 

- i s 


Results expressed in per 
cent of total sulphur 
in terms of - 


Period. 


i. 

- 

»- - 
-- 

Z - 


C 
j. 

"3 

c 


CO 

-= = 

si 

H p, 


h 

n 

- 3 


Fort p< riod. 

First subperiod: 
Total 


Grams. 
3. 766 

.751 


Grams. 
9. 379 

1.875 

10.687 


Grams. 

1. -12:; 
. 28 1 

1.399 
. 279 


Grams. 
7.956 

1.591 

9.288 
1.858 


Grains, (iram*. 

0.596 7.360 

.119 1 1472 


1:12.8 


P. et. 

15.2 


P.ct 

84.8 


7'. rf. 
6.4 


P.ct. 
78 5 


Average 




Second Bubperiod: 

Total 


.800 
.160 


s. 188 
1.698 


1:10.6 


18, 1 


86. 9 


7 R 


7'.' 1 


Average 




2.137 














Entire fore period: 
Total 


8.036 20.066 
. SO 1 2. 008 


2. 822 
. 284 


17.244 
1. 724 


1 . 396 
.140 


15.848 

1 . 58 1 


1:11.4 14.1 


6 9 79 


Average 












Preservativt period. 

Fir-t subperiod: 
Total 


S.513 

.703 

1.086 
.817 

.(',71 

8.564 
.713 

8.870 

.77 1 

06. Ul 

1 . 285 


8. 772 

1 . 7.-.:. 

L0.200 

•J. niu 

s. no 

1.683 
L.780 

L.988 

16.041 
3.209 


1.347 
.270 

1. 185 

. 29 7 

1.069 
.215 

1.360 
. 272 

1. 179 
. 296 

6.987 
L.398 


7. 425 
1. 185 

8.715 
1.743 

7.:; n 
l. 168 

7.539 
L.508 

s. lsl 

1.637 

9.054 

l.sn 


.780 
.156 

. 742 

.lis 

.709 

. 112 

.1X1 

.717 
. 1 19 

. 766 

. 1 ■:; 


6.645 

1.329 

7. 973 
1 . 595 

6. 632 
1.326 

1.377 

7. l:;7 

1. 1-s 

8.288 

l »;;>s 


1: 8.5 


15, 1 


84.6 


s. 9 75. s 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


1:10.7 
1 : 9. 1 


14. 6 
12.7 


85. 1 


7.:; 78.2 


Average 

Third Bubperiod: 

Total 


s. 1 


78. 9 






Fourth Bubperiod: 

Total 


1:10.5 


15.3 


84.7 


7. 1 


77.X 


Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 




1:10.0 


15.3 


84.7 


7.7 


77.(1 


Average 

Sixth subperiod: 
Total 




1:10.8 


18.6 


56. l 


L8 


51.7 


Average 














Entire preservative 

period: 

Total 


24.824 


61.986 
2. 065 


L8.728 

. 1 .7 


1.608 


1. too 

. 117 1.461 


i L0.0 


22 1 


77. 9 


7. 1 


ro - 


Average 












Ajti r i>t riod, 

Firel Bubperiod: 
Total 


.780 
.778 


9. 1 1 1 
1 . 828 

«.». tk; 
L.948 


1. 117 
, 28 1 

.807 


7. 697 
l i39 

B.180 
L.636 


. 120 
.584 


7.097 

1. 119 


1:11.8 


15.5 


-l • 


6.6 77.9 


Average 

Second subpei led 
Total 






1:18,0 


15.8 


84 • 


6.0 78,2 


A rerage 


117 


1 1419 














78.0 


Entire alter peri. up 

i 


7. .Ml 




. ■_".•:. 




1.184 14.698 

ll- 


i 12 I 




84.8 


6. 8 


Average 

















" I'naccountably high. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



569 



Table X. — Urine determinations — Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and 
neutral sulphur — Series TT— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

!N~o. 8. 



Period. 



So 



Results expressed in per 
cent of total sulphur 
in terms of S0 3 . 



55 ~ 



~2 



go 

.2 ■ 

c5 



Fore prriuiJ. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 

Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average , 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire preservative 
period: 

Total , 

Average 

After period. 

First subperiod': 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



Grants. 



3.988 



Grams. 

9.211 
1.843 



1.993 



Gram*. 

1. 558 

.312 



Grams. 
7. 653 
1.531 

8.019 
1.604 



Grams. 

0.938 

.188 

.940 
.188 



Grams. 
6.715 1:1.2 
1.343 



P.ct. 

16.9 



P.ct. 

83.1 



P.ct. 
10.2 



7.079 I 1:7.5 
1.416 



19.5 



.677 
,768 



19.169 3.497 15.672 
1.918 .351 \ 1.567 



1.878 
.188 



13.794 1:7. 
1.379 



18.2 



81.8 



3.411 
.688 



3. 610 
. 722 



.735 



3.731 
.746 



3. 827 
. 765 



3.949 
.790 



8. 592 
1.718 



9.014 
1.803 



9.176 
1.835 



9.318 
1.864 



9. 556 
1.910 



9.861 
1.973 



.981 
.196 


7.611 
1.522 


1.129 
.226 


7. 8S5 
1.577 


1.924 
.385 


7. 252 
1.450 



22.233 55.518 
.711 1.850 



1.574 
.315 



1. 665 
.332 



.278 



7.741 
1.549 



1.57 



8.473 
1.695 



.662 46.856 

,289 1.562 



4. 209 
.842 



1. 166 



s. ::75 



10. 510 


1.976 


2.102 


. 395 


10. 402 


1.61 i 


2.080 


. 322 



8.634 

1.707 



.907 
.181 



,922 
,184 



.17$ 



. 915 
.183 



,940 

,188 



.961 
.192 



6.704 
1.341 



6.963 
1. 393 



6. 360 
1.272 



1.366 



6.951 
1.390 



7.512 
1.503 



1:7.4 
1:7.6 
1:7.1 



1:7.5 
1:7.4 
1:7.8 



11.5 



12.6 
21.0 



16.9 
17.4 
14.1 



5.5:;: 41.319 
.185 1.377 



1:7.5 



.933 

. L87 



8.788 

L.768 .165 



20.912 
2. 092 



3. 690 



17.322 
L.732 



1 . 759 

.17.; 



7. til il 1:8.1 
1.520 



7.962 
1.593 



15.663 

1.556 



1:9. 



1:8.8 



15.6 



88.5 



10.2 



79.0 



9.7 



83.1 



82.6 



85. 



84 1 



18.7 
15.5 



17.2 



81.2 
84.5 



82. 



8.9 
7.9 



P.ct. 

72. S 



9.4 71.0 



10.6 78.0 



77.2 



73.3 



9. 8 72. 7 



9.7 76.2 



10.0 74.4 



72.3 

76. 5 



1 I 71.4 



7656— No. cS4, pt 2—06 7 



570 



[NFLTJENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table X. — Oriru determinations — Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and 
ru utral sulphur — Series VI — Continued. 



[Averages are per day.] 
ISTo. 9. 





/. 

1 

z 


w 

00 

7 
8 


i 

z 


5 

■ 

z 
H 


3 

J 

p. 6 

' E 


3 

V. 

- 

r. 
- 
P. 

io 

c X 

5 
a 


J. ~ 

~"B, 

j - 

— 5c 

= '- 

s§ 

-= 

r c do 

1 L 3. 
z =3 
■-— - 
- — j 

- 


Results expressed inner 

cent oi total sulphur 
in terms oi S( 1 


Period. 


H 


: 

DC 
1 


' 7 

T. 

£ g 

a ^ 

2 ft 


: 
' ■). 

■- - 

- i 

=z 


Fon period. 
Firsl subperiod: 

Total . 


Grams. 

4.(171 
. 93 1 

I.:>I7 
.909 


Oram*. 
11.663 

2. :;:;:; 

1 1 . 35 1 
2. 271 


Grams. 
0.939 

. 1 88 

.-Is 

.164 


Grams. 

10.721 
2. 1 It 

10.536 

2. 107 


Grams. 


drums 




P.ct. 

8.1 


P.ct. 

01.0 


/*. .7. 


/'.(7. 


Average 

Second subperiod: 
Total 

Average 








1.001 
.200 


9. :>3r> 

1.007 


1: 9.6 


7.2 




84.0 








Entire lore period: 
Total 


9.218 

. 922 


2:5. (117 
2.302 


1.757 
. L76 


2. 126 


1.001 

.2011 


9.535 1: 9.5 


7. 6 02. 1 


- - 




Average 


1.907 












Preservative period. 

Firsl Bubperiod: 
Total 


L948 

4.570 

. 91 I 

1.780 
. 956 

4.567 
.913 

l.i 172 
.814 

.-.it:; 


12.355 

2. 171 

11. Ill 
2. 282 

Q. 936 
2.387 

11. 104 
2.281 

lo. his 
2.034 

12. II.'. 
2. 1 9 


.881 
. 176 

1 . 255 
.251 

1. 194 
. 239 

1.2(10 
.210 

. 821 
. 164 

1.27.1 
.260 


11. 171 

in. 156 
2. 031 

10.712 
2.11s 

ln.201 
2.011 

9.347 
L.869 

10.894 

2. 17'.. 


10.54 

2. 1 1 

. 798 

. ltio 

.840 
. L68 

. 177 

.818 
.164 

. o 19 
L90 


lo. 120 
2.084 

1 . 872 


1: 0.0 


7.1 


02. 


- 


si. 1 


Average 

Second subperiod: 
Total 


1:11.7 


11.0 


89.0 


7.0 


82. 


Av< rage 

Third subperiod: 
Total 


9.902 
1.980 

9.818 
L864 


1:11.8 


10.0 


00. 


7.0 



88. 


Average 

Fourth subperiod .. 

Total 


1:10.:. 


10. .■> 




7.8 


81.7 


Average 

Fifth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


s. 529 

1.70(1 

9.945 

1 . 989 


l:lo. 1 


8. 1 


01.0 


Vii 


83.9 


1:10.7. 


lu.:; 


so. 7 


7.s 


sl.O 










Entire preservative 
period: 
Total 


27. Sill 
. '.127 


69. 119 
2.314 




62.817 
2.094 


. 178 


.".7.172 1:10.8 


o. :. 


oo. :. 


7.7 




Average 


1.916 















After period. 
Eirsl subperiod: 

'1 otal 


,916 


L0.849 

2.17(1 
II. 181 


.911 

. L82 

. '.'7 1 
. I'.M 


1.988 

in. 160 
2.090 


. 158 

.840 

. his 


o. no i:i i.e. 


8. 1 




7.:: 


84.8 


Average 

Second subperiod: 
Total 


L.880 

9.620 

1 . 92 1 






1:11 6 




91.5 




SI. 2 


.\\ erage 












Entire after period: 
i otal 






. L88 


2.010 


L.-629 


l.s77 


1 11... 


S. 1 


91.6 


7.3 



















SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



571 



Table X. — Urirn determinations — Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and 
neutral sulphur — Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 
3STo. lO. 



Period. 



Fort p< Hod. 

First subpftricxT: 

Total 

Average 

Second uubperiod: 

Total 

Average 



7. 


X 


~ 




— 


~ 
















Z 




H 


H 


fc 


Grams. 


Grams. 


Grams. 


4.215 


10. 525 


0. 977 


.843 


2. 105 


.195 


4.301 


10. 740 


1.562 


.860 


2. 148 


.312 



Grams. 

9. 548 
1.910 

9.178 
1.836 



"5 



Grams. Gram; 
0.712 8.836 1:12.4 
.142 1.76' 






Results expressed in per 
cent of total sulphur 
in terms of S0 3 . 



02 



P. c«. P. c*. 
9.3 90.7 



.835 8.313 1:10.0 14.5 85.5 7. S 77.7 
.167 1.669 



£.2 

v — 



P. ct. 






7'. cf. 
83. 9 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 


8.516 


21.265 
2. 126 


2.539 18.726 
. 254 1 . 873 


1.517 
.155 


17.179 
1. 718 


1:11.1 



11.9 


88. 1 


7.3 


80.8 


Preservative p< Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


3.997 9.981 1.015 
.7'.''.' 1.996 .->03 1.793 


. 869 

.174 


s. 097 
1.619. 

9.188 


1: 9.3 


10. 2 89. 8 


8.7 81.1 


Second subperiod : 
Total 


4.786 11.951 1.935 10.016 .828 


1:11.1 


16.2 83.8 


6. 9 76. 9 


Average 


.957 2.390 -387 2.003 .IC.fi 


1.838 

8.563 
1.713 

7.590 
1.518 

8. 050 
1.610 

7.661 

1 . 532 








Third subperiod: 
Total 


1.073 10.170 

.sir, 2.034 

4.264 10.647 


. 690 9. 480 
.138 1.896 

2.236 8.411 
.447 L.682 

1.422 8.903 
.284 L.781 

1.411 8.412 
.282 1.682 


.917 
. 183 

.821 

.161 

- 
.171 

. 751 
. 150 


1: 9.3 


6. 8 93. 2 


9.0 


84.2 






Fourth subperiod: 
Total 


1 : 9. 2 


21.0 79.D 7.7 


71.3 


Average 


.853 2.129 




Fifth subperiod: 
Total 


4.135 10.325 

. S27 2. 065 

3.934 9.823 
.787 1.965 


1 : 9. 1 


13.8 86.2 8.3 


77. 9 


Average 




Six tli subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


1:10.2 


14.4 85.6 7.6 


78. 


Fnt ire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 

After pt Hod. 

Firsl subperiod: a 
Total 










25. L89 
.840 


62. 897 
2. 097 


8. 709 51.1 ss 
. 290 1 . 806 


5. (139 
.168 


49.149 

1.638 


1: 9.8 


13. s 86.2 


-.0 


7s. 2 












i. 033 in. 070 
.807 2.014 


1.330 8.740 
.266 1.7 is 


.717 
. 1 19 


7 993 1-10 7 


13.2 




7. 1 


T'» 1 


Average 


1 . 599 




















"Sick in Becond Bubperiod. 



572 



I^FLUE^CE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES 0>~ HEALTH. 



Table X. — Uri Ratio of preformed wulphaL 

neutral sulphur— & I Y— Continued. 

. - re pex day.] 

No. 11. 





7 


DO 
■r 

7 

5 


X 

■ 
■— 

a 
- 
z 


1 

t 

■- 

10.510 
'. Kr> 


■ 

■S 

2 


■ 

r. 


— 5 

— u 


Results expressed in per 
cent - :!phur 
in terni-. ol - 


Pt-r 


% X 5 

§ = ~ 7 


a _ 

■ 

C '— 
I p, 


■J. 

- 


3 - 

• 7- 

m 

Z 9 

3 .a 

M — 


~ z 

rS. 

~ z 
— 


ibperiod: 

Total 

Average 


3 

-' 
1.065 


11.668 

2.334 

- " 


. 
1.168 

. ill 


0.563 
.113 

.583 
.117 


Gram*. 

1 

1.989 

11.186 


P.ct 

1:17.7 9.9 


p.cf. 

9U.1 




P.ct. 

■ 


Second BuBperiod: 

Total 

Average 


1.529 11.768 
. 306 2. 354 


1:19.2 11.6 - 


4.4 


84.1 




Kritirt- fore j 

Total 

Average 


LO00 


■1. 497 


1. 2U 


1.146 
.115 


21.13-2 
2.113 


1:18.4 10.8 


4 6 M.6 






period. 

First Bobperiod: 

: 


.920 
4. 061 


11.124 
11. 191 


.942 12.714 

• 

1.643 11.686 
.330 

.445 10.679 
2 186 

1.299 10.198 
11.204 

10.291 

2.058 


.673 

.135 

.517 

.103 

-- 
. 126 

..563 
.113 

.119 

.613 
. 128 


12.041 

11 169 

2 _ , 

10.051 
2 010 

1 . 927 

10.607 
2, 122 

9.678 


1:17.9 


6.9 


93.1 




n . 


: subperiod: 

1 

Average 

Third sabperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth snbperiod: 

tal 



Fifth subjx-riod: 

Total 



subperiod: 

Total 




1 21.6 






3.9 


83.8 


1:16.0 




96.0 






117.1 


11.3 


H 3 


4.9 - - 


1.17 - 


10.6 






- 


11.6 


88.4 


- . 










Entire preservative 

lod: 

I 














2 106 


1:17.6 


9.4 


90.6 














fod. 
ibperiod: 

:l 


.'.'71 
1.780 


[2.120 
LI. 986 


2 604 


9.616 
2. 142 


. 101 

.106 


in. 184 


1:17.8 




79.3 




7.'.. 1 




• riod: 

;i 






10.8 




i. I 




















BnUre aftei | 












l MS 

I'M 





















SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



573 



Table X. — Urine determinations — Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and 
neutral sulphur — Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. IS. 





A 

~ 

x 

1 

c 


d 

co 

X 

3 

u 

s 

A 

3 
cc 

«J 

H 


O 
cc 

X 

<£ 
u 

xi 
p. 



X 

"3 

«- 

r 
- 
ft 


o 

o 

H 


3 
"3 

"go 

o 
o 


X 

jS 

X 

O 

"3 

So 

-.CO 

a 

c 

a 


_1 o 
_ be 

? 9 

©+» a 

■H r "3 

- -- 

23 

5 


Results expressed as per 
cent of total sulphur 
in terras of S0 3 . 


Period. 


x X 

"3 ~ 

P 


C 
cc 

O 

H 


x X 
X 

•3- 

11 
W ft 


- X 

P 
li 

S p. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 
Total 


Grams. Grams. 
5.166 12.900 


Grams. 
1.418 


Grams. 

1 1 . 4S'> 


Grams. 

0. 927 
.185 

.976 
.195 


Grams. 
10. 555 
2.111 

9.511 
1 902 


P. c*. 

1:11.4 11.0 


P.ct. 
89.0 


P.ct. 
7.2 


P. r/. 
81.8 


Average 

Second subperiod: 
Total 


1.033 

4.918 
.984 


2.579 

12. 280 
2.457 


. 283 2. 296 

1.793 10.487 
. 360 2. 097 




1: 9.7 14.6 


85.4 


7.9 


77 5 


Average 














Entire fore period: 
Total 


10.084 
1.008 


25. 180 
2 517 


3.211 \ 21.969 1.903 
.320 1 2. 197 


20. 066 
2.007 

8. 839 

1. 768 

10. 4*5 

2. 097 

9.817 
1.964 

9. 73S 
1.948 

10.331 
2. 066 

10 011 


1:10.5 


12.8 


87. 2 


7.6 


79.7 


Average 














8 5 






Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 
Total 


4.236 

.847 

5 129 
1.026 

4.906 
.981 

4. 734 
.947 

5. 173 
1 035 

4.973 
.995 


10. 577 
2.115 

12 S07 
2.562 

12.250 
2. 450 

11.821 
2.365 

12.917 
2.684 

12.418 
2 185 


.894 

.17s 

1.443 


9. 683 

1.937 

11 364 


.S44 
. 169 

.S79 
.176 

.952 
.190 

587 

.177 

.948 
.190 

1.081 


1:10.5 


91.5 


7.9 


83.6 






Second subperiod: 
Total 


1.11.9 


11 3 


-.7 


6.8 


81.9 




.289 2 273 

1.481 10.769 
296 2.154 

1. 196 10.628 




Third subperiod: 
Total 


1:10.3 


12.1 


87. 9 


7.8 


80.1 


Average 

Fourth subperiod: 
Total 




1:11.0 


10 1 


89. 9 


7.5 


82, 4 




.240 


2. 125 




.Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 
Total 


1. 638 
. 328 

1.326 

•>tw 


11 279 
2. 266 

11 092 

2 21S 


1:10.9 


12.7 


87. S 


7.3 


80. 


1: 9.3 


10.7 


89. 3 


8.7 


SO. 6 


Average 


>u; •> 00> 


















Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 


29. 151 

.972 


72. 790 7. 978 
2. 427 . 2(17 


61 812 5.591 59.221 
2.160 .186 1.974 


1:10.6 


11.0 


89. 


7 7 


81.4 














After period. 

First subperiod: 
Total 


I 999 
1.000 

... 164 
1 . 088 


12 (83 1.460 
2 197 .292 

12.895 1.574 
2.579 .315 


11.023 
2. 206 

11.321 
2. 264 


.907 
. L81 

.s7l 
. 174 


10.116 
2. 02 1 

10. 450 
2.090 


1:11.2 


11.7 




7.3 


81.0 






Second bud period: 

Total 

Average 


1:12.0 


12.2 


B7.8 


6.S 


S1.0 














Entire after period: 
Total 


10. 168 

1.016 


26. :;77 
2.687 


3. OSS 


22. 34 1 
2. 234 


1.778 
. L78 


20. 660 

2. 056 


1:11.6 


12.0 


88,0 


7.0 


S1.0 





















574 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVE ON HEALTH. 



Table X. — Urine determinations — Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and 
neutral sulphur — Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per man per day.] 
Summary for nine men. 







O 

DC 
/. 

7 




6 

■j. 

ft 

X 

■— 

s 


Total S0 3 . 


3 
- 

2 

S 
i 


/ 
- 
j 
53 

- 
_£- 

t : 




= '- 

J ~ 

- & 
g = 

- z a 

■-> - U 

- - = 


Results expressed in per 

eelll of total SUlphur 
in term- ol 30 


Period. 




CO 

z 


/. 
■j. 

I I 

-- — 


- j 
; 

_ ir. 

it 


Fbrt j» Hod. 

First subperiod: 
Total 


Grams. 

10. 242 
.894 

39. 1ST 

. NTS 


Grams. 
LOO. 185 

2. 2:53 

98. 598 

2. 191 


drains. 
L2.462 

. 277 

10.915 


Grams. 

L.956 

87. fiSS 


Grams. 

7.163 

. 159 

7.549 

. ins 


Grams. 

80.860 

L.797 

so. i:;i 
l.7si 


1:11.3 


P.ct. 

12. 1 


P. Ct. 


P. ct. 

7.1 




Average 

Second snbperiod: 
Total 




l:lo.6 


11.1 


sa '•• 


_ _ 


SI 'A 


Average 


,243 1.949 












Entire fore period: 
Total 


7 ( J. 729 


L99.083 

2.212 


23. 377 
.260 


L75.706 

1.952 


11.712 
.163 


L60.994 
1.789 


1:10.9 


11.7 




7.4 


80 '.l 




.887 










1:10.1 








Preservalivt period. 

First Bubperiod: 

Total . 


38.571 

. 857 

41.073 
.913 

39.750 

10*123 

. 892 

41.301 


96.311 

2. 1 10 

L02.560 
2. 279 

99. 256 
2.206 

LOO. L87 
2. 226 

L08. 128 


9. 185 

.211 

L2.304 

.27:; 

11.719 
. 260 

11.210 
. 2 19 

1 1 . 59 1 
. 258 

19.517 

. i:;i 


86.826 

1 . 929 

90.256 
2.006 

87. 537 

1.91.". 

88. 977 
L.977 

91.534 
2.084 

90.082 

2.(102 


7. sol 
.17:; 

7.271 
. 162 

7.607 
.169 

7. H5 

. 1 1;.". 

7.761 


79.025 
L.756 

82. 982 

1 . s | 1 

79. 930 
1.776 

81.562 
L.812 

88. 770 


9.8 


90. 2 


v 1 


82 1 


Average 

Second snbperiod: 
Total 




1:11.1 


12.0 


88.0 


7.1 


SO. 9 


Average 

Third Bubperiod: 
Total 

Average 

Fourth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth Bubperiod: 

Total 




l:lii.5 


11.8 


B8.2 


7.7 




1:11.0 


11.2 


38 3 


7. 1 


81. 1 


L:10.8 


11.2 




7.5 SI. 2 


Average 

Sixth Bubperiod: 
Total 


,918 


.17:; L.862 

8.287 81.795 
.184 L.818 




13.892 

. 976 


L09.599 
2. L36 


1: \KW 


17.8 


82. 2 


7.C. 71.6 


Average 








Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 


211.710 


611.041 


7.".. 829 
.281 


535.212 

l , 982 


L6.148 L89.064 
.171 L.8U 


L:10.6 12.4 


87.6 


7.6 


VI). || 


a \ erage 


.906 2.268 










After period. 

l-'i r- 1 Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 


ll.nil 
,911 

12. 176 
,987 


L02. II:: 
2. 276 

L05.8J i 


L4.788 
.829 

.802 


87.625 
L.947 

91.738 
2.089 


7. Ill 
. lc;. 

7.373 

. 16 1 


80.211 

1 . 782 

l . B75 


L:10.8 


1 1. 1 




7.2 




1:11. 1 



12.9 





7.0 


80. 1 


Entire niter period 

Total 

Average 




207. 727 


28. 869 




14.787 
. L64 




1:11.1 


18.7 


7.1 79.2 









MICROSCOPICAL EXAMINATION OF THE URINE. 

In <ji\ in.!2' ill*- results of the microscopical examination of the urine 
(Table XI) the numerals are used to express approximately the fre- 
quency wit 1 1 which the various bodies named occur and have the fol- 
lowing significance: None, 0; verj few, I; few, 2; fairly numerous, 3; 
numerous, I: extremely numerous, 5. 

The dates given in the table represent (he days <>n which the exami- 
nations were made, only one sample having been taken for each indi- 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 575 

vidua 1 during the time specified. Each sample represented the urine 
collected during the twenty-four hours preceding its examination. 
The difficulty in keeping the sample and the time necessary for its 
examination made this method of procedure necessary. 

DISCUSSION OF OBSERVATIONS. 

Uric acid crystals and urates. — No cn r stals of uric acid were found 
during the observations, with the exception of one instance during the 
preservative period in the case of No. 9, when very few are recorded. 
Urates were also absent throughout the tests. 

Crystals of calcium oxalate. — These crystals were found in all cases. 
In the case of No. 1 they were numerous in one instance in the after 
period; in the case of No. 2 they were numerous in two instances, 
once during the preservative period and once during the after period, 
and in the case of No. 11 they were found to be numerous once during 
the preservative period. The relative occurrence of these crystals 
during the three periods (determined b} T dividing the total for each 
period by the number of observations and multiplying by 100) indi- 
cates a marked tendency on the part of the preservative to increase the 
calcium oxalate crystals in the urine, and this tendency is continued 
to a more marked degree in the after period, the figures being ttl.7 for 
the fore period, 85. tt for the preservative period, and 91.3 for the 
after period. 

Crystalline phosphates. — No crystalline phosphates were present in 
the cases of Nos. 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, and in three other cases, namel} x , 
Nos. 3, -1, and 12, only a very- few were present in one or two instances. 
Nos. 1, 2, and 11 showed the largest numbers present, and they occurred 
principally in the preservative period, being numerous in one instance 
in the case of No. 1. extremely numerous in the case of No. 2, and 
fairly numerous in the case of No. 11. The figures giving the relative 
occurrence show a very slight increase during the preservative period, 
and a marked decrease in the after period, the figures for the three 
periods being 50, 52.1, and 39.1, respectively. 

Amorphous phosphates, —^o amorphous phosphate- were found in 
the cases of Nos. 5, (>, 7, 8, 9, and 12. The report for No. 1 shows 
that they were numerous in the fore period and at the first three 
examinations of the preservative period, were not present at all in the 
last observation of that period and the first one of the after period, 
but were extremely numerous at the last examination. Nos. 2 and 3 
have no amorphous phosphates present in the fore and after periods, 
and only a very few at one observation of the preservative period. 

The report for No. 4 shows that they were fairly numerous in the fore 
period and were not again present. In the case <>f No. 1«> they were 
numerous in the fore period and at the first observation in the pre- 
servative period, and did not appear again. In the case of No. 11 
they did not occur until the after period, when the two observations 



576 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 

showed them to be numerous and extremely numerous. The figures 
for the relative occurrence by periods would indicate a considerable 
reduction of these bodies during the preservative period, with an 
increase in the after period; but it must be remembered that these 
figures are used as representative in a general way of the nias^ expres- 
sion of a condition and are not mathematically exact. In this case the 
individual variations do not seem to bear out the conclusion suggested 
by the average — certainly not to the extent indicated. 

Epithelium cells. — These bodies were present in all cases, a few 
being present in the majority of observations, and occurring uniformly 
throughout the fore period except in the case of No. 12, where very 
few were indicated. During the preservative period the record for 
No. 2 shows numerous cells present in one observation, and in the 
other three examinations tiny were fairly numerous; in the case of 
No. G they were fairly numerous in one instance and a few were 
present at each of the other examinations. In the after period Nos. 2 
and (J continued to show the largest number present, one examination 
showing the cells to be numerous and one few in both cases. The 
figures on the relative occurrence in the three periods show that the 
number of epithelium cells present decreased during the preservative 
period and increased again to almost the same number as were present 
in the fore period after the preservative was withdrawn. The changes. 
however, were comparatively small, the figures reading 191.7, L83.3, 
and L91.3 for the fore, preservative, and after periods, respectively. 

Leucocytes. — Leucocytes were present in the urine in all cases and 
at all observations with the exception of one in the fore period of No. 
1 2 and the firsl observation of the preservative period of Nos. 2 and 1<>. 
In the large majority of cases few were reported, and they were fairly 
numerous only in one case, the last observation of the preservative 
period for NO. 6. The figures for the relative occurrence show a 

decided tendency to increase the presence <>f these bodies during the 
preservative period, with a slight decrease in the after period. 

Red blood Cells. - No red blood cells were found at any time during 

the experiment. 

HyaUm casts. The hyaline casts are present in greater numbers 
than any of the other forms of casts observed. There are only three 

cases, however, in which more than a few are reported, namely. No. 
'2. one case reported fairly numerous In the after period; No. <*>. one 

case numerous in the after period; and No. 9, one case reported numer- 
ous :it the close of the preservative period. In the case of No. 8 they 

were not present at all at four of the examinations, and for Nos. 2, <>. 
7. and '.♦ they are reported at each observation. The figures on the 
relative occurrence indicate a decided increase of these easts during 

tin- preservative p<'ii<>d and a slight continued increase dining the 

after period. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 577 

Fiirhj granular cast*. — The finely granular casts were present to a 
much less extent than the hyaline casts, and the figures for relative 
occurrence, namely, 83.3, 56.3, and 39.1, indicate a continued decrease 
throughout the experiment. In the case of No. 3 they were not found 
at all. and in the case of No. 11 only once, when a very few are reported; 
for Nos. 7 and 10 very few were reported twice, and for Nos. 4, 8, 
and 12 three times. In only one instance, during the fore period of 
No. 1, were more than a few casts reported. 

Ooarsdy granular casts. — These casts occur to a still less extent than 
the finely granular, as indicated by the figures for relative occurrence: 
Fore period, 41.7; preservative period, 35. 4, and after period, 39.1. 
These figures show a slight tendency for the casts to decrease during 
the preservative period and increase in the after period. The individ- 
ual figures show that these bodies did not occur at all in the case of 
Nos. 5, 10, 11, and 12, and were present to the greatest extent in the 
cases of Nos. 1, 2, and 9. 

Epithelial casts. — Epithelial casts were reported in only one instance, 
very few being observed in the case of No. 8 in the preservative period. 
Other forms of casts were reported also in one instance, namely, a 
report of very few in the case of No. 8 during the preservative period. 

Mucous cyluid raids. — These bodies were found for all individuals 
and at every observation taken. They were present to the greatest 
extent in the case of No. 6, being numerous throughout the preserva- 
tive period and extremely numerous in the after period; only a few 
are reported in the fore period. Only in the cases of Nos. 5 and 7 are 
tiny reported as numerous, a few or a very few being reported in the 
other cases. The average figures given indicate a decided increase of 
these bodies in the preservative period and a slight decrease in the 
after period. 

Mucous strands. — The presence of mucous strands was marked in 
all eases and in the cases of Nos. 6 and 7 they are recorded as being 
numerous or extremely numerous at every examination. The aver- 
ages show the prevalence of this condition, being 183.3 for the fore 
period, 220. S for the preservative period, and 243.5 for the after period, 
the increase in the after period being greater than in the preservative 
period. 

GENERAL CONCLUSION. 

A general view of the microscopical examination of the urine show < 
many instances in which the specific effects observed can be attributed 
to the exhibition of the preservative. 

The fact that the data as expressed by the figures represent only 
approximations must he remembered in reading the text on the tables, 
and also that the variations are evidently great from day to day ami 
only a comparatively small Dumber of observations were made. It i- 



578 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



not possible therefore on the basis of the data submitted to infer more 
than that there is apparently a tendency on the part of the preserva- 
tive to increase the number of these microscopic bodies appearing in 
the urine, about in the proportion indicated by the general summan , 
which shows a relative abundance of 68.3 for the fore period, 7s.:! for 
the preservative period, and IVA for the after period. 

Table XI. — Microscopical examination <>f tlie urine } Series IT. 
[None, 0; very few, l; few, 2; fairly numerous, 3; numerous, i: extremely numerous, 5.] 

URIC-ACID CRYSTALS. 



N<». 


Fore 

period. 


Preservative period. 


After period. 


Oct. 21-22. 


Oct. 29-31. 


Nov.5-9. 


Nov. 12-11 


Nov. L9-23 


Nov. 28 

1'ee. 1. 




1 









(1 






























II 



II 















1) 








(1 
o 
I) 



11 





•> 



o 





;i 





1 




(1 




I) 

1 





I) 





(1 










o 


<;. .. 










8 





9 





10 




11 


o ; o 

(1 





12 











Total 






| 1 I 








Relative occurrence 


2.1 







URATES. 


1 






1) 




:: 

















(1 
1) 
t) 

(1 








(1 



II 



II 
I) 






II 









t) 



(1 



II 
II 





2 




(1 









II 
I) 








(1 




II 



(1 
(1 





:i 

1 





II 


6 






8 

9 






In 




11 





12 









Total 




II 











I) 





Relative occurrence 


(1 


I) 




CAU 


•II M OXALATE CRYSTALS. 






l 

2 




\\ 



•1 

II 
II 
II 
II 
•I 




II 




1 

1 
(I 




1 

2 
2 

i' 


1 
1 



1 

1 



1 


2 


1) 


2 

1 
1 
1 
1 




1 

1 











1 
1 
1 

2 

II 


1 

2 
2 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 



II 


1 
tl 




6 

6 


II 
(1 




7 

x 



10 

1 


II 
II 
1 







1 






Total 


11.7 


12 


8 


14 


7 


14 I 7 


Relath e occui pel c 


B . i 




91.8 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



579 



Table XI. — Microscopical examination of the urine, Series TY— Continued. 

[None, 0; very few, 1; few, 2; fairly .numerous, 3; numerous, 4; extremely numerous, 5.] 

CRYSTALLINE PHOSPHATES. 



No. 



Fore 
period. 



Oct. 21-22. 



Preservative period. 



Oct. 29-31. Nov. 5-9. Nov. 12-14. Nov. 19-21. 



After period. 



Nov. 28- 
Dec. 1. 



Dec. 3-5. 



Total 


6 

50.0 


6 


9 , 


9 


1 


4 , 


Relative occurrence 


52.1 


39.1 



AMORPHOUS PHOSPHATES. 



4 


4 


4 


4 








5 














1 














1 














3 






























































o 






























































4 



4 


















4 




5 























11 
91.7 


8 


5 


4 


1 


4 


10 




3 


7. 5 




6C 


.9 



EPITHELIUM CELLS. 



2 : 

3 

i 


2 
"2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
'•2 
2 
2 
1 


1 
o3 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


1 
«3 
2 
2 
1 
"3 
2 
2 
1 
1 
2 
1 


2 a 2 

«4 «3 

2 1 

2 1 

2 2 

a 2 a 2 

a 2 2 

1 2 
o2 2 


2 
«4 
2 
1 
2 

<T2 

1 
1 

1 


2 
o2 










8... 




y 




10 


2 2 2 

1 2 2 




11 





12 


2 " " 2 2 






Total 


23 
191.7 


20 21 


•>4 •>•-! •>•> •».» 






Relative occurrence 


L88.8 


L91.8 



«« Some in sheets. 



580 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XI. — Microscopical examination of the urine, Series VI — Continued. 
[None, 0; very few, 1 ; few, 2: fairly numerous, 3; numerous, 4; extremely numerous, 5.] 

LEUCOCYTES. 



No. 


Fore 
period. 


Preservative period. 




After period. 


Oct. 21-2-2. 


Oct. 29-31. 


Nov. 5-9. 


Nov. 12-14. 


Nov. 19-21. 


Nov. 28- 
Dec. 1. 


Dec. 3-5. 


1 


1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 



1 

1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 

2 
1 


1 
1 
1 

1 
2 


2 
2 
1 
2 
2 


2 
2 
1 
2 
2 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 


1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


1 


2 


2 


3 


1 


4 


1 


5 


2 


6... 


2 


2 


7 


(i 2 
2 
2 
1 
2 


3 
2 
2 
2 

2 


2 


8 


2 


9 


2 


10 




11 


2 1 


1 


12 


2 2 


1 1 ; 2 






Total 


13 
108.3 


17 


19 24 


23 M 1 18 








Relative occurrence 


172. 9 




100. 9 



RED BLOOD CELLS. 



1 












































oooooooooooo 

































2 





3 





4 





5.... 





G 


o. 


7 





8 





9 





10... 




11 





12 









Total 




























Relative occurrence 













D 



HYALINE CASTS. 



1 


2 

1 




2 

2 

1 
1 
1 
1 






1 
1 


1 
2 
2 
1 
1 

2 

1 
1 



2 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

2 

1 
1 


2 
2 

1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 


2 
2 
1 

1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
•> 

9 

2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


:i . . . 





4 


2 


6 


2 


o 


4 


7 


1 


8 • 


1 


9 . . 




10 




11... 


1 


12... 


■• 






Total 


11 

91.7 


13 


11 


20 


20 


13 


19 






Relative occurrence 




13 


T.3 




13 


i. 1 



".-.Hue in sheet*. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



581 



Table XI. — Microscopical examination of the urine, Series VI— Continued. 

[None, 0; very few, 1; few, 2; fairly numerous, 3; numerous, 4; extremely numerous, 5.] 

FINELY GRANULAR CASTS. 



No. 


Fore 
period. 


Preservative period. 


After period. 


Oct. 21-22. 


Oct. 29-31. Nov. 5-9. 


Nov. 12-14. 


Nov. 19-21. 


Nov. 28- 
Dec.l. 


Dec. 3-5. 


1 


3 







1 
1 


1 
1 






1 
1 







1 
1 



1 


1 


2 


1 


1 
1 
2 
1 

1 





2 


3 


o 1 


4 





5 


1 


6 


j 1 



1 1 
1 1 


1 2 


7 


o 1 


8 





9 


1 


10 


| 1 





11 





1 





12 


1 i 1 


'< 






Total 


10 
83.3 


11 4 7 


5 


4 5 


Relative occurrence 


56.3 




39.1 



COARSELY GRANULAR CASTS. 



CASTS, EPITHELIAL. 



1 


3 
1 




1 









1 
1 



2 
1 


1 









o° 





1 



1 






•1 
2 
1 
1 

2 

1 







1 














1 





1 











2 





3 

4 


? 


5 





6 


4 







8 





9 


1 


10 




11 





12 









Total 

Relative occurrence 


5 
41.7 


G 


2 
3 


8 
5.4 


1 


3 1 6 
39.1 



1 

2 



































ooooo 










3 


o 




4 


5... 





('»... 


00.-IOC 
OOOOO 





7 ■ 





8 





9 





10 





11 





'0 


12 












Total 


n I 1 . 









Relative occurrence 


11 






582 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XI. — Microscopical examination of the urine, Series VI — Continued. 

[None, 0: very few, 1: few, 2; fairly numerous, 8; numerous, 4; extremely numerous, 5.] 
OTHER FORMS OF CASTS. 





Fore 
period. 




Preservative period. 




After period. 


No. 






























Oct. 21-22. 


Oct. 29-31. 


Nov. 5-9. 


Nov.l-.Ml. 


Nov. 19-21. 


Nov.28- 
Dec.l. 


Dec. 3-6. 


1 








o 














2 























3 























1 























5 























6 























j 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


8 











1 











9 























10 






















11 























12 




















Total 






o 














Relative occurrence 




2.1 








MUCOUS CYLINDROIDS. 



MITCH'S STRANDS. 



1 


2 

1 
1 
1 
8 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


2 
2 


2 

1 
1 
1 
4 
4 
2 
2 
2 
1 
2 
2 


2 
2 

1 
1 
2 
4 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
2 


2 
2 

1 
1 

2 
1 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


2 
2 

1 
1 
2 
5 

2 
1 
1 
1 
2 


2 


2 


2 


S . 


1 


4 


2 


5 


2 


(•)... 


;. 


7 ... 


2 


s 


l 


9 


l 


10... 




11 


•» 


12 


l 




Total 






17 

141.7 


22 


24 


22 


24 


22 


21 




itive occurrence 




Sell 




19 


1.7 




is" 


.0 



1 




1 
3 



1 


1 
■ 

5 
I 

2 
1 

8 

2 


i 

2 


1 
2 
■ 

5 

1 
2 
2 
2 
2 


1 
1 
1 
1 

2 
• 
1 

2 
2 
1 
1 


i 

2 
2 
2 
2 
■ 

1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


1 


2 


3 


:>, 


1 


4 


2 




2 


6 


• 


7 

8 


l 
2 


9 


2 


in 




11 


1 


12 


2 






Total 


22 

1-.:..; 


22 


•29 






80 


31 


25 


Relative occurrence 




220. S 






21 


i.5 


General summary 

Relative occurrence 


128 




;h; i 






27 
7 


1 
1 I 



METABOLIC PROCESSES. 

Having discussed the general chemical characteristics of the excreta 
in the preceding pages, we now turn to consider a special study of the 
metabolic processes. To this end the relative quantities of the 
different food elements invested and those recovered m the excretions 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 583 

have been tabulated in such a way as to determine the effect, if any, 
of the added preservative upon the metabolic activities. 

By reason of the imperfections 1 of the data of Nos. 3, 9, and 10 it 
has not been possible to consider the results obtained on these men in 
the general discussion. In order, however, that none of the data 
obtained may escape record, the analytical results have been tabulated 
and appear in the regular order for these three men. It is not likely 
in any case that, starting out with twelve men it will be possible to 
complete a study of this kind without the loss of some of the data. 
The figures for the three men which are excluded, had they been 
included in the general discussion, would not have changed to an} T 
appreciable extent the general results. 

This general statement is made to cover all of the data recorded 
here for the stud} r of the metabolic processes. The data collected 
relating to nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and sulphur are by far the most 
important as respects metabolic activities. In addition thereto, the 
balances and other data for fat, calories, and total solids have been 
appended. These are of less value, but probably will help to throw 
some light upon the general course of the investigation. 

NITROGEN BALANCE. 

INDIVIDUAL DATA. 

The nitrogen balances are given in Table XIII (pp. 592 to 604) by 
periods and subperiods instead of by days, as in the case of the borax 
experiment. The same system having been followed as before, the 
repetition of the detail seemed cumbersome and unnecessary. Each 
subperiod covers five days, the exact dates being given in Table 1 
(p. 481). The amount of nitrogen ingested, the amounts excreted in the 
feces and the urine, and the total amount excreted arc expressed both 
in grams and in percentage, the balance being given in grams. For 
example, during the first subperiod of the fore period, extending over 
live days, the total nitrogen exhibited in the food of No. 1 is 71. 56 grams, 
an average of 14.31 grams per day. The total nitrogen excreted in the 
feces covering this period is 3.76 grams, an average of 0.75 gram per 
day. The total nitrogen excreted in the urine during this period is y.KS?> 
grams, an average of 1 1.1*7 grams per day. The total nitrogen excreted 
during the period in the feces and urine is 63.59 grams, an average of 
12.72 grams per day. The total balance for the subperiod is 7.!>T 
grams, an average of L.59 grams per day. The total percentage of 
nitrogen excreted in the feces is 5.25 and in the urine 83.61, and the 
total percentage of nitrogen excreted in both is 88.86, The totals and 
averages for each period and subperiod are presented in the same 
way. This explanation will sufficiently illustrate the principle on 
which the tables are constructed. 



584 IXlLl'KNc K OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

No. 1. 

The total nitrogen exhibited in the food of No. 1 in the fore period 
is L47.56 grams, an average of 14.7t> grams per day. Of this nitrogen 
±.66 per cent is excreted in the feces and 86.62 per cent in the urine. 
and the total excreted in the feces and urine is 91.28 per cent. The 
average daily balance during the period is +1.29 grams. 

For the whole preservative period the total quantity of nitrogen 
exhibited in the food is 43o.l<; grams, an average daily quantity of 
14.54 grams. Of this quantity 18.42 grams are excreted in the feces 
and 418. 98 grams in the urine; 4.22 per cent of the total amount 
excreted is found in the feces and 96,06 per cent in the urine. The 
nitrogen balance becomes a negative quantity, —0.04 gram per day. 
During the after period the quantity of nitrogen given in the food is 
140.08 grams, or 14.61 grams per day. Of this quantity 6.31 percent 
of nitrogen is excreted in the feces and 96. 10 per cent in the urine, 
again showing a balance of —0.36 gram per day. In the case of No. 1 
it is evident that the effect of the administration of the salicylic acid 
w&a to increase the metabolism of nitrogen. Not only was the quan- 
tity excreted in the feces diminished during the preservative period, 
but the quantity excreted in the urine was very greatly increased. 
During the after period the quantit3 T of nonmetabolized nitrogen, that 
is, that appearing in the feces, was very largely increased, and the 
quantity of nitrogen in the urine was slightly increased. In the ease 
of No. 1, therefore, a distinct influence is manifested on (he part of 
the preservative to increase the output of nitrogen, especially of the 
metabolized nitrogen. 

No. .'. 

The total quantity of nitrogen exhibited during the fore period in 
the case «>f NO. 2 is 16-kTo grams, an average of L6.47 grams per day; 
10.29 per cent of the nitrogen appeared in the feces and !>.*>. 76 per 
cent in the urine. The nitrogen balance is - 1 gram per day, which 
represents an abnormal condition due to some cause not revealed in 
the analytical data. During the preservative period the total quantity 
of nitrogen exhibited in the food is492.85 grams, with a daily average 
of 16.43 grams. The percentage of nitrogen excreted in the feces is 
8.92; in the mine, 91.65, and the nitrogen balance isa negative quan- 
tity of 0.09. During the after period the total quantity of nitrogen 
exhibited in the food i- L64.84 grams, with a daily average of L6.48 
grams; 8.04 per cent of nitrogen is excreted in the (wes and ( X>.7s 
per cenl in the urine. The nitrogen balance i-- agi in a negative quan- 
tity, equivalent t<> '».<n gram per day. Thedata in the case of No. 

2 a- in the case of No; L, show the influence of the preservative in 

increasing the excretion of nitrogen, if we exclude from consideration 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 585 

the first fore subperiod, in which some abnormality is shown to exist, 
and this influence, as in the first instance, is continued during the 
after period. 

No. 3. 

Owing to illness No. 3 had only a partial fore period, and this was 
taken at the beginning of the preservative period for the other men, 
extending from October 29 to November 2, inclusive. During this 
period the total quantity of nitrogen exhibited in the food is 72.58 
grams, with an average of 14.52 grams per day; 7.38 per cent of the 
nitrogen exhibited is excreted in the feces and 87.06 per cent in the 
urine. The daily nitrogen balance is 0.81 grams. During the pre- 
servative period, extending from November 3 to 27, inclusive, five days 
less than in the other cases, the total quantity of nitrogen exhibited 
in the food is 369.08 grams, an equivalent of 14.76 grams per day. 
The percentage of nitrogen excreted in the feces is 7.62 and in the 
urine 76.20. The excretion of nitrogen in this case is strongly inhibited 
and the nitrogen balance becomes very largely positive, reaching the 
very large amount of 2.39 grams per day. The after period in the 
case of No. 3 was again interrupted by illness, and covers only five 
days, therefore it is not comparable. It is evident that the data in 
the case of No. 3 are wholly useless for comparison by reason of 
interruption of the observations by illness both at the beginning and 
close of the investigations. 

No. 4. 

During the fore period the quantity of nitrogen exhibited in the 
food of No. 1 is 157.10 grams, equivalent to 15.71 grams per day. 
Of this quantity, 6.86 per cent is excreted in the feces and 92.76 per 
cent in the urine. The nitrogen balance is positive, but of very small 
magnitude, amounting to 0.06 gram per day. During the preserva- 
tive period the total quantity of nitrogen exhibited in the food is 
468.11 grams, amounting to 15.60 grams per day. Of this quantity, 
6.75 per cent is excreted in the feces and 90.42 per cent in the urine. 
The nitrogen balance lias been considerably increased in magnitude 
and remains positive, amounting to 0.41 gram per day. During the 
after period the amount of nitrogen exhibited in the food is K>7.7t* 
grams, equivalent to L5.78 grams per day. Of this quantity, 6.43 per 
cent is excreted m tin- feces and !e_\s:i per cent in the urine. The 
nitrogen balance remains positive, but i- diminished in magnitude, 
amounting to only 0.12 gram per day. The data in this case are in 
general contrary to those of cases 1 and 2. The indications here art 4 
that the action of the preservative serves to inhibit to a certain extent 
the excretion of the nitrogen, thus increasing the magnitude of the 
positive balance. 

7656— No. 84, pt 2—06 8 



586 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PEESEBVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

X<>. 5. 

During the fore period the quantity of nitrogen exhibited in the 
food of No. 5 is 158.70 grams, amounting to 15.87 grams per day. 
Of this quantity, 8.90 per cent is excreted in the feces and 82.79 per 
< cut in the urine. The nitrogen balance is strongly positive, amount- 
ing to 1.32 grams per day. During the preservative period the total 
quantity of nitrogen exhibited in the food is 475.86 grams, amounting 
to 15.86 grams per day. The percentage excreted in the feces is 7.o2 
and in the urine 87.48. The nitrogen balance remains positive, but is 
diminished in magnitude. The effect of the preservative iii this ease 
is to diminish the percentage of nonmetabolized nitrogen and increase 
very considerably that of the metabolized. In the after period the 
amount of nitrogen exhibited in the food is 159.30 grams, equivalent 
to 15.93 grams per day. The percentage excreted in the \\\-vs is (1. 35 
and in the urine 87.87. The nitrogen balance is positive and its aver- 
age magnitude is 0.92 gram per day. The excretion of the nitrogen 
in the feces is diminished and slightly increased in the urine. The 
balance indicates a partial return in the after period to the conditions 
obtaining in the fore period, but a larger percentage of the nitrogen 
is metabolized, thus continuing the tendency shown in the preservative 
period. 

No. 6. 

The quantity of nitrogen in the food of No. (> in the fore period La 
1 1:2.30 grams, equivalent to L4.23 grams per day, of which L0.96 per 
cent i- excreted in the feces and 82.30 in the urine. The nitrogen 
balance is positive, and has an average daily magnitude of 0.96 gram. 
I hiring the preservative period the total quantity of nitrogen exhibited 
in the food is t32. 39 grams, equivalent to a daily amount of 14.41 
grain-; 10.73 per cent of this nitrogen is excreted in the feces, 
and 1)3. !>4 in the urine. The nitrogen balance is diminished and 
becomes ;i negative quantity equivalent to —0.68 gram per day. The 

total quantity of nitrogen exhibited in the after period is L43.96 

grams, showing an average daily quantity of 14.40 grams; 10.43 per 

cenl Is excreted in the feces and sl.<>7 percent in the urine. The 

average balance now returns to a positive quantity with an average 

value of 0.80 gram. 

These data show a most, marked effect of the preservative in increas- 
ing the excretion of metabolized ait rogen, although the nonmetabolized 

nitrogen in the feces decreased only very slightly. There is also 
>hown a distinct tendency to return to normal conditions in the after 

period. In connection with this case it i> to beobserved that the Bub 

ject Buffered a very marked loss in weight, amounting to more than a 

kilogram, both in the preservative and after period. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 587 

No. 7. 

The quantity of nitrogen exhibited in the food during the fore 
period in the case of No. 7 is 139.42 grams, equivalent to 13.94 grams 
per day; 6.80 per cent is excreted in the feces and 85.76 per cent in 
the urine. The nitrogen balance is strongly positive, 1.03 grams per 
day. The quantity of nitrogen in the food during the preservative 
period is 405.53 grams, equivalent to 13.52 grams daily. Of this 
quantity, 5.02 per cent is excreted in the feces and 80.19 per cent in 
the urine. In this case the nitrogen balance is very large, having 
been increased to 2 grams per day. The total quantity of nitrogen 
exhibited in the food in the after period is 136.04 grams, equivalent 
to 13.60 grams per day; of this amount, 8 per cent is excreted in the 
feces and 80.04 per cent in the urine. The nitrogen balance remains 
strongly positive, but is decreased to 1.62 grams per day. These data 
are exactly contrary to those obtained in the former case (No. 6) in 
that they show a distinct effect of the preservative in this instance in 
inhibiting the excretion of the metabolized nitrogen; the nonmetabo- 
lized nitrogen excreted is also decreased, while in the case of No. 6 it 
remained practically constant. 

No. 8. 

The quantity of nitrogen exhibited in the food of the fore period in 
the case of No. 8 is 129.07 grams, representing a daily quantity of 
i'2/M grams. Of this 9.04 per cent is excreted in the feces and 83.99 
per cent in the urine. The nitrogen balance is positive and has an 
average magnitude of +0.90 gram per day. The quantity of nitro- 
gen in the food during the preservative period is 398.71 grams, with 
an average daily magnitude of 13.29 grams. Of this quantity 9.88 
per cent is excreted in the feces and 80.87 per cent in the urine. The 
balance is strongly positive and has increased to 1.23 grams per day. 
These figures indicate that the preservative has decreased the excretion 
of metabolized nitrogen about 3 per cent and increased the excretion 
of nonmetabolized nitrogen 0.84 per cent. 

During the after period the nitrogen administered in the food 
amounts to 135.19 grams, equivalent to 13.52 grams per day; 11.53 
per cent of this nitrogen is excreted in the feces and 88.42 per cent i 
the urine. The balance remains positive, but is very small, amounting 
only to 0.01 gram. It is thus seen that in the after period the excre- 
tion of the metabolized nitrogen increased greatly, almost 8 per cent, 
exceeding that of the fore period, and the excretion of nonmetabolized 
nitrogen continued to increase also. 

Nos. 9 'iikI i<>. 

The balances in these two cases of 3 and 4 grams show plainly that 
some radical error is present. The subjects evidently either did not 
collect and deliver for analysis the whole of the excreta, or ate food 



588 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

in addition to that weighed out at the experimental table. The data 
in these cases are therefore discredited, and the balances are printed 
merely to show the reason for their exclusion from the summaries and 
the conclusions. 

No. 11. 

The quantity of nitrogen in the food during the fore period extend- 
ing from ( )ctober 19 to October 28 is 177.42 grams, equivalent to 17.74 
grams per day. Of this amount 9.01 per cent is excreted in the feces 
and 89.35 per cent in the urine. This shows a slightly positive nitro- 
gen balance equivalent to 0.29 gram per day. 

The quantity of nitrogen in the food administered to No. 11 during 
the preservative period is 528.3-1 grams, equivalent to 17.61 grams per 
day. Of this quantity 8.74 per cent is excreted in the feces and S5.15 
per cent in the urine. The nitrogen balance is positive for the pre- 
servative period and amounts to 1.07 grams per day. During the 
alter period the quantity of nitrogen in the food of No. 11 is 177.67 
grams, equivalent to 17.77 grams per day. Of this quantity 7.66 per 
cent is excreted in the feces and 76.64 per cent in the urine. The bal- 
ance is positive and very high, amounting to 2.79 grams per day. 
The excretion of both metabolized and nonmetabolized nitrogen is 
decreased in the preservative period, and this decrease is still greater 
in the after period. 

No. 12. 

The quantity of nitrogen in the food of No. 12 during the fore 
period Is 175.18 grams, equivalent to 17.52 grams daily. Of this 
amount 8.25 per cent is excreted in the feces and 84.89 per cent in the 
urine. The nitrogen balance is positive and amounts to L.20 grains 
per day. During the preservative period the quantity of nitrogen in 
the food of No. 12 is 514.30 grams, equivalent to 17. 14 grams per day. 
Of this quantity 5.88 per cent is excreted in the feces and 84.53 per 
cent in the urine. The nitrogen balance is again positive in the pre- 
servative period and has increased to L.64 grains per day. The quan- 
tity of nitrogen in the food of No. 12 during the after period is L70.46 

grams, equivalent to 17.05 grams per day. Of this quantity 6. I s per 

cent is excreted in the feces and 88.27 per cent in the urine. The 

nit rogen balance is still positive, hut has decreased to 0.90 gram per day. 

The principal effect of the preservative in this case is to slightly 

inhibit the excretion of nitrogen. The inhibition is found almost 
exclusively in the nonmetabolized material, the percentage of nitrogen 

in the food which was excreted in the i'^vvs falling from 8.25 in the 
fore period t<> 5.88 in the preservative period and rising again to 6.48 

in t he aftei period. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 589 



GENERAL DISCISSION OF INDIVIDUAL DATA. 



Some of the noticeable variations in the individual data in regard to 
the excretion of nitrogen are of interest, Nos. 3, 9, and 10 being ex- 
cluded as usual. The lowest percentage excreted in the feces in the 
fore period is found in the case of No. 1, namely, 4.66 per cent, and 
the highest in the case of No. 6, namely, 10.96 per cent. In regard 
to the quantity excreted in the urine the largest percentage is found 
in the case of No. 2, namely, 95.76 per cent, and the lowest in the case 
of No. 6, namely, 82.30 per cent. No. 2 was decidedly abnormal dur- 
ing the fore period, since the quantity of nitrogen excreted was greater 
than that ingested in the food. 

During the preservative period the following notable variations in 
individuals from the average may be cited: The smallest percentage 
of nitrogen excreted in the feces is again found in the case of No. 1, 
namely, 4.22 percent, and the largest, 10.73 per cent, again occurs in 
the case of No. 6. In the after period the smallest percentage ex- 
creted in the feces is again in the case of No. 1, namely, 6.31, and the 
largest, 11.53, No. 8. No. 6, however, maintained a high average, 
10.43. These data show a consistent idios} T ncras3 T in the individuals 
which is practically indicated during all three of the periods. It is 
evident that No. 1 was able to utilize the nitrogen in the food more 
completely than were Nos. 6 and 8. 

In regard to the percentage of nitrogen excreted in the urine, the 
largest quantit} T in the preservative period is excreted by No, 1 3 
namely, 96.06 per cent, and the smallest quantity by No. 7, namely, 
80.19 per cent. Of the total number three show an excretion of nitro- 
gen during the preservative period in excess of the quantity exhibited 
in the food, namely, Nos. 1, 2, and 6. 

During the after period the largest quantity of nitrogen in the urine 
is again excreted by No. 1, namely, 96.16 per cent, and the smallest 
by No. 11, namely, 76.64 per cent. This is a remarkably low number, 
but no source of error can be detected from a study of the detailed 
data and of the character of the man. In the after period only two 
of the men showed an excess of nitrogen excreted over thai given in 
the food, namely, Nos. 1 and 2. 

It is evident that in the case of a loss of weight a negative nitrogen 
balance would not be regarded as abnormal. Likewise, in the case of 
a gain in weight by growth or otherwise, a large positive nitrogen 
balance would not be regarded as abnormal. Where, however, the 
weight remains practically constant, any very large positive balances 
or negative balances require most careful study in order to determine 
exactly the sources which have caused the variation. The most plaus- 
ible explanation of an abnormally large positive balance, the energy 
and food consumed remaining constant, is an increase in the anabolic 



590 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVE OX HEALTH. 



activities. The most plausible cause of a large negative balance, when 
the normal quantity of food is consumed and the energy is constant, is 
an increase of the katabolic activities of the body. 

SUMMARY. 

In all of the summaries the totals and averages for the nine subjects 
completing the series satisfactorily are combined in one expression 
for each subperiod and for the fore, preservative, and after periods 
as a whole. Thus in the fore period the data are totaled and averaged 
for all subjects for each of the two subperiods and then for the entire 
period. In the following discussion only the data for the entire 
periods will be considered, and these are here inserted in tabular form 
for convenience in reference: 



Table XII. — Nitrogen summary ', by periods, for nin* men, Series 17. 



Period. 



Fore period 

Preservative period 
After period 



Nitrogen 

in food. 



rants. 
L5.46 
15. 37 
15. 46 



Nitrogen 
in feces. 



Grams. 
1 . 29 
L.15 
1.21 



drams. 
13.50 
L3.51 
13. 5G 



in feces, in urine. 



Balance. 



l'< r cent. 
8.33 

7. .V.i 



Per a at. 
87. 32 
87. 89 



ti rants. 
0.67 
.71 



The average quantity of nitrogen consumed by each of the nine men 
daily during the fore period is 15.46 grams, of which 1.29 grams are 
excreted in the feces and L3.50 in the urine. Expressed as percentages, 
8.33 per cent of the total nitrogen is excreted in the leees and 87.32 
per cent in the urine. The average daily balance is 0.67 gram. 

For the whole preservative period the average daily quantity of 
nitrogen ingested is L5.37 grams, of which L15 grams is excreted in 
the feces and L3.51 grams in the urine. Expressed in percentages, 7.50 
per cent of the total nitrogen is excreted in the \'oi-<^ and 87.89 per 
cent in the urine. The average daily balance of the nitrogen is 0.71 
gram. For the entire after period the average quantity, of nitrogen 
exhibited in foods is L5.46 grams, of which L.2J grains is excreted in 

the feces and L3.56 grains in the urine. Expressed in percentages, 
7.83 per cent IS found in the feces and 87.75 per cent in the urine. 
The average daily balance of the nitrogen is 0.69 gram. 

A comparison of these data by periods show^ that the average daily 
amount of nitrogen in the food during the preservative period is 

slightly less than in the forehand after periods, where they are the 
same. The quantity execreted in the feces is considerably diminished 
during the preservative period, in fact l>\ a larger quantity than could 
he accounted for by the slight diminution <>f the amount ingested. 

The quantity excreted in the mine is a trifle greater than in the fore 

period, although the total amount in the food is less. That is, the 

percentage figures show a diminished quantity of nonmetabolized 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 591 

nitrogen and a slightly increased quantity of metabolized nitrogen 
excreted. In the after period a general tendenc} 7 is shown to return 
to the conditions of the fore period, but this return is only partial. 
The percentage of nonmetabolized nitrogen eliminated in the after 
period is greater than in the preservative period but less than in the 
fore period, while the amount of metabolized nitrogen excreted is less 
than in the preservative period but not so small as in the fore period. 

The balance shows a slightly decreased total excretion of nitrogen, 
and this decrease is wholly in the nonmetabolized nitrogen. These 
data indicate that the exhibition of the preservative tended slightly to 
increase the digestibility and absorption of the nitrogen ingested. 

Had these phenomena been accompanied by an increase in weight, 
the data would have all pointed in one direction, namely, to a stimu- 
lation of the metabolic processes; but, in view of the considerable loss 
in body weight, the question suggests itself, Can an} T part of the 
increased excretion of metabolized nitrogen be due rather to increased 
katabolic activit} r , i. e., destruction of tissue? It must be remem- 
bered, however, that the excretion of nonmetabolized nitrogen de- 
creased under the influence of the preservative even to a greater 
degree than the excretion of the metabolized nitrogen increased, and 
the balance indicates clearly increased digestion and absorption dur- 
ing the preservative period, as already stated, although there appears 
to have been a decrease in tissue formation. Unless, therefore, the 
decrease in weight be ascribed to some cause beyond control — such 
as the advance of the winter season and effect of temperature, 
psychological influences resulting from restraint, fear, etc. — it would 
appear that in the case of nitrogen the katabolic processes were stimu- 
lated to a greater degree than the anabolic activities. It would not be 
expected that a marked increase in appetite, as reported in the medical 
notes, would, under the existing conditions, be accompanied by a loss 
of weight. In Series XI, page 706, a special study of the nitrogenous 
bodies in the urine is made which bears directly upon this point, an 
effort being made to discover the significance of the appearance of 
these bodies in the urine in various forms. 



592 



INFLUENCE OF Food PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XIIL — Nitrogen balances/or Series 17. 

[Averages are per day.] 

IN"o. 1. 



'eriod. 



Fore period. 

Firsl Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second Bubperiod: 

Total 

Aver. | 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



In food. 



in feces. 



In urine. 



Grams. Grams. Grams. 
71.56 3.76 59.88 

L4.31 .7.') LL97 



in feces 
and 
urine. 



In 

feces. 



Grams. Per et. 

5. 25 

12.72 



76.00 3.11 67.99 71.10 1.09 
15.20 .62 | 13.60 IA22 



In 
urine. 



In feces 

and 

urine. 



Per et. Per. et Grams. 
83.61 B8.8 7.97 
• 1.59 



Bali- 
Balance. ''• vli V 

' admin- 
istered. 



6.55 +4.90 
+ .98 



Grams. 









147.56 6.87 

14.76 .69 



Preservative period. 
First Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth Bubperiod: 

Total 

rage 

sixth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

En t i re preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 



70.99 

14.20 



74.50 

14.90 



72. 51 
14.50 



73.01) 
11.00 



7.".. 16 
16.09 



69. 70 
13.94 



3.14 
.63 



J.69 
.64 



2. 99 
.60 






3. 36 

.67 



2. 86 



After period. 
Firsl Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

• I tmbperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period 

Total 

Average 



136. 16 18. 12 
14.54 .61 



72. 86 
I 1.57 



73. 22 
1 1.64 



:>. 2 1 
1 . 0.") 



3.98 



127.82 134. C,9 4.66 86.62 91.28 
12.78 L8. 17 -+- 1.29 



66. in 
13.28 



69.68 
13.94 



69.54 
13.91 



72.37 
II. 17 



068.95 71.94 

13.79 11.39 



68.55 71.93 
13.71 14.39 



71.33 74.69 
11.27 14.94 



74.07 76.93 
U.81 15.39 



418.98 B7. in 
L3.97 14.68 



69.61 
18.92 



14.17 



74.85 
I 1.97 



74.84 

11.97 



I lii. 17 149.69 
14.05 11.97 



1. 12 


98.53 


97.96 


3. 61 




97. 1 1 



+ 1.45 



+ 2.13 

. o 



1.12 95.09 



'.21 .7 

+ .11 



4.68 93.90 98.63 + 1.07 

• .21 

1.45 94.53 98.97 .7- 
.15 



l. in 106.27 110.87 7.23 
L.45 



4.22 96.06 100.28 1.21 
- .04 



7.19 



•..II 96.78 102.21 



102.73 



6.81 96.16 





- 1. 



. 10 



1 . 62 



3.61 



I. OS 



M0 
.42 



3.70 

.71 



6. IK) 
1 . 20 



8.00 
1.60 



10.00 

2. (K> 



30.85 

1 . 08 



aDall] average added In ord r to complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



593 



Table XIII. — Nitrogen balances for Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

JSTo. 3. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


2 

In feces. 


3 

In urine. 


4 

In feces 

and 

urine. 

(2+3) 


5 

In 
feces. 
(2-1) 


6 7 

T In feces 

urine - iMne 
(3-5-1) ™™j 


8 

Bal- 
ance. 

~<l-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 
81.82 
16.36 

82.88 
16.58 


Grams. 
7.80 
1.56 

9.15 


Grams. 

a 85. 34 

17.07 

72.37 


Grams. 
93.14 
18.63 

81.52 
16.30 


Per et. 

9.53 


Per ct. I Per ct. 
104.30 I 113.84 

1 


Grams. 
-11.32 
- 2.27 

+ 1.36 

+ .28 


Grams. 








Second subperiod: 

Total 


11.04 


87.32 98.36 







1.83 1 14.47 















Entire fore period: 
Total 


164.70 1 16.95 1 157.71 
16.47 1.70 15.77 


174. 66 
17.47 


10. 29 


95.76 


106. 05 


- 9.96 

- 1.00 




















Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


79.78 
15.96 


6.98 
1.40 

7.83 
1.57 

7.82 
1.56 

8.87 
1.77 

4.50 
.90 

7.97 
1.59 


71.87 
14.37 

72.49 
14.50 

77.12 
15.42 

71.30 
14.26 

82.10 

16.42 

76.80 
15.36 


78.85 

15. 77 

80. 32 
16.06 

84.94 
16.99 

80.17 
16.03 

86.60 
17. 32 

84.77 

16. 95 


8. 75 


90.09 


98.83 


+ .93 
4- .19 

+ 3.41 
+ .69 

- 2.92 

- .59 

+ 2.42 
+ .49 

- .97 

- .19 

- 5.67 


1.05 




.21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


83.73 


9. 35- 


86.58 


95.93 


2.10 


Average 


16. 75 

82.02 
16.40 

82. 59 
16.52 

85.63 
17.13 

79.10 
15.82 


.42 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


9.53 


94.03 


103. 56 


3.70 




.74 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


10.74 


86. 33 


97. 07 


6.00 




1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


5.26 


95.88 


101. 13 


8.00 


Average 


1.60 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


10.08 


97.09 


107. 17 


10.00 


Average 




- 1.13 


2.00 










Entire preservative 
period: 
Total 


492. 85 


43.97 

1.47 


451.68 
15.06 


495. 65 
16.52 


8.92 


91.65 


100.57 


- 2.80 

- .09 


30. 85 


Average 


16.43 


1.03 












After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


82.39 
16.48 

82.45 
16.49 


6.05 
1.21 

7.21 
1.44 


77.92 
15. 58 

79.97 
15.99 


83.97 
16.79 

87.18 
17.44 


7.34 


94.57 


101. 92 


- 1.58 

- .31 

- 4.73 

- .95 










Second subperiod: 

Total 


8.74 


96.99 


105. 74 






















Entire after period: 
Total 


16.48 


13.26 
1.33 


157. 89 
15.79 


171.1.-> 
17.12 


8.04 


95. 78 


103. 83 


- 6.31 

- .61 



















'i Daily average added in order to complete record. 



594 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XIII. — Nitrogen balances for Series IT— Continued. 

[Averages axe l lrr day.] 

isro. :i. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


2 
In feces, 


3 

In urine. 


4 

in feces 

and 
urine. 


5 

In 

feces. 


6 

In 

urine. 


■> 

In feces 

and 
urine. 

(4-s-I) 


8 
Hal 

ance. 

i t 


9 

Sail 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fort pi riml. 

First Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod : 

Total 

Average 


Uni ins. 

72.58 
14.52 


Grams. 

5. 36 

1.07 


Hill ins. 

63. 19 
12.64 


drains. 
Broke 

68,55 
13.71 


Per et. Per ct. 

n by illness. 

7.38 87.06 


Perct. 

94.45 


drums. 

+ 4.03 
+ .SI 


Grams. 



o 






Entire fore period: 
Total . . 


72. 58 
14.52 


5.36 
1.07 


63.19 
12.64 


68. 55 

13.71 


7.38 


87.06 


94.45 


+ 4.03 
+ .81 


o 













Praervativt pt Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


75. 20 

I5.nl 

71.51 

14.30 

73.08 

14.61 

77.89 

15. IN 

71.95 
14.89 


1.17 
.83 

8. 72 

1.71 

3.75 

.7.". 

7..M 
1.51 

3. 93 

.79 


56.15 
LI. 23 

a 57.33 

11. 17 

54.57 
10.91 

57.67 
LI. 63 

66.51 

11. in 


60.82 
12. 06 

66.05 

13.21 

58. 32 
11.66 

65.21 

13.04 

59. 1 1 

1 1 . 89 




74.67 


80.21 


+ 14.SS 
+ 2.9S 

+ 5.46 
+ 1.09 

1-14.71 
+ 2.9") 

} 12. IS 
+ 2.44 

+ 12.51 
+ 2.50 


1.05 




.-.'1 


Second Bubperiod: 

Total 


12. 19 


Ml. 17 


92. 36 


2. 10 




. a 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


6. 13 


74.72 


79. 86 


I CO 


Average 


. BO 


Fourth Bubperiod: 

Total , 


9. 7 1 


74. 52 


84.26 


6.00 

1.20 


Fifth Bubperiod: 

Total 


;.. it; 


77. L5 


82.61 


Slid 




L.60 









Five preservative sub 
periods: 
Total 


6 369.08 

1 L76 


28.11 
1. 12 


281.23 

1 1 . 25 


309.84 
L2.87 


7. 62 


7ti. 20 


33.81 


+ 2.39 


21. 15 














Aft' r period. 
Firsi Bubperiod: 

Total 


7:;. Hi 
14.63 

71. in 
1 1.88 




10.71 
1 1 . 02 






73.21 











5.30 
L.06 













Second subperiod: 

Total 


12. OS 


7.12 


Tin:; 


SI. If, 


| L4.02 







11 












Fnt [re alter period: 
Total 














II 


A venire 






























dde.) in ord< 



nnplcte record. '• No. '■'• Had only five prescrvath e BUbperiods, 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



595 



Table XIII. — Nitrogen balances for Series VI— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

ISTo. 4r. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


2 

In feces. 


3 

In 
urine. 


4 

In feces 

and 

urine. 

(2+3) 


5 

In 
feces. 
(2-1) 


6 

In 
urine. 
(3-1) 


7 8 

In feces 
and Balance, 
urine. (1—4) 
(4-s-l) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 
78.30 
15.66 

78.80 
15.76 


Grams. 
5.00 
1.00 

5.78 
1.16 


Grams. 
73.78 
14.76 

71.94 
14.39 


Grams. 
78.78 
15. 76 

77.72 
15.54 


Per ct. 
6.39 


Per ct. 
94.23 


Per ct. 

100.61 


Grams. 

- .48 

- .10 


Grams. 








Second *ubperiod : 

Total 


7.34 


91.29 


98.63 


+ 1.08 

+ .22 


















Entire fore period: 
Total 


157. 10 
15.71 


10.78 
1.08 


145. 72 
14.57 


156. .50 
15.65 


6.86 92.76 


99.62 1+ 60 





Average 




+ .06 















Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


76.45 
15.29 

80.18 
16.04 

78.37 
15.67 

77.50 
15.50 

81.16 
16. 23 

74.45 
14.89 


4.51 
.90 

5.28 
1.06 

5.19 
1.04 

» 4. 71 
.94 

6.57 
1.31 

a 5. 35 
1.07 


70.07 
14.01 

74.59 
14.92 

68.50 
13.70 

72.07 
14.41 

66.08 
13.22 

71.94 
14.39 


74.58 
14.92 

79.87 
15. 97 

73.69 
14.74 

76.78 
15.36 

72.65 
14. 53 

77. 29 
15.46 


5.90 


91.65 


97.55 


+ 1.87 
+ .37 

+ .31 
+ .07 


1.05 




.21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


6.59 


93.03 


99.61 


2.10 


Average 


.42 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


6.62 


87.41 


94.03 


+ 4.68 


3.70 






+ .93 

+ .72 
+ .14 

+ 8.51 
+ 1.70 

- 2.84 

— .57 


.74 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


6.08 


92.99 


£9.08 


6.00 




1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


8.10 


81.42 


89.51 


8.00 




1.60 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


7.19 


96.63 


103. 81 


10.00 




2.00 














E n t i r e preservative 
period: 
Total 


468. 11 
15.60 


31.61 
1.05 


423. 25 
14.11 


454.86 
15.16 


6.75 


90.42 


97.17 


+13.25 
+ .44 


30. 85 




1.03 














After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


78.89 
15.78 

78.90 

15. 78 


4.24 

.85 

5.90 
1.18 


72. 04 
14.41 

74.44 
14.89 


76.28 
15.26 

80.34 
16.07 


5.37 


91.32 


96.69 


+ 2.61 
+ .52 

- 1.44 

- .29 










Second subperiod: 

Total 


7.48 


94. 35 


101.83 




















Entire after period: 
Total 


157.79 

15.78 


10.14 
1.01 


146.48 
14.65 


156.62 
15.66 


6.43 


92.83 


99. 26 


+ 1.17 
+ .12 





















<i Daily average added in order to complete record. 



596 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XIII. — Nitrogen balances for Series VI— Continued. 

[Avenges arc pi r day.] 
No. 5. 



Period. 


1 2 

In food. In feces. 


3 

In 
urine. 


4 

In feees 
and 
urine. 

(2+3) 


5 

In 
feces. 

(2-1) 


6 

In 
urine. 

(3-1) 


7 

in feces 
and 
urine. 

i ■ l 


s 

Bala nee. 

,1 1, 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


F&rt pi Hod. 

First snbperiod: 

Total 


Oranu. 

78.77 
15.75 

79.93 
15.99 


Grams. 
7.41 
1.48 

6.71 
1.34 


Qrams. 

69.53 
13.91 

61.86 

12. 37 


Grams. 
76.94 
15.39 

68.57 
13.71 


Per ct. 
9.41 


Per ct. 

88.27 


Per ct. 
97.68 


Oram*. 

+ 1.83 
+ .36 

+11.36 
2.28 










Second snbperiod: 

Total 


8.39 


77.39 


&5.79 


o 



















Entire fore period: 

Total 


158.70 14.12 
15.87 1.41 


131.39 
13.14 


145. 51 
14. 55 


8.90 


82.79 


91.69 


+13.19 


Average 


+ 1.32 , 












Preservative period. 

First snbperiod: 

Total 


77. 85 

1 .">. 57 

80.83 
16.17 

80.22 
[6.04 

79. 1 1 
15.82 

81.99 
16.40 

7.'.. 86 
15. 17 


7. 15 
1. 13 

4.69 
.94 

6.35 
1.27 

1. 17 
.89 

6.00 
1.20 

6.18 
1.24 


68.49 
13.70 

69. 02 
13.80 

67.90 

13.58 

69. 38 
13.88 

72.81 
14.56 

68. 66 
13.73 


75.64 
15. 13 

7:i. 71 
14.71 

74.25 

14. 85 

73. 85 
14.77 

78.81 

15.76 

71. M 
14 97 


9.18 


87.98 


97.16 


+ 2.21 
+ .44 

+ 7.12 


1.05 




.L'l 


Second snbperiod: 
Total ... 


5.80 


85.39 


91.19 


•MO 




+ 1.43 


Third snbperiod: 

Total 


7.92 


81.64 


92.66 


+ 5.97 
+ 1.19 

+ 5.26 
+ 1.05 

+ 3.18 


3. 70 




.74 


Fourth snbperiod: 
Total 


5. 65 


87.70 


93.35 


6.00 




1.20 


Fifth snbperiod: 

Total 


7. 32 


88.80 


'.it;. 12 


8.00 






+ .84 

+ 1.02 

| . 20 


1. 60 


Sixtb snbperiod: 

Total 


B.16 


90.51 


98.66 


10.00 




2.00 














Entire preservative 
period: 
Total 


175.86 
16.86 


1. L6 


416.26 
L8.88 


451.10 
16.04 


7. 32 


87.48 


94.80 


24.76 

+ .82 


B0. 85 




1 . 03 












Ajh r period, 

FirM subperiod: 

Total 


15.92 

79. 68 
15.94 


1.18 

L20 
.84 


069.80 

l | D6 

70.67 

11.13 


76.21 
16.04 

74.87 
14.97 


7. 12 


s7.nl 


94.46 


+ 4.41 

+ 1.81 

r .97 










Second subperiod: 

Total 


5. 27 




98. '."•■ 




















Entire after period: 

Total 


L59.80 
15.98 


10.11 

1.01 


11. on 


150.08 

15.01 


6. :;;- 


-7.-7 


94.23 


| 9.22 

+ .92 







(i 













"Daily avenge added In order to complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



597 



Table XIII. — Nitrogen balances for Series TY— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. 6. 



Period. 



Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



In food. 



Grams. 
70. 53 
14.11 

71,77 
14.35 



Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod : 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 



After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



142. 30 
14.23 



In feces. 



Grams. 
7.13 
1.43 

8.46 
1.69 



J. 7'.' 



432. 39 
14.41 



72. 39 
14.48 



71.57 
14.31 



15. 59 
1.56 



7.02 
1.40 



7.87 
1.57 



8.78 
1.76 



7.36 
1.47 



8.21 
1.64 



7.14 
1.43 



In 
urine. 



Grams. 
59.40 
11.88 

57.71 
11.54 



117.11 
11.71 



In feces 
and 
urine. 

(2+3) 



Grams. 
66. 53 
13.31 

66.17 
13. 23 



In 
feces. 
(2-5-1) 



Per et. 
10.11 



In 

urine. 
(3-^-1) 



Per ct. 

84.22 



80.41 



132. 70 
13.27 



10.96 



65.93 
13.19 



68.49 
13.70 



a 70. 76 
14. 15 



a 73. 26 
14. 65 



74.36 
14.87 



72. 95 
14.59 



76. 36 
15.27 



79. 54 

15. 91 



80. 62 
16. 12 



82. 57 
16.51 



53.40 60.54 
10. 68 12. 11 



1.55 



106.20 452. 
13. .54 15. 



9.96 
10.91 



12.11 
10.12 



10.84 
10.38 



In feces *$*; 

and Balance. ^ 

istered. 



(4-5-1) 



Perct. 

94.33 



92. 20 



82. 30 93. 25 



93. 52 103. 48 



94.91 105.82 



97. G3 109. 74 


100. 74 110. 86 



Grants. Grams. 
+ 4.00 

f . 80 



+ 5.60 
+ 1.12 



98. 18 109. 02 
77.03 88.01 



2. 45 
.49 

4. 20 
.84 

7. 06 
1.41 

7. 90 
t.58 

6. 83 
1.36 

8. 25 

1 . 65 



10. X 



. 68 



8.91 
1.78 



6.11 
1.22 



66.12 75.03 
13. 22 15. 01 



54.90 
10.98 



61.01 
12. 20 



12. 31 
8. 5 1 



91.34 
76.71 



103.65 






2.61 
.53 



+ 10.56 

+ 2.11 



143.96 15.02 121.02 136.04 10.43 84.07 
14.40 1.50 12.10 13.60 

I I I 



94. 50 



+ .80 



1.05 
.21 



2.10 
.42 



5.70 
.74 



6.00 
1.20 



S.00 
1.60 



s.oo 

1.60 



93.94 101.67 -20.19 28.85 



. 96 



« Daily average added in order to complete record. 



598 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PBESEBVATIVES O^ HEALTH. 



Table XIII. — Xitrogen balances for Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. 7. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


In feces. 


3 
In urine. 


4 

In feces 

and 
urine. 
(2+3) 


6 

In 
(2+1) 


6 

In 
urine. 
(3-5-1) 


7 
in feces 

and 
urine. 
(4+1) 


8 

balance. 
d-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fort l» rind. 

Firsl subperiod: 

Total 


Grams, 
66.62 

13.10 

73.90 
14. 7S 


Grams. 
6.24 
1.25 

3.24 
.65 


Grams. 

56. :>7 
11.31 

63.00 
12.60 


dm ins. 
62. 81 
12.56 

66.24 


Per ct. 
9.52 


V, r ,t. 
86.34 


Vertt. 


Grams. 

+ 2.71 
+ .54 

+ 7.66 
+ 1.68 


drams. 








Second suBperiod: 
Total 


4.38 


85.25 


89.63 


o 


Average 


13.25 




o 












Knt ire fore period: 

Total 


139. 42 


a a 


L19.67 

11 96 


129.05 6 80 


85. 76 


92.56 


+ 10.37 1 




13.94 .95 


12.91 




+ 1.03 














Preservativt period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


65.68 4.04 
13.14 


50.72 
10.14 

56. 98 
11.40 

51.24 

10. 25 

49. 15 
9.83 

52. 92 
10. 68 

64.17 
12.88 


64.76 

10. 95 

60.06 
12.01 

55.33 
11.07 

52. 07 
10.41 

56.93 
11.39 

66. 10 

13.28 


6. 15 


77.22 


83. 37 


+10.92 
+ 2.19 

+ 11.74 
+ 2.35 

+12. 68 
+ 2.53 

+ 14.95 
+ 2.99 

LI. 62 

L.93 

- .39 


L.05 






•'1 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


71.80 
14.36 

68.01 
13.60 

67.02 
13.40 

68. 55 
13.71 

64.47 
12. 89 


3.08 
.62 

4.09 

.82 

2.92 

.58 

4.01 
.80 

2.23 
. 15 


4.29 


79.36 


2. 10 




. L2 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


6.01 


75.34 M M 


3.70 


Average 






.71 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


4.36 


73. 34 


77. 69 


6. 00 






1.20 


Filth subperiod: 

Total 


5.85 


77.20 


88. 06 


8. 00 




1.60 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


:;. 16 


99.53 


102.90 


10. 00 






2.00 










Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 


106.68 


20. 37 
. 68 


325. 18 
10.84 


345.56 
11.52 


5. 02 


80.19 


+ 2.00 


go a . 


Average 


18.62 






L.08 










After period. 
iir-i nibperiod: 

Total 


67.76 

«;s. 28 
18.66 


1.67 

.91 

6. 82 
L.26 


62. 80 
10.66 

66. 09 
14.22 


:.7. 87 

11 17 

62. 11 
12. 18 


6. 7 1 


77. 92 


B4.67 


2.08 

5. 87 
• 1.18 







(i 


Second Bubperiod: 
Total 




82. 1 5 


91. io 




















Entire alter period: 

Total 


186.04 
18.60 


10. SM 




108 89 
10.89 


11 '.i.7s 
11.98 


8.00 


80.04 




l 62 


















SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



599 



Table XIII. — Nitrogen balances for Series VI— Continued. 
[Averages are per day.] 

JSTo. 8. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


2 

In feces. 


3 4 

In feces 
In urine. J^, 

j (2+3) 


5 

In 

feces. 
(2-1) 


6 

In 
urine. 
(3h-1) 


7 

In feces 
and 

urine. 
(4-1) 


8 

Balance. 
(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 
63.80 
12.76 

65. 27 
13.05 


Grams. 

4.76 

.95 

6.91 
1.38 


Grams. 
52. 91 
10.58 

55..50 
11.10 


(•rum*. 
57. 67 
11.53 

62.41 

12.48 


Per ct. 
7.46 


Per ct. 
82.93 


Per ct. 
90.39 


Grams. 
+ 6.13 
+ 1.23 

+ 2.86 


Grains. 








Second subperiod: 
Total 


10.59 


85. 03 


95.62 









+ 57 













Entire fore period: 
Total 


129. 07 
12.91 


11.67 
1.17 


108.41 120.08 
10.84 12.01 


9. 04 83. 99 93. 03 


+ 8.99 




+ .90 






1 1 




Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


64.56 
12. 91 

69.04 
13.81 

65.30 
13.06 

65. 80 
13.16 

70.42 
14.08 

63.59 
12.72 


7.72 
1.54 

8.40 
1.68 

5.28 
1.06 

7.00 
1.40 

4.38 

.88 

6.60 
1.32 


52. 73 60. 45 
10.55 12.09 

54.44 62.84 
10.89 12.57 


11.96 


81.68 


93.63 


+ 4.11 1.05 




+ . 82 . 21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


12. 17 


78.85 


91.02 


+ 6.20 
+ 1.24 

+ 8.28 
+ 1.66 

4- 8.64 


2.10 




.42 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


51.74 
10.35 

a 50. 16 
10.03 

67.62 
11. 52 

55.75 
11.15 


57. 02 
11.40 

57. 16 
11.43 

62.00 
12.40" 

62.35 
12.47 


8.09 


79.23 


87.32 


3.70 




.74 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


10.64 


76.23 


86.87 


6. 00 






+ 1.73 1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


6.22 


81. 82 88. 04 


+ 8.42 ; 8.00 




+ 1.68 1.60 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


10.38 


87.67 98.05 


+ 1.24 10.00 




+ .25 1 2.00 








Entire preservative 
period: 
Total 


398. 71 
13.29 


39.38 
1.31 


322. 44 
10.75 


361.82 
12.06 


9.88 


80. 87 90. 75 


+36. 89 


30.85 






+ 1.23 


1.03 










After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


66.81 
13. 36 

68.38 
13.68 


8.07 
1.61 

7.52 
1.50 


60.36 
12. 07 

69. 18 

11.84 


68.43 
13.69 

66.70 
13.34 


12.08 


90.35 


102. 12 


- 1.62 

- .33 

+ 1.68 










Second Bubperiod: 
Total 


11.00 


86. 55 


97.54 











+ .34 













Entire after period: 
Total 


135.19 
13.52 


15.59 
1.56 


119.54 
11.95 


135.13 11.53 


88.42 


99.96 4- .06 . 




13.51 






+ . 01 














"Daily average added in order to complete record. 



600 



[NFLUENCB OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES 0» HEALTH. 



Table XIII. — Nitrogen balances for Series 17 — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 
:N"<>. 9. 



Period. 



Fort period. 

Fir>t sul)period: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Preservative period. 

Fir<t subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Avenge 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Filth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



In food. 



Qrams. 
86. 69 

17.14 

88.92 
17. 78 



Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 

After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Kntire alter period: 

Total 

Average 



17 1, til 
17.46 



17.32 



17. 75 



88.34 

17.67 



88. 92 
17.78 



90.94 
18. L9 



83.84 

lti. 77 



527.41 
17.58 



In feces. 



drains. 
2. 80 



89.71 

17. '.(I 



17.68 



ITS. Ill 
17.81 



4.44 
.89 



6. 99 
1.40 



5.01 
1.00 



4.98 

1.00 



3.90 
.78 



6. 12 

1.28 



5. l-"> 
L.03 



32. 15 
1.08 






1. 16 



s. 18 
.84 



8 



In urine. 



Grams. 

70. 26 

14.05 

67. 15 
13.43 



In feces 
and 
urine 
(2+3) 



(1 rilms. 
72. .56 
14.51 



In 
fecea 
(2-1) 



Per ct. 
2.68 



71.59 199 
14.32 



In 

urine. 
(3h-1) 



In feces 
and 
urine. 
(4-1) 



Pi ret. Per Ct. 
81.99 84.68 



ft. 52 80.51 



137.41 141.15 3.86 
13.74 14.42 



78.70 82.56 



72.12 


79.11 


14.42 


15.82 


66.12 


71.13 


13.22 


11.28 



s. 07 
5.64 



83. 28 

74. 48 



69. 10 
13. 82 



67.84 

13.57 



63. 35 
12. 67 



7:;. I I 
11.69 



74.08 6.64 78.22 

11. si! 



71.71 
11.85 



69. 77 
13.95 



78. 59 

15.72 



4.39 

7. Oti 



66 



1 1 87. 



111. '.i7 111.12 
13.7:; 14.81 



64. 15 
12.89 



70. 20 

11.01 



134.65 

13. 17 



67. 08 

l:;. 12 



76.00 
15.20 



L43 08 
14.31 



6. 15 



2. '.':; 
6. 5.; 



i.t:; 



7s. 11 



71.84 



79. 12 






91.35 

SO. 18 

80.68 

76. 72 
93. 7 I 



Balance, 

d-4) 



Grams. 
+ 13.13 
+ 2.63 

+17.33 
+ 3.46 





Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 



drams. 








30. i<; 

+ 3.04 



7. 19 



+ 17. 64 



+ 14.26 



• 17. is 
:;. 13 



+ 21.17 
1.24 



1.05 



84.26 



71.77 






BO 34 



2.77 



22. 63 



12.89 

2. 18 






1.05 
.21 



2.10 
.42 



3.70 

.71 



6.00 
1.20 

8.00 



10.00 
2. 00 



1.08 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



601 



Table XIII. — Nitrogen balances for Series VI— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. lO. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


2 

In feces. 


3 

In urine. 


4 

In feces 
and 

urine. 
(2+3) 


5 

In 
feces. 
(2+1) 


6 

In 
urine. 
(8+1) 


In feces 
and Balance, 
urine. ! (1—4) 
(4+1) J 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Gram*. 
84. 71 
16.94 

85.96 
17.19 


Grams. 
7.67 
1.53 

5.72 
1.14 


Grams. 
63.81 
12.76 

62.78 
12.56 


Grams. 
71.48 
14.30 

68.50 
13.70 


Per ct. 

9.05 


Per ct. 

75.33 


Per ct. 
84.38 


Grams. 
+ 13.23 
+ 2.64 

+ 17.46 
+ 3.49 


Grams. 



Average 





Second subperiod: 

Total 


6.65 


73.03 


79.69 




















Entire fore period: 
Total 


170. 67 
17.07 


13.39 
1.34 


126. 59 
12. 66 


139. 98 
14.00 


7.85 


74.17 


82.02 


+ 30.69 
+ 3.07 





Average 

















Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


88.99 
17.80 

89.87 
17.97 

92. 48 
18.50 

89.78 
17.96 

95. 17 
19.03 

91.32 
18. 26 


7.48 
1.50 

6.26 
1.25 

6.75 
1.35 

5. 54 
. 1.11 

4.87 
.97 

2.39 

.48 


61.96 
12. 39 

71.36 
14. 27 

67. 35 
13.47 

61.61 
12.32 

64.37 
12.87 

47.99 
9.60 


69.44 
13.89 

77. 62 
15.52 

74.10 
14.82 

67.15 
13.43 

69.24 
13.85 

' 50. 38 
10.08 


8.41 


69.63 


78.03 


+ 19.55 
+ 3.91 

4- 12.25 
+ 2.45 

+ 18.38 

+ 3.68 

+ 22.63 
+ 4.53 

+ 25.93 

+ 5. 18 

+ 40.94 
+ 8.18 


1.05 




.21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


6.97 


79.40 


86.37 


2.10 




.42 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


7.30 


72.83 


80.13 


3.70 




.74 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


6.17 


68.62 


74.79 


6.00 




1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


5.12 


67.64 


72. 75 


8.00 




1.60 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


2.62 


52. 55 


55. 17 


10.00 


Average 


2.00 











Entire preservative 
period : 

Total 


547. 61 
is. 25 


33. 29 
1.11 


374. 64 
12. 49 


407. 93 
13. 60 


6.08 


68.41 


74.49 


+ 139.6* 
+ 4.65 


30.85 




1.03 










After period. 

First subperiod: a 

Total 


91.35 

18.27 


7.65 
1.53 


59.74 
11.95 


67.39 
13.48 


8.37 


65. 40 


73. 77 


+ 23.96 
•+- 4. 79 






















a No second 


after BUl 


period ; 


subject 


ill. 









7<>5<>— No. 84, pt 2—06 9 



602 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 



Table XIII. — Nitrogen balances for Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 
No. 11. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


•2 

In feces. 


3 

In urine. 


4 

In feces 
and 
urine. 


B 

In 

feces. 
(2-1) 


« -. 

In In feces 
urine. :> ll( l 

, 3 + 1 , „„,,., 


8 9 
Sali- 
Balance. CyHc 
(1 — 4) acid 
admin- 
istered. 


• riod. 

Kir-t subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 


Grams. 
17.57 

17.92 


Grams. 
7. 62 
1.52 

8. 36 
1 . 67 


Grams. 

O80.83 

16.17 

77. 69 

15.54 


Grams. 
88. 15 

17.69 

86. 05 

17.21 


V< r ct. 


Pi r ct. Per ct. 
92. 03 100. 71 


Grams, drams. 

- 0.62 

— .12 


9.33 


96.05 


+ 3. 54 
+ .71 












Entire tore period 

Total 


177.42 

17.71 


15.98 


158-.52 
15.85 


174.50 

17. 15 


9.01 


89. 35 


98. 35 


4- 2.92 
+ .29 
















PreservoMvt period. 

Kir>t subperiod: 

Total 


17.38 

17.7s 
17.76 
17.70 

17.97 

85. I : 
17.09 


7.60 
1.62 

7. '.Mi 

1.59 

8.02 

1.60 

7.49 
1.50 

7.00 

1. It) 

s. 18 
L.68 


B5. 19 

17.1D 

77.64 
15.63 

73.84 
14.67 

67. 82 
18.66 

7.\ 63 
16. 18 

69. 97 
L8.99 


93.09 8.75 




107.12 


6. 19 

1.21 

- 3.80 


1.05 




18.62 

17.12 

81.36 
L6.27 

75.81 
15.06 

82. 63 
16.58 

7s. K) 
15.62 




.21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


8.95 


• 




2 10 




+ . 66 . 12 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


9.03 


82.61 


91.64 


7. 12 3. 70 




+ 1.49 

+ 13.18 


.71 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 




76.64 


85. 1 1 


6. 00 




1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


7.79 


84.19 


91.98 


+ 1.44 


8, 00 




l.fiO 


,-ixth subperiod: 

Total 


-.». 52 


81.89 


91. 11 


7.84 10.00 
+ 1.47 2.00 












Entire p reservat Ive 
period: 
'i otal 


528.84 
L7.61 


if,. 20 
1.54 


15.00 


196.09 
L6.54 


s.7l 


s\ 16 


98.90 82.25 30.85 






+ 1.07 1.08 












After period. 

Kir-t subperiod: 

Total 


17.71 
17. SO 


L.86 
L.87 


L8.70 

(17. 67 


75. 27 
74.60 


7.64 


77. 22 


84.87 


2.69 










Second subperiod: 
Total 


7. 68 


76. 06 




1 1. is II 




1 1.90 





2.90 












Entire after period: 

Total 


177.67 

17.77 


18.61 
L.86 


L86. L6 


119.77 7.M 


76.64 


-1 30 


H27.90 




L4.98 




* 2. 79 
















" Daily average added in order to complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



603 



Table XIII. — Nitrogen balances for Series IT— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

IN"o. 12. 



Period. 



In food. 



In feces. In urine 



In feces 
and 
urine. 

(2+3) 



In 
feces. 
(2-1) 



6 7 8 9 

In feces SaH" 

In I and Balance. c - .? 

urine, urine. (1-4) *"? 

ti • i -i a ■ i\ admin- 

(3-=-!) | (4^1) igtered> 



Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Grams. 
85. 72 
17.lt 

89.46 
17.89 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 



Aft i r pi riod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



Grams. Grants. 
6.44 

1.29 15.34 

8. 01 72. 02 

1.60 14.40 



175. 18 
17. 52 



84.87 
16.97 



87.42 
17.48 



85. 62 
17.12 



85. 49 
17.10 



88.63 
17.73 



82. 27 
16.45 



514.30 
17.14 



85. 76 
17.15 



si. 7(1 
16.94 



170.46 

17.05 



Grams. 
83. 13 
16.63 

80.03 
16. 01 



Per ct. 
7.51 



Per ct. 
89.47 



8. 95 80. 51 



Per ct. 
96.98 



89.46 



Grams. Grams. 
+ 2.59 

+ . 51 

+ 9.43 

+ 1.88 



14.45 148.71 \ 163.16 
1.45 , 14.87 16.32 



84.89 



4.04 
.81 



4.10 
.82 



4.42 
.88 



6.41 
1.28 



4.63 



30.24 
1.01 



5. 45 
1.09 



a 5. 60 
1.12 



11.05 

1. 11 



65. 06 69. 10 
13. 01 13. 82 



75.17 
15.03 



74. 75 
14.95 



70.01 
14.00 



74.47 
14.89 



79.27 
15. 85 



81.39 
16. 28 



74.43 
14.89 



80.88 

16.18 



75. 28 79. 91 
15.06 15.98 



434. 74 
14. 49 



464. 98 
15. 50 



73. 67 
14.73 



76.80 
15.36 



150.47 

15.05 



79.12 

15.82 



82. 40 
16.48 



L61.62 

16.15 



4. 76 76. 



4.69 85.99 



93.14 



+12.02 

+1.20 



81.42 



7. 76 87. 30 95. 06 
5.17 81.89 ! 87.06 



7.23 84.02 91.26 
5.63 I 91.50 '.•:. 13 



+15. 77 
+ 3.15 



+ 8.15 
+ 1.63 



+ 4.23 

+ .84 



+ 11.06 
+ 2.21 



+ 7.75 
+ 1.55 



+ 2.36 
- .47 



5.88 



84.53 90.41 +19.32 
1.64 



3.35 85.90 92.26 + 6.64 



+ 1. 



1.05 
.21 



2.10 
.42 



3.70 

.74 



6.00 
1.20 



8.00 
1.60 



10.00 
2.00 



JO. 85 

1.03 



6.61 90.67 97.28 • 2.30 
+ .46 



88.27 91.76 • 8.94 
+ .90 o 



'i Daily average added in order to complete record. 



604 



[NFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XIII. — Nitrogen balances for Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per man per day.] 
SmmiiMi-y for nine men (Nos. 3, 9, and LO excluded.). 



Period. 



In food. 



period. 

Firs! subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Averai 



Grams. 

15.20 

707.60 
L5.72 



Entire tore period: 
Total 

Average 



L.391. 15 

15.40 



Preservativi period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third sul. period: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

six tii subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



677.58 
L5.06 



708.56 
15.74 



693.31 

15. il 



691.72 
15.37 



717. II 
15.94 



663.67 
L4.75 



Entire preservative 

period: 

Total I. 152.26 

Average L5. 37 



Ajh /• period. 

i'ir~i subperiod: 

Total 

.\\ erage 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



695 it 
L5. ii 



696. 16 

15. 17 



Entire after period: 

Total 








In feces. 



In feces 
(2+3) 



Grams. Grams. Grams, 
56.16 614.88 671.04 
1.25 13.66 14.91 



59. 7:; 
1.33 



115.89 
1.29 



52. 20 

1. L6 



51.90 
1.15 



55. 16 
1.23 



5(i. 62 
1.13 



1.12 



51.09 

1.11 



311. II 
1.15 



L.23 



58. 67 

l 19 






COO. lis 659.81 
13. 33 14. 06 



1,214.96 1,330.85 
13.50 14.79 



13. 



tils. 
13. 



5-.ll. 

13. 



027. 
13. 



610. 
13. 



648.96 

1 I. 12 



<;7(i. in 
14.89 



11. Of, 



612.32 
14. 27 



177. 70 
L5 06 



661.18 
L4.69 



3,648.62 3,960.03 
13.51 14.66 



flu.::! 665.58 
14.79 



664.25 
18 57 11.70 



• 1,829.78 

I.: 6 N-77 



In 

(24-1) 



Per ct. 

8.21 



8. il 



8.33 



7.70 



-. 32 

r.96 



7. 32 
7. 03 



7.70 



7. 50 



7.94 



7.71 






In 
urine. 

(34-1) 



Per ct. 
89.91 



84. 79 



In feces 
and 
urine. 

(44-1) 



7 s 

Sali- 

Balance. &}* 

n ,s acid ad- 
minis- 
tered. 



Peret 



Grams. Grams. 
+ 12.81 o 

+ . 29 o 



93.10 + 17. 79 (' 

+ 1.00 



17.32 95.04 + 00.00 
+ .07 



88.07 95.78 



87.29 94.61 



87.16 95.12 
B5.54 92.86 



87. I"- 94.48 
91. 02 99.62 



.01 



38. 16 
.86 



33. B5 
75 



19. i" 
1.10 



2.54 

.00 



87.89 



87.71 



87. 75 



95 7i 









• I'.'J. JJ 

• .71 



■ 29.64 



31 



9. i". 
.21 



lv '.'(I 
. 12 



33.30 

.71 



54.00 

1.20 



72. 00 
1.60 



B8.00 
1 . 96 



1 . 02 



o 





'llosi*iI()i;i( acid BALANCE 



I \ i»I\ tin \l. DATA. 

No. t. 

The total quantity of phosphoric acid administered in (he food of 
No. l during the fore period is :;7.<>:;7 grams. The average daily 
quantity consumed is 3.704 grams. The quantities of phosphoric acid 
in the two subperiods arc not greatly different, amounting to an aver 
age of 3.809 and 3.598 grams, respectively. Of the total quantity 
administered in the food LI. 424 grams, equivalent to L.142 grams per 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 605 

day. are found in the feces, and 21.686 grams, equivalent to 2.169 
grains per day, in the urine. The percentage of phosphoric acid 
excreted in the feces is 30.85 and in the urine 58.55. The phosphoric 
acid balance is positive, amounting to 0.393 gram per day. 

The total quantity of phosphoric acid exhibited in the food during 
the preservative period is 115.833 grams, equivalent to 3.861 grams 
per day. The quantities in the various subperiods are quite constant, 
as will be seen by inspection of the table. Of the total quantity exhib- 
ited 30.921 grams are excreted in the feces, equivalent to 1.031 grams 
per day, and 70.508 grams in the urine, equivalent to 2.35 grams per 
day. Of the phosphoric acid exhibited in the food 26.69 per cent is 
excreted in the feces and 60.87 per cent in the urine. The phosphoric 
acid balance remains positive, and amounts to 0.48 gram per day. 
During the after period the quantity of phosphoric acid exhibited in 
the food is 37.551 grams, equivalent to 3.755 grams per day. Of this 
amount there are excreted in the feces 18.39 grams, equivalent to 1.839 
grams per day/' and in the urine 21.342 grams, equivalent to 2.134 
grams per day. Of the total phosphoric acid in the food 48.97 per 
cent is excreted in the feces and 56.83 per cent in the urine. This pro- 
duces a negative phosphoric acid balance for the after period, amount- 
ing to —0.218 gram per day. 

The data in the case of No. 1 show a slight increase in the magni- 
tude of the balance during the preservative period and a marked 
change, resulting in a negative balance, in the after period. This 
remarkable increase in the excretion of phosporic acid in the after 
period is entirely nonmetabolized phosphoric acid, the percentage 
excreted being almost twice as great as in the preservative period, 
while the quantity of metabolized phosphoric acid excreted is slightly 
decreased in the after period. In this instance, therefore, it appears 
that the withdrawal of the salicylic acid caused a very decided inter- 
ruption of the digestion and absorption of the phosphoric acid in the 

intestinal canal. 

No. 2. 

The total quantity of phosphoric acid consumed by No. 2 during 
the fore period is 43.005 grams, equivalent to 4.: > ><> grams per day. 
Of this quantity 14.101 grams appear in the feces, equivalent to 1.41 
grams per day, and 30.292 grams appear in the urine, equivalent to 
3.029 grams per day. The percentage of phosphoric acid eliminated 
in the feces is 32.79 and in the urine To. 44, causing a negative balance 
the magnitude of which is —0.139 gram per day. During the lore 
period the quantity of phosphoric acid excreted was slightly greater 
than that consumed. 

aThe weight of thedry H'<-cs i< .v_' grams in tin- after period, while in the fore 
period it is 41 grama and in the preservative period 35 grams. The increase in phos- 
phoric acid excreted thus appears to he due to the increased i'ecal excretion. 



006 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

During the preservative period the total quantity of phosphoric acid 
administered to No. '1 is L32.427 grams, equivalent to 4.414 grams 
per day. Of this amount 37.553 grams appear in the feces, equiva- 
lent to L. 252 grams per day, and 91.662 grams appear in the urine. 
equivalent to 3.055 grams per day. The percentage of phosphoric 
acid eliminated in the feces is 28.36 and in the urine 69.22. This 
shows a slightly positive phosphoric acid balance, the magnitude of 
which is Qf 107 gram. 

During the after period 43.577 grams of phosphoric acid were con- 
sumed by No. 2, equivalent to 4.358 grams per day. Of this quantity 
L2.264 grams appear in the feces, equivalent to L.226 grams per day. 
and 29.06] grams in the urine, equivalent to 2.906 grams per day. 
The percentage of phosphoric acid excreted in the feces is 28.14 and 
in the urine 66.69. This indicates a positive phosphoric-acid balance 
of an average daily magnitude of 0.225 grams. In this case we have 
practically a reversal of the conditions which obtained in the case of 
No. 1. The excess of phosphoric acid which was excreted during the 
fore period disappeared and the total amount excreted decreased con- 
siderably, both in the preservative and after periods. 

Considering the nonmetabolized phosphoric acid, it is seen that the 
amount excreted during the preservative period decreased \ery decid- 
edly (4.43 per cent) and during the after period very slightly (0.22 per 
cent ). while in the case of the metabolized phosphoric acid the reverse 
is true; that is, the -mailer decrease took place in the preservative 
period (1.22 per cent) and a very decided decrease in the after period 

(2.53 pei- cent). This results, as already stated, in a marked decrease 
in the total quantity of phosphoric acid excreted during tin- preserva- 
tive period, although the amount given in the food was slightly greater 
in the preservative period than in the fore period. In this instance 
the exhibition of the salicylic acid seems to exert a marked inhibitive 
influence upon the excretion of phosphoric acid (5.66 per cent) and 
thi> effect continues after the withdrawal of the preservative, the after 
period showing a decrease as compared with the preservative period 

of l!.74 per cent. 

No. ■;. 

The average daily quantity of phosphoric acid in the food of No; 3 
during the fore period (only live days) is -"».77: > ) grams, of which 0.746 
gram was excreted in the feces and 2. 1 1 grams in the urine. The per 
centage of phosphoric acid excreted in the feces is L9.79 and in the 
urine 56. 7:5. The average daily quantity of phosphoric acid in the 
food for the preservative period (five subperiods) is 3.827 gram-, of 

which <».7s;; gram appeared in the \'ri-v^ and 2.038 grain- in the urine. 

The percentage appearing in the \\'c('< is 20. 17 and in the urine 53.26. 
The balance is strongly positive, amounting to L.006 grams per day in 
magnitude. During the after period the average daily quantity of 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 607 

phosphoric acid in the food for the second subperiod is 3.834 grams, 
of which 0.906 gram appears in the feces and 1.993 grams in the urine, 
equivalent to 23.62 per cent in the feces and 51.99 per cent in the 
urine. The balance is again strongly positive, amounting to 0.935 
gram daily. 

These large balances are explained by reason of the fact that No. 3 
commenced the observations after a period of illness and constantly 
gained weight during the progress of the experiment. The phosphoric 
acid therefore was doubtless utilized to some extent in building the 
growing tissues. The after period was again interrupted by sickness 
due to a severe cold. 

No. 4. 

The quantity of phosphoric acid exhibited in the food of No. 4 dur- 
ing the fore period is 4.133 grams daih T , of which 1.068 grains appear 
in the feces and 2.729 grams in the urine; 25.84 per cent of the total 
phosphoric acid ingested in the food appears in the feces and 66.03 per 
cent in the urine. The balance is positive, and its daily magnitude is 
0.336 gram. During the preservative period the quantity of phos- 
phoric acid in the food is greater, namely, 4.285 grams per day, of 
which 1.079 grams appeared in the feces and 2.83 grams in the urine, 
equivalent to 25.17 and 66.03 per cent, respectively. The balance is 
positive and amounts to 0.377 gram per day. In the after period No. 4 
consumed in his food 4.202 grams of phosphoric acid dailj T , of which 
1.07 grams appeared in the feces and 2.7 grams in the urine, equiva- 
lent to 25.47 and 64.25 per cent, respectively. The balance is again 
positive and is slightly greater than in the two previous periods, 
namely, 0.432 gram per day. 

An inspection of these data shows that the exhibition of the pre- 
servative had scarcely any influence upon the excretions of phosphoric 
acid. What influence was exerted was of an inhibitory character, the 
quantit}' of phosphoric acid excreted being slightly Less in the pre- 
servative period than in the fore period, which tendency became 
somewhat more marked during the after period. 

No. ■'>. 

The summary of the data for No. 5 shows that during the preserva- 
tive period the quantity of phosphoric acid ingested in the food daily 
is 4.177 grams. Of this quantity there appeared in the feces 1.433 
grams and in tin 1 urine 2.479 grams, equivalent to 34.30 and 59.34 per 
cent, respectively. The balance is j > < > ^ i t i \ » ■ . and it> daily average mag- 
nitude is 0.266 gram. During the preservative period the quantity of 
phosphoric acid consumed in the food is slightly greater than in the 
fore period, averaging 4.326 grams daily. Of this quantity L.216 
grams appear in the feces and 2.623 grams in tin 1 urine, equivalent to 



608 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

28.11 and 60.63 per cent, respectively. The balance is positive and of 

an average daily magnitude of 0.488 gram. During the after period 
No. 5 consumed in his food 4.225 grams of phosphoric acid, of which 
1.156 grams appear in the feces and 2.462 grams in the urine, equiva- 
lent to 27.35 and 58.28 percent, respectively. The balance is positive 
and has attained during the after period an average daily magnitude 
of 0.607. 

A comparison of the average data by periods shows the effect of the 
preservative in increasing the digestion and the absorption of phos- 
phoric acid from the intestinal canal and in producing a very slight 
additional excretion of metabolized phosphoric acid. This effect is 
continued in the after period in so far as the continued absorption of 
phosphoric acid from the intestinal canal is concerned, but the meta- 
bolized phosphoric acid is diminished, thus considerably increasing 
the dail} T balance. 

No. 6. 

The total quantity of phosphoric acid contained in the food con- 
sumed by No. 6 during the 4 fore period represents an average daily 
quantity of 3.591) grams. Of this amount 1.316 grams appear in the 
feces and 1.982 grams in the urine, corresponding to 36.56 and 55.09 
per cent, respectively. The balance is positive and has an average 
daily magnitude of 0.301 gram. During the preservative period the 
average quantity of phosphoric acid exhibited in the food daily is 
3.808 grams. The quantity appearing in the feces is 1.334 grams and 
in the urine -±.'i:>'2. grams, equivalent t<> 35.03 and 59.14 per cent, 
respectively. The balance is still positive, though the daily magni- 
tude thereof is not so great as during the fore period, having been 
reduced to 0.222 gram. In theafter period the average quantity of 
phosphoric acid consumed daily by No. ♦'» is 3.713 grams, of which 
L.422 grams appear in the \'ra^ and L.989 grains in the urine, corre- 
sponding to 38.30 and 53.56 per cent, respectively. 'The balance is 
again positive and is almost exactly the same in magnitude as in the 

fore period, namely. <>. :;<>:_' gram daily. There is a tendency shown by 

these data on the pari <»f the preservative t<> increase the quantity of 
metabolized phosphoric acid excreted and at the same time to dimin- 
ish the quantity of the nonmetabolized phosphoric acid. By reason 
of the greater excretion of phosphoric acid in the urine during the 

preservative period the total magnitude of the positive balance is 
reduced by about one-third. 

Upon the withdrawal of the preservative the percentage of non- 
metabolized phosphoric acid excrete* I increases 3.27 pel-cent, exceeding 

that of the fore period, while the quantity of metabolized phosphoric 

acid falls 5.58 per cent, reaching a figure considerably below that of 

th< i fore period. The data therefore in this case indicate that the pres 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 609 

ence of the salicylic acid tends to increase the digestion and the 
absorption of the phosphoric acid from the intestinal canal and to 
increase the quantity- of phosphoric acid excreted by the kidneys. 

No. 7. 

In the case of No. 7 the quantity of phosphoric acid ingested in the 
food during the fore period averages daily 2.899 grams. Of this 
quantity 0.771 gram appears in the feces and 1.703 grams in the urine, 
corresponding to 26.60 and 58.74 percent, respectively, of the total 
phosphoric acid in the food. The balance is positive and amounts to 
0.425 gram per day. During the preservative period the quantity of 
phosphoric acid in the food is slightly increased, amounting to a daily 
average of 2.962 grams. Of this quantity 0.636 gram appears in the 
feces and 1.456 grams in the urine, corresponding to 21.48 and 49.14 
per cent, respectively, of the total phosphoric acid in the food. The 
phosphoric acid balance is thus phenomenal ly large, amounting to 0.87 
gram per day. 

During the after period No. 7 consumed a smaller quantity of phos- 
phoric acid than during either the preservative or fore period, namely, 
2.763 grams per day. Of this quantity 0.966 gram appears in the feces 
and 1.24 grams in the urine, corresponding to 34.95 and 44. S7 per cent, 
respectively, of the total quantity of phosphoric acid consumed. The 
balance is again very large, though smaller than that of the preserva- 
tive period, amounting to 0.557 gram pei ; da} T . Thus it is seen that 
the quantity of phosphoric acid excreted in the feces greatly increased 
in the after period and the quantity in the urine showed a marked 
decrease. 

In the case of No. 7 we again see a tendency on the part of the sali- 
cylic acid to increase the digestion of phosphoric acid and its absorp- 
tion from the intestinal canal. In this case, however, there is no 
evidence of any increased katabolic activity, in fact the quantity of 
phosphoric acid excreted in the urine is diminished. The balances are 
larger than would be expected in a case of this kind, hut careful revi- 
sion of the data for No. 7 failed to reveal any cause of suspicion that 
the excreta had not been properly collected and examined. 

No. 8. 

The quantity of phosphoric acid in the food of No. 8 amount- to 
2.Y28 grams daily, of which 0.972 gram appears in the feces and 1.75(5 
grains in the urine, representing 35.63 and 64.36 per cent, respectively, 
of the total quantity of the phosphoric acid in the food. The balance 4 
is 0, as all except one one-hundredth of 1 per cent of the phosphoric 
acid is accounted for. During the preservative period the quantity 
of phosphoric acid is slightly increased, amounting to 2.962 grains 



610 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

daily, of which 0.\)4'2 gram appears in the feces and 1.744 grams in 
the urine, equivalent to 31.81 and .~> s .^7 per cent, respectively, of the 
total quantity of phosphoric acid ingested. The balance now becomes 
positive and its magnitude is equivalent to 0.276 grain of phosphoric 
acid per day. During the after period the quantity of phosphoric acid 
consumed daily by No. 8 is 2.9 grams, of which 1.131 grams appear 
in the free- and L.533 grams in the urine, corresponding to 39 and 
.V2.s4 per cent, respectively, of the total quantity of phosphoric acid in 
the food. The balance i- again positive, amounting to 0.236 gram per 
day. These data again show a tendency on the part of the preservative 
to increase the absorption of the phosphoric acid from the alimentary 
canal, hut there is no evidence of any increased katabolic activity 
given by the urinalysis. On the contrary, the quantity so excreted is 
slightly smaller in amount and considerably smaller in percentage than 
during the fore period. 

In the after period the quantity of nonmetabolized phosphoric acid 
excreted becomes considerably greater, but the quantity of metabolized 
phosphoric acid is decidedly less and the balance is slightly decreased. 

No. 9. 

The daily quantity of phosphoric acid consumed in the food by No. 9 
during the fore period amounts to 4.832 grams, of which L.01 1 grams 
appear in the feces and 2.227 grams in the urine. These data corre- 
spond to 20.99 and 46.08 per cent, respectively, of the total phos- 
phoric add in the food. The balance for the fore period is positive, 
amounting to L.591 grams per day. 

During the preservative period the quantity of phosphoric acid 
daily consumed is increased, amounting to 5.012 grams per day, of 
which L. 635 grams occur in the feces and 2.457 grams in the urine 

These data correspond to 32.62 and F.t.Ol per cent, respectively, of 

the amount of phosphoric acid in (he food. The balance for the pre- 
servative period is again positive, though not so great in amount as 

that of the fore period, amounting l<> only 0.920 gram per day. 

During the after period N<>. 9 consumed. 5.11] grams of phosphoric 

acid daily, of which L.429 grams appear in the f<'<<^ and 2.295 grams 
in the urine, corresponding to 27.96 and 44.91 per cent, respectively, 

of the phosphoric acid in the food. The balance is again strongly 

positive, amounting to L.387 grams per day. 

According to these data the amount of both metabolized and non 
metabolized phosphoric acid eliminated by this subject during the 
preservative period was greater than in the fore period. Theincrease 
of the nonmetabolized phosphoric acid is especially marked. During 
the after period the amount of metabolized phosphoric acid eliminated 
is not .greatly different from that of the fore period, although it is 
relatively less considering the fact that the amount of phosphoric acid 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 611 

ingested is greater in the after period than in the fore period. The 
elimination of nonmetabolized phosphoric acid in the after period was 
distinctly greater than in the fore period, but not .so great as in the 
preservative period. 

For reasons given elsewhere (p. 587) the results obtained with this 
subject are believed to be untrustworthy and are not included in the 
summaries. 

No. 10. 

The quantity of phosphoric acid consumed in the food by No. 10 
during the fore period amounts to 4.324 grams daily, of which 1.087 
grams appear in the feces and 2.233 grams in the urine. These data 
correspond to 25.15 and 51.61 per cent, respectively, of the total phos- 
phoric acid in the food. The balance during the fore period was 
strongly positive, amounting to 1.044 grams per day. 

During the preservative period the quantity of phosphoric acid con- 
sumed is somewhat greater than in the fore period, amounting to 4.581 
grams per day, of which 0.907 gram appears in the feces and 2. ^11 grams 
in the urine. This is equivalent to 19.79 and 18.95 per cent, respec- 
tively, of the total amount of phosphoric acid in the food. The bal- 
ance, therefore, is even more strongly positive than in the fore period, 
amounting to 1.433 grams per day. 

Owing to illness, No. 10 was not continued in the experiment during 
the after period. For reasons given elsewhere (p. 587) this subject is 
omitted from the summaries. The results are given here, how 7 e\ r er, 
as a matter of record. 

No. 11. 

The quantity of phosphoric acid consumed in the food by No. 11 
during the fore period amounts to 1.373 grams per day, of which 
1.568 grams appear in the feces and 2.863 grams in the urine. These 
data correspond to 35.85 and 65.46 per cent, respectively, of the total 
phosphoric acid in the food. It is seen that this causes a negative 
balance of small magnitude, equivalent to —0.057 gram per day. 
During the fore period, therefore, No. 11 was excreting a slightly 
greater quantity of phosphoric acid than he was ingesting. During 
the preservative period the quantity of phosphoric acid ingested is 
slightly increased, amounting to 4.573 grams per day. of which 1.541 
grams appear in the feces and 2.481 grams in the urine, correspond- 
ing to 33.69 and 54.25 per cent, respectively, of the total phosphoric 
acid in the food. These data indicate a strongly positive balance the 
magnitude of which is equivalent to 0.551 gram per day. During the 
after period No. 11 consumed 4.57i! grams of phosphoric acid daily, 
of which L.697 appear in the Uh-v> and2.209 grams in the urine, corre- 
sponding to 37.12 and 48.31 per cent, respectively, of the total quan- 
tity of phosphoric acid contained in the food. This indicates a -t ill 



612 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

more strongly positive balance, the magnitude of which is 0.666 gram 
per day. Again, we see in this instance a tendency on the part of 
the preservative to increase the absorption of tin 1 phosphoric acid 
from the alimentary canal. The quantity of phosphoric acid metabo- 
lized which was excreted through the kidneys is, however, very greatly 
reduced, the percentage falling from (J5.40 in the fore period to M.lV) 
in the preservative period. It is this great reduction in the metabo- 
lized phosphoric acid which has caused the balance to be so large. 
Again, in the after period the marked diminution of the metabolic 
activity as manifested through the kidneys has caused the balance to 
ime even more strongly positive than during the preservative 
period, amounting to 0.666 gram per day, although the excretion of 
nonmetabolized phosphoric acid increased. 

No. 12. 

No. 12 consumed in his food during the fore period 4.434 grams 
per day, of which 1.54i> grams appear in the feces and 2.569 grams 
in the urine. These data correspond to 34.93 and 57. 1*3 per cent. 
respectively, of the total quantity of phosphoric acid in the food. 
During the preservative period No. 12 consumed 4.517 grams ^( 
phosphoric acid, of which L.279 grams appear in the feces and -J. r>7»> 
grams in the urine, corresponding to 28.31 and 57.05 per cent. 
respectively, of the total phosphoric acid contained in the food. This 
causes a very large positive balance, the magnitude of which is <uw;l> 
gram daily. In the after period No. 12 consumes 4.366 grams of 
phosphoric acid per day. of which L.507 grams appear in the feces 
and 2.456 grams in the urine, corresponding to 34.5J and 56.27 per 
cent, respectively, of the total quantity of phosphoric acid in the food. 
The balance is positive and amounts to 0.403 gram per day. 

Again, we see in I his case a tendency on the part of the preservative 
to increase the absorption of phosphoric acid from the intestinal canal. 
There is a very -light increase during the preservative period in the 
quantity of phosphoric acid excreted by the kidneys, but a decrease 
iii i he percentage amount and a decided decrease in the nonmetabolized 
phosphoric acid excreted. 1 hiring the after period there is an increase 
in the nonmetabolized phosphoric acid excreted in the feces and a 
-light falling oil' of the quantity of phosphoric acid excreted in the 
mine. In this case the large positive balance of the preservative period 
i> due chiefly to the diminution of the quantity of nonmetabolized 

phosphoric acid excreted in the feces. 

-I MM U.Y. 

In the general summary of Table XV (p. 626), the figures for Nbs. 
Hid L0 are omitted for the reasons already given (pp. 585,587), 
although presented in detail among the individual data. The follow 



SALICYLIC ACID 'AND SALICYLATES. 



613 



ing .summary of the results obtained by periods for the nine men is 
repeated for convenience in the discussion : 

Table XIV. — Phosphoric acid summary, by periods, for nine rm n, SI ries VI. 



Period. 



Phosphoric 
I acid in 
food. 



! Grams. 

Fore period ; 3. 816 

Preservative period 3. 967 

After period 3. 873 



Phosphoric 

acid in 

feces. 



Grams. 
1.247 
1.145 
1. 335 



Phosphoric 
acid in 
urine. 



Grams. 
2. 3G4 
2. 374 
2.181 



Phosphoric Phosphoric 
acid in acid in 

feces. 



Per cent. 
32. 69 
28.87 
34.47 



Per cent. 

61.95 
59. 84 
56.32 



Balance. 



Grams. 
+0. 205 
+0. 448 
+0. 357 



It is seen that the average quantities of phosphoric acid ingested 
daily in the different periods varied but little. There is, however, a 
slightly larger amount found in the food during the preservative 
period than in the fore period, while the food of the after period 
contains an intermediate amount. 

The quantity of phosphoric acid contained in the feces is decidedly 
smaller during the preservative period than in either of the other 
periods, amounting to 1.145 grams daily as compared with 1.247 
grams in the fore period and 1.335 grams in the after period. These 
average figures, agreeing as they do with the individual figures in 
every case, show a very distinct effect of the salicylic acid in increas- 
ing the absorption of the phosphcric acid from the alimentary canal 
into the circulation. In respect of the phosphoric acid in the urine it 
is seen that the amounts during the fore and preservative periods are 
almost exactly the same, being 2.361 and 2.371, respectively. In the 
after period, however, there is a very decided indication that upon 
the withdrawal of the salicylic acid after the preservative period of 
six weeks the quantity of phosphoric acid in the feces was increased 
to a marked degree, while the amount in the urine was diminished. 
The relative percentages of phosphoric acid excreted in the feces and 
urine show these relations in a still more pronounced manner. 

It thus appears that the effect of the salicylic acid is first to increase 
the absorption of the phosphoric acid from the intestinal canal, but 
upon the withdrawal of the preservative 4 much less of the phosphoric 
acid is absorbed than before the exhibition of the drug. Considering 
the utter period, therefore, the evident conclusion is that the final 
effect of the salicylic acid has been to diminish the metabolization of 
the phosphoric acid, and the same conclusion is reached from a study 
of the percentage data for the amounts excreted in the urine, which 
decrease steadily from 61.95 per cent in the fore period to 59.84 in 
the preservative period and :>t\.:\'2 per cent in the after period. 

The most prominent fact brought out by the summary is that during 
the administration of this preservative the feces are more free from 
phosphoric acid than during the fore and after periods and there is 
practically no increase in the amount excreted in the urine, while the 



614 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



percentage amount decreases, and in the after period both amount and 
percentage decrease. There is therefore a well-developed tendency to 
increase the store of phosphoric acid in the body, as is shown by the 
balances, which increase in the preservative period from 0.205 gram 
to 0.448 gram and decrease again in the after period to 0.357 gram. 
It is fair to presume, therefore, that these results are caused by the 
action of the preservative. In other words, salicylic acil creates 
a tendency toward the accumulation of phosphoric acid in the body. 

Table XV. — Phosphoric acid balances for Series IT. 

[Averages are per day.] 

N<>. 1. 



Period. 


In food. 


■ 

in feces. 


In urine. 

v 


1 

in feces 

and 

urine. 


In 
feces. 


»i 

111 
urine. 


7 
in feces 

and 
mine. 


8 

Balance. 

1 l 


9 
Sali- 
cylic 

acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fort pt rind. 

First Bubperiod: 

Total 


(•rams. 
19.046 
3.809 

17.991 
3. 598 


Grams. 
6. 597 

1.319 

4.827 

. 965 


Grams. 
L0.723 
2.145 

10.963 
2. 193 


drams. 
L7.320 
:;. 164 

15.790 
3. L58 


Perct. 
34.64 


Per <•/. 
56.30 


Per ct. 
SO. 94 


drums. 
1.7 26 
.345 

: 2.201 

146 


drums 




Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


26. 83 


60.94 


87. 77 




o 










Entire fore period: 
Total 


37.037 

:;. Tut 


11. Ii'l 
1.142 


21.686 

2. 169 


33. no 
3.311 


30. 85 


58. 55 


89. 1" 


: 8.927 
+ .393 
















Preservative period. 
First subperiod': 

Total 


L8.902 
3.780 

L8.978 
3. 796 

19.798 
8.960 

19.211 
3.842 

19.894 

:;. 979 

19.060 
8.810 


5.008 

1 . 'HI] 

L.069 

5.561 

1. 112 

1. Hil 


11.271 
2.254 

L2.343 

■_-. 169 

a L1.696 
2.319 

L2.216 
•_'. 148 

L1.737 

•j.:; 17 

L1.845 
2.269 


L4.253 
2.851 

17.346 
3. 169 

16.941 
L6.867 


15.78 




75. in 


1.649 

. 929 

• 1.632 
. 327 

1.484 

L.649 
.880 

■ •_'. 188 

. i :: 


1.06 


-_ r e 

Second subperiod: 
Total 


."1 




65. 04 


91. 10 


2. 10 




.42 


Third Bubperiod: 

Total 


27. 00 






3.70 






Fourth Bubperiod: 
Total 






92.54 






Fifth Bubperiod: 

Total 


82.71 




91.71 


8.00 


age 

sixth Bubperiod: 

Total 


l 60 








10.00 


Average 


2. 00 


Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 


ll >.888 
19. 168 


L.081 
10. 188 


l 


L01. i "' 








; 11. 104 
+ .480 




Average 


L.08 










.i /'' / //' / iod, 

ubpei lod: 
Total 


1U. IIS 

LO 924 


1. 171 






L18. 15 


2. 17:: 
. 194 

I . 292 

069 










Becond Bubperiod: 
Total 


ll. 19 




98. is 








(t 


Entire after period 
Total 




■ 






is. V7 




106.81 


2 L81 

.IMS 





A \ era •■ 










uDalh a \ en 



• id. 



SALICYLIC ACID AXD SALICYLATES. 



615 



Table XV. — Phosphoric acid balances for Series VI— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. 2. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


2 3 
In feces. In urine. 


4 

In feces 

and 

urine. 

.2-3) 


5 

In 
feces. 
(2-1) 


6 

I* 

urine. 

(3-1) 


7 8 9 

In feces f$k 
and Balance. c ^ 

J"** a, » adSin- 
** • L) istered. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 

22. 060 
4.412 


Grams. Grams. 
6.816 a 16. 025 
1 3fi3 8 90S 


Grams. 

22. 841 

4. 568 

21 . 55' > 


Pt r d. 

30.90 


Per ct. 

72. 64 


Per et. 
103. 54 


Grams. 
-0. 781 
- .156 


Grams. 




Second subperiod: 
Total 


20.945 7.285 14.267 


31.7s 


68.12 


102. 90 


- .607 







4. 189 - 457 ' 853 


- .121 


Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 












43. 005 
4.300 


14.101 30.292 
1. 410 3. 029 


44. 393 
4.439 


32. 79 


70.44 


103. 23 


-1.388 
- .139 







Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total , 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Aveiage 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 



21.871 

4.374 



21. 652 
4.330 



21. 844 
4.369 



22. 092 

4.41s 



22. 879 
4.576 



22. 089 
4.418 



5. 151 
1.030 



6.436 

1. 2S7 



7. 364 
1.473 



7.102 
1.420 



4. 133 
. 827 



7.367 
1.473 



14.714 
2. 943 



16. 061 
3. 212 



15. 734 
3.147 



14. 903 
2.981 



15. 979 
:;. 196 



14.271 
2. 854 



132.427 
4.414 



37. 553 
1. 252 



19.865 

3. 973 



22. 497 

4.499 



23. 098 
4.620 



22. 005 
4.401 



20. 112 
4. 022 



21.638 

4.328 



23. 55 

29.72 
33.71 
32. 15 



67.28 

74.18 
72.03 
67.46 



18.06 69.84 



33.35 



64.61 



90.83 , +2.006 
.lui 



103. 90 



105. 74 



. 8 15 
.169 



1.254 
.251 



).61 



.(87 

,017 



87.91 ! +2.767 
+ .554 



97.96 + .451 
+ .090 



1.05 
.21 



2.10 
.42 



3.70 
.74 



6.00 
1.20 



8.00 
1.60 



10.00 
2.00 



91.662 129.215 
3.055 4.307 



28.36 ! 69.22 



Yl. 57 



+3.212 30.85 
- .107 1.03 



After p>eriod. 

Firsl subperiod: 

Total 


21. 409 

4. 252 

22. 168 
4.434 


5. 519 
1.104 

6.745 

1.349 


14.075 
2.815 

1 L986 

2. 997 


19. 594 
3.919 

21.731 
4.346 


25.78 


65. 74 


91. 52 


+ 1.815 
+ .333 

+ . 137 
,C88 





Average 





Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


30. 43 


67.60 


98.03 














Entire after period: 
Total 


43. 577 
• 4". 358 


12.264 
L.226 


29. 061 
2.906 


41.325 

4. 133 


28. 14 


66. 69 




2.252 







o 













a Daily average added in order to complete record. 



616 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 



Table XV. — Phosphoric acid balance* for Series J Y— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 
No. :i. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


2 

in Feces. 


In urine. 


4 

in Feces 

and 

urine. 
(2+3) 


•"» 

In 
Feces. 

(2-1) 


G 

In 
urine. 
(3-1) 


7 

In feces 
and 
urine. 

(4-5-1) 


8 
Balance. 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fort i" Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 

} 

18.863 

3. 773 


Grams. 

3. 732 

.746 


Grams. 

10.700 
2. 1 10 


Grams. 

Broke 

14.432 
2.886 


Perct. Peret. 
i by illness. 

19. 79 56. 73 




Grams. 


Grams. 








Second subperiod: 

Total 


76. 51 


+ 4.431 
+ .887 







o 












Entire fore period: 

Total 


18.868 
3.773 


8.732 
.746 


10.700 
2.110 


1 1. 132 

2. 886 


19.79 




76. 51 


t. 131 
.887 




















I'ri st i rutin jti Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


19.029 

17. CIO 
3. 522 

19.670 

3. 934 

19.879 
3. 976 

19. 17.". 
3. 895 


2.680 
.536 

;.. 568 

l.lll 

2.692 
.588 

5.707 

l.lll 

2. 933 

.587 


10. 899 
2.180 

"10.410 
2. 082 

in. 1ST 
2.097 

9.919 
1 . 98 1 

9. 234 
1.847 


13.579 

2. 7 16 

L5.978 

3.196 

13.179 
2. 636 

15.626 

:;. 125 

12.167 
2. 133 


14.08 


57. 28 


71.36 


5. (60 
+ 1.090 

+ 1.632 
.326 

| 6.491 

• 1.298 

• 1.268 

.851 

7.808 

• 1 . 462 


LOS 




.21 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


31.62 


59. 1 1 


90.73 


2. 10 




.42 


Third Bubperiod: 

Total 


18.69 


53.31 


67.00 


4.00 
..SO 


Fourth Bubperiod: 

Total 


28.71 


19.90 


78.61 


6.00 
1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


15.06 


17. 11 


62. 17 






1.60 










Five preservative sub- 
period-: 
Total 


b 95. 668 
8. 827 


L9.580 
.783 




70.529 
2.821 


20. 17 






1-26.184 

+ 1.006 


21.16 














AJtei period. 

Firsl subperiod: 
Tota l 


18. 196 
3.689 

19.171 


Lost. 


9.086 
1.807 

9. 967 
L.998 






19.66 









Average 

Second Bubperiod: 
Total 











1.528 
,906 


l I. 195 




61.99 


7.'». 61 


L676 
.936 




















Entire after period 
Total 


















Q 












































a Daily average added in order to complete record. h No. 8 had only Ave preservative subperiod-.. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



617 



Table XV. — Phosphoric acid balances for Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

NO. 4r. 



Period. 



Fore period. 
First subperiod: 



t>pe 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



In food. 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 



After ]>< riod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



In feces. 



Grams. 

21.208 

4. 242 

20. 125 
4.025 



4. 947 



5. 732 

1.146 



In urine 



Grams. 
12. 787 
2.557 

14. 505 
2. 901 



In feces 
and 

urine. 
(2+3) 



Grams. 

17.734 
3.547 



In 


In 


feces. 


urine. 


(2-5-1) 


(3-1) 



Per ct. 
23.33 



20. 237 28. 48 
4.047 



41.333 
4.133 



10. 679 
1.068 



27. 292 37. 971 25. 84 
2.729 3.797 



21. 124 
4.225 



21.027 
4.205 



21.154 
4.231 



21.806 
4.361 



22. 177 
4.435 



21. 273 

4.255 



4.929 
.986 


5. 679 
1.136 


5.691 
1.138 


a 4. 731 

. 946 


6. 128 
1.226 



13.843 
2.769 



15.277 
3. 055 



Per ct. 
60.29 



In feces 

and Balance, 
urine. (1-4) 
(4-1) 



Per ct. 

83. 62 



72. 07 100. 56 



3. 03 91. 87 



Grams. 
+ 3.474 
+ . 695 

- .112 

- 022 



336 



Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 



Grains. 








18. 772 23. 33 
3.754 



20. 956 27. 01 
4.191 



65.53 88.87 
72. 65 99. 66 



13.640 19.331 26.' 
2.728 3.866 



2. 352 
.471 



.071 
.014 



14.891 19.622 21.70 
2.978 3.924 



I. 29 89. 98 
).43 I 88.06 



a 5. 204 
1.041 



13.402 19.530 27.63 

2.680 3.906 

I 
13.839 19.043 24.46 65.06 89.52 

2.7< 



128. 561 
L285 



20. 558 
4.112 



21.459 
4.292 



32. 362 

1.079 



84.892 
2.830 



4.217 
.843 



6. 484 

1 . 297 



12. 959 
2.592 



14.038 
2. 808 



42.017 10.701 
4.202 i 1.070 



26. 997 
2. 700 



117.254 25.17 
3.908 



66.03 91.21 



17.176 20.51 

3.435 

2(1.522 30.22 

4.104 



63.01 



65. 12 95. 63 



2. 230 
.446 



+ 11.307 
+ .377 



332 

677 



+ .937 
.188 



37.698 25 47 61.25 89.72 
3.770 



1.05 
.21 



2.10 
.42 



+ 1.823 
+ .365 


3.70 
.74 


+ 2.184 
+ .437 


6.00 
1.20 


+ 2.647 
+ . 529 


8.00 
1.60 



10.00 
2.00 



30. 85 
1.03 



• 1.819 o 

132 



« Daily average added in order 

7656— No. 84, pt 2—00 10 



complete record. 



61 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XV. — Phosphoric acid balances for Series VI— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. r,. 



Period. 



In food. In feces. In urine 



period. 

First Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second sub period: 

Total 

Averag 



Grams, drams. 

21.244 T.Jl'J 

1. 249 1. 450 



In feces 

and 

urine 
(2+3) 



Grams. Grams. 

20.139 

4.028 



20.526 

4. 105 



7.C79 
1. 416 



11.896 

2. 379 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



11.770 14.828 
4.177 1.433 



24.786 
2. 179 



18.975 

:;. J95 



In In 

urine. 

- 1 (3^-1) 



84.12 



In feces 

and 
orine. 

(4-^1) 



Per ct. Per ct. 
94.80 



34.49 57.96 92.44 



Sali- 

■ 2& 

admin- 
istered. 



(1-4) 



Grams. 

+ 1.105 

+ . 221 

+ 1.5.51 
+ .310 



39.114 34.30 
3.911 



J5. 64 2.656 
i + . 266 



Grams. 









/ . ., r ' -nt 'hi period. 

Fir>t subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

'Total 

Average 

Sixth Bubperiod: 

. I 

.\\ erage 



21. 123 



•21. lis 
4.224 



•21.2H7 
1.211 



22. 261 
I. 152 



22.:;;;7 
I. 167 



21. 128 
1.286 



7. 271 
1. 154 



5.110 

1 . 022 



.',.1112 
1.202 



1.777 



6. 27s 
1 . 256 



7.030 

1. 106 



12.791 
2. 558 



13.595 
2.719 



13.579 

2. 7 if, 



13.216 
2.643 



13.087 
2.617 



12. ins 

2. 182 



20.0G2 

UH2 



18.705 

3.711 



19. 591 
8.918 



L7.993 

:;. 599 



19.365 



33.94 59.71 98.65 



21.2(1 
28. 35 

21. If, 

28. 1 1 



19. 138 32. M 




, 38 88. 57 



64.03 
59.37 

57. 91 



Entire preservative 
period: 

'Total 

Average 



After i» Hod. 
Firel subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second Hubperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 

rotal 

Average 



129.774 86.478 
1.326 1.216 



78.676 115.154 28. 11 

538 



20.810 

I. L62 



1.279 



21. 139 5. L64 
L.088 



mi 888 lv 276 
2.377 3.U55 



12.738 17.902 
2.548 



12.249 
1.225 



1 1 . 557 

l l 6 



24.621 36.178 
3.618 



80.72 






57. lit 






92.38 

Bass 



• 1.361 

+ . 273 



2. 113 
188 



1.616 

4- .323 



4. 



. 853 



2. 972 



9(t.7l 1.900 

398 






14.620 

. 188 



87. 82 





88. 50 

• .708 






| 6.071 
. 607 



1.06 

.21 



2. 10 

. 12 



3. 70 

.71 



6. HO 

1.2(i 



B.00 
1 . 60 



10.00 
2.00 



30. 85 

1 . 03 



a Daily average added In ordei to complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



619 



Table XV. — Phosphoric acid balances for Series VI— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 
ISTo. 6. 



Period. 



Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

A verage 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Prcserratirt pi Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total ..., 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

•Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



In food. In frees. 



Grams Grains. 

18. 365 6. 658 

3.673 1.332 

17.621 

3.524 1.300 



35. 986 
3. 599 



Grams. 

9.814 
1.963 

10. 010 
2. 002 



In feces 

and 
urine. 
(2+3) 



Grams. 

16. 472 

3.294 

16. 508 
3. 302 



13.156 
1.316 



19.824 82.980 
1 . 982 3. 298 



18. 736 
3.747 



18. 059 
3.612 



18. 795 
3. 759 



19.977 
3. 995 



19. 960 
3.992 



18. 728 
3.746 



6.117 
1.223 



7.097 
1.419 



7.147 
1.429 



5.956 
1.191 



7.219 
1.444 



6. 182 

1. 296 



11.315 
2.263 



12. 020 
2.404 



"11.275 
2. 255 



« 11. 928 
2.386 



11.044 
2. 209 



.990 



17. 432 
3.486 



19.117 
3.823 



18.422 
3.684 



17.884 
3. 577 



18. 263 
3. 653 



16.472 
3.294 



In 
feces. 
(2-1) 



6 

In 

urine. 
(3-:-l) 



In feces 

and Balance, 
urine. (1—4) 
(4-1) 



Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Grams. 
36.25 53.44 89.69 +1.893 
+ . 379 



36.88 



Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 



Grams. 






56. 81 93. 



-t-1.113 

+ .222 



36. 56 55. 09 



91.65 +3.006 
.301 



32.65 



38.03 



60.39 93.04 



5.56 105. 



59. 99 98. 02 




29.81 i 59.71 



36.17 55.33 91.50 



52 



34.61 53.31 S7.95 



304 
261 



058 
211 



373 

075 



093 
418 



339 



256 
452 



Entire preservat i ve 
period: 

Total 

Average 



114.255 

3.808 



40. 018 
1.334 



67.572 107.590 
2.252 , 3.586 



35.03 59.14 94.17 



0. 000 

I .222 



« Daily average added in order to Compleb 



1.05 
.21 



2.10 
.42 



3.70 

.74 



6.00 
1.20 



8.00 
1.60 



S.00 
1.60 



28. 85 

.96 



After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


, 18.&54 
3.671 

18.779 

:;. 756 


8.616 

1.723 

a 6. 605 

1.121 


9. ISO 17.796 
L.836 

10. 707 16. 312 
2.141 3.262 


46.94 


.50. 02 


96. 96 
+ .112 





Average 





Second subperiod: 
Total 

Average 


29.85 ■ 


57.02 


+2.467 
+ .494 

















El tire after period: 

Total 

Average 


37. 133 
3. 713 


L4.221 

1.422 


19.887 34.108 

1.989 3.411 

1 


38 80 




'.H.s:. +3.025 
+ .302 


















620 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XV. — Phosphoric acid balances for Series VI— Continued. 
[Averages are per day.] 

No. T. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


2 

In feces. 


3 

In urine. 


1 

In feces 

and 
urine. 


5 

In 
feces. 

(2-1) 


6 

In 
urine. 
(3-1) 


7 

In hers 
and 
urine. 
(4-1-1) 


8 

Balance. 

1 ' 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fori j" Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 
14.252 

2. 850 

14.733 

2.947 


Grams. 
4.781 

.956 


Grams. 
8.547 

1.709 

8.480 


annus. 
13.828 
2.666 

11.410 
2. 282 


/'> r ct. 
83.55 


Per ct. 

69. '.'7 


Per ct. 

93. 52 


Grams. 

0.924 
• . L84 

+ 3.323 
4- . 665 


Grams. 

o 







Second subperiod: 

Total 


19.89 


57. 66 


77. 45 







. 5S6 1 . 69(5 

















Entire fore period: 

Total 


7.7H 17.027 
2.899 .771 1.703 


24.738 

'_'. 171 


26.60 


5s. 7 1 


85 :;;, u 4.247 






+ . 425 










Preservative period. 

1 tot subperiod: 

Total 


14.865 
2. 973 


3.839 7.354 


11.193 
2. 239 

10. 553 
2.111 

10.467 
•2 093 


25.83 


19. 17 


75.30 


+ 3.672 1.05 




.768 


1.471 

7.903 
L.581 

6.597 
1 . 3 1 9 


+■ .734 

• 1.614 

+ . 922 

1.548 

+ . 909 

• 6.515 
1. 103 

| 3. 179 

• . 696 

1.286 

. 867 


.21 


.-(•coiid subperiod: 

Total 


15.167 2. tiro 
3 033 . 530 

15.010 3.870 
3.002 -77 1 


17.47 


52.11 


69.58 


2. 10 

. 12 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


■J".. 7s 


43. 95 


69.73 


8. 70 

.71 


Fourth Bubperiod: 

Total 


1 1. 722 
2. 94 1 

14.749 
2.968 

14.355 
2.871 


•_'. 757 

. 551 

1.2S1 
856 

L.690 
,888 


6.450 9.207 

1 . 290 


L8.73 


48.81 


62.54 


6.00 






1 . 20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


1.898 

8. 879 
1.676 


11.27U 
2. 25 1 

L0.069 
2.014 


29.03 47.39 


76. 11 


8. 00 
1 . 60 


sixth subperiod: 

Total 


11.77 58.37 


70. 1 1 


10.00 

2 00 










Entire preservative 

period 
Total 


2. 962 


1" n-7 
636 


I. 156 


62 : •'.' 
2. 092 


21. is 


19. 1 | 


70.61 


• 26. 109 
+ .870 


30. B5 




1.03 












.\ih r i» Hod. 

Firs! Bubperiod: 

Total 

.\\ erage 

Second subperiod: 

Total 


13.665 
2.718 

L4.066 
2.818 


1. 163 
.881 

l.Kil 


5.802 

l. l.iu 

6.696 
1,819 


'.«. 956 

1.991 

12. 100 
2. 120 


80 62 


12. 77 


78.89 


8.610 

1 . 722 

| L.966 
.898 






39. L3 


i.. Bfl 


86.02 

















Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 


27.631 
2. 768 


9. 667 
. 966 


L.240 


2. 206 




II. sT 




• 5.676 


















SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



621 



Table XV. — Phosphoric acid balances for Series TT— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. 8. 



Period. 



Fm> period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



In food. 



In feces. 



Grams. Grams. 

14.214 4.014 

2.843 I .803 

13. 065 5. 706 

2.613 1.141 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



27. 279 9. 720 
2.728 , .972 



Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



14. 739 
2.948 



14. 596 
2. 919 



14. 510 
2.902 



14. 787 
2.957 



15. 671 
3.134 



14. 546 
2. 909 



Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 



After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Becond subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



88. 849 
2. 962 



14.010 
2. 802 



14. 994 
2. 999 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



29. 004 
2.900 



5.119 
1.024 



6.091 
1.218 



3.681 
.736 



5.474 
1.095 



3.377 
.675 



4. 521 
.904 



$.263 
.942 



5.878 
1.176 



5. 435 
1.087 



11.313 
1.131 



3 



In urine. 



Grams. 
8.818 
1.764 

8.740 
1.748 



17. 558 
1.756 



882 

776 



500 

900 



820 
764 



a 8. 
1. 



132 

cm; 



52. 305 
1.744 



7. 387 
1.477 



1.588 



15. 325 
1.533 



In feces 

and 

urine. 

(2+3) 



Grams. 
12. 832 
2.566 

14. 446 

2.889 



27. 278 
2. 728 



In 
feces. 
(2-1) 



Per ct. 

28. 24 



43.67 



35. 63 



In 
urine. 
(3-5-1) 



Per ct. 
62. 04 



In feces 
and 

urine. 
(4-1) 



Per ct. 
90. 28 



90 110.57 



61.36 100.00 



Sali- 

u 4j admin- 
istered. 



Grams, drams 



+1.382 

+ .277 



1.381 

- .277 



,001 
,000 



14.001 : 34.73 60.26 94. 
2.800 ! ' 



15.591 , 41.73 65.09 106.82 
3.118 



12. 501 
2.500 


25.37 


60.79 


86. 15 


14. 362 

2.872 


37.02 


60.11 


97.13 


11.809 
2. 362 


21.55 


• 53. 81 


75.36 


12. 304 

2.461 


31.08 


53. 51 


84.59 



80. 568 
2.686 



31.81 58.87 90.68 



13. 265 41. 96 52. 73 94. 68 
2.653 ■ 



13. 373 
2. 675 



2.664 



25 52. 94 89. 19 



. 00 52. 84 91. 84 



738 
148 



.995 
.199 



+2. 009 
+ .402 



+ .425 
+ .085 



+3. 862 
+ .772 



+ 2.242 
+ .448 



+ .745 

+ .149 



+2.: 



236 



1.05 
.21 



2.10 
.42 



3.70 

.74 



6.00 
1.20 



8.00 
1.60 



10.00 
2.00 



+8. 281 30. 85 
+ .276 1.03 



+ 1.621 

H .324 



•'Daily average added in order to complete record. 



C.22 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVE ON HEALTH. 



Table XV. — Phosphoric acid balances for Series VI- — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

N"o. 9. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


2 

In feces. 


3 
In urine. 


4 

In feces 

and 
nrine. 
(2+3) 


5 

In 

(2-1) 


6 

In 
urine. 

(3-1) 


7 

In feces 
and 
urine. 
(4-3-1) 


S 

Balance. 
(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fort period. 

First BUbperiod: 

Total 

A\ erage 


Grams. 

- 
4. 7% 

24. 3«3 
4.869 


drums. 

4. 020 

.804 

6. 122 

1.224 


Grams. 

1 1 . 857 
2.371 


(i rums. 
15.877 
8. 175 


Per ct. 
16.76 


r> /■ <-t. 

B. 1 1 


Perct. 

hi,. 21 


drums. 
+ 8.104 
• L621 


drums. 



Seco ml subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


10.410 16.532 
2.082 3.306 


_'.".. 15 


42. 76 


67.113 


• 7. Ml 
- 1.583 







Entire fore period: 
Total 


48. 824 


10.142 
1.014 


22. 267 32. 409 
2.227 3.241 


20.99 


46. 08 


67.07 


16.915 

+ 1.591 






















Preservative pt Hod. 

First BUbperiod: 

Total 


25.052 
B.010 

24.095 
1.819 

24.818 
4.964 

:.. us 

25. 776 
6.155 

25. 03M 

., 008 


11.610 

2.822 

7. 838 
L.668 

7. 195 
1.439 

1.812 
. 962 

9. B92 

1 . 978 

7.703 
1.541 


11.750 

2.350 

11.997 
2. 399 

12.249 

•J. 150 

13. 981 

2. 796 

10.919 
2.184 

12. Ml.", 


23. 360 

l.t.72 

19. 835 
3.967 

19. Ill 

18.793 

:;. TV.. 

20. Ml 
1. 162 


46. 34 


46.90 




+ 1.692 
.+ . 3158 

- L260 

- 

+ 5.374 
1.075 

L359 

• l 965 
+ .993 

• 1.581) 

.906 


1.05 




.21 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


32.53 


49.79 


-j. 82 


2. 10 




. 1" 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


2<S. 99 


49. 36 


78.35 


3.70 




.71 


Fourth BUbperiod: 

Total 




51. 6:; 


73. 1 1 


6.00 




1 . 20 


Fifth BUbperiod: 

Total 


38.38 


42. 36 


B0. 74 






1.60 


sixth subperiod: 

Total 


30. 76 


51.14 


81.91 


10. 00 




2.561 4.102 


2.00 














Entire preserval Ive 
period: 
Total 


L50.370 
5.012 


49.050 
1.636 


73.701 122.751 
2. 157 4.092 


32. 62 


19.01 


B1.6S 


27.619 




Average 


1.08 










After period. 

i'jr-t BUbperiod: 

Total 


25.880 
5.076 

26. 728 

5. 1 16 


3.271 
.654 

LI. 018 


in. 128 
12.531 


18.694 

i Tin 


12.89 


U.07 




■ 11.686 

-.887 

| 2.179 
. 136 





rage 

Becond BUbperiod: 
Total 


(i 




18.71 


91.68 





rage 















Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 


51. ins 

;.. i 1 1 


14.289 

1. 129 


2. 295 


8.724 


27.96 


44.91 


72. 87 


18. B6 ■ 
■ L.887 















SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



623 



Table XV. — Phosphoric acid balances for Series VI— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

:no. 10. 



Period. 



Fort pt riod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod : 

Total 

Average 



In food. 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Grams. 
22. 277 
4.455 

20. 958 
4. 192 



Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 



. 1./7' r period. 

First subperiod:" 

Total 

Average 



•1 



In feces. 



Grams. 
6. 672 
1.334 

4.200 
.840 



43. 235 
4. 324 



22. 883 
4.577 



22. 599 
4.520 



22. 319 
4.4G4 



22. 680 
4. 536 



23. 925 
4.785 



23. 103 
4. 621 



137. 509 
4.584 



10. 872 
1.087 



5.843 
1.169 



5.222 
1.044 



1.214 



P 



s 



In urine. 



In feces T „ 

» nd feces 

urine. ^ : 

(2+3) ^• 1 



In 
urine. 
(3+1) 



In feces 



Sali- 

Balanee. cyl .^ 
urine, n - -i , acid 



(4-1) 



(1-4) 



admin- 
istered. 



Grams. Grams. Per ct. 
10. 727 17. 399 29. 95 
2.145 3.480 



Per ct. 

48.15 



p> r a. 

78.10 



11.600 15.800 20.04 55.35 75.39 + 5.158 
2. 320 3. 160 J- 1. 032 



lint in*. 
+ 4.878 
+ .975 



22.327 33.199 
2. 233 3. 320 



25.15 51.64 



Grams. 









■+10.036 

+ 1.004 i 



4.434 

.887 



3.936 
.787 



1.704 
.341 



10. 851 
2.170 



12. 768 
2.554 



11.612 

2.322 



11.513 
2.303 



10. 823 
2. 165 



9.744 
1.949 



16. 694 

3.339 



17.990 
3.598 



17. 680 
3. 536 



15. 947 

3.189 



14. 759 
2.952 



11.448 
2. 290 



25. 53 



23.11 
27.18 



19. 55 
16. 45 
7.38 



27.207 67.311 94.518 
.907 2.244 3.151 



19.79 



22. 591 
4.518 



5. !•_"_' 
1.084 



9. 198 

1.900 



14.920 
2.984 



24. 00 



47. 42 72. 95 



56. 50 79. 61 

52. 03 79. 22 



50. 76 
45. 24 
42.18 



70.31 



61. 69 

49.55 



48.95 68.74 



42. 04 m. 04 



+ 6.189 
+ 1.238 

+ 4.609 

- . 922 

+ 4.639 
4- . 928 

+ 6.733 
+ 1.347 

+ 9.166 
+ 1.833 

+11. 655 

- 2.331 



+42.991 
- 1.433 



1.05 
.21 



2.10 
.42 



3.70 
.74 



6.00 
1.20 



8.00 
1.60 



10.00 
2.00 



30. 85 
1.03 



+ 7.671 

+ 1.534 



a No second after subperiod; subject ill. 



624 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XV. — Phosphoric acid balances for Series VI— Continued 

[Averages are per day.] 

:n\>. 11. 



Period. 



In food. In feces. 



Fort i» riod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 

Prest rvatiiH period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire preservative 

period: 
Total 

Average 

A fti r j,( riod. 

Firsl Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second Bubperiod: 

Total 

\ i rage 

Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



Grams. (Trams. 

•21.970 7.691 

1.394 1.538 



21.762 

4. 352 



7.985 
1 . 597 



8 4 

in feces 

*«»«■ urnu, 
(2+3) 



Grams. 
a 14. 139 

11. is'.. 



13.732 15.676 
4.373 L.568 



In 
feces. 
(2-s-l) 



Gram*. 

21.830 
4.306 

22. IT f 

i. 195 



Per ct. 
35. 01 



28. 0-28 44. 304 
2.863 4.430 






22. 991 

I..V..S 

•22. 046 
l. 109 

22. 767 
4.561 

23.065 

l.r.i:; 

23. 394 
4.679 

22. 935 
I. 587 



7.781 
1.556 



8. 012 
1.602 



7.378 
1. 176 



7.433 

1. 1-7 



7.253 

I. 151 



L.67S 



13.572 
2.714 



12.829 



12.616 



11.968 

2.391 



L2.792 



10. 648 
2. 130 



21.358 33.84 

1.271 



20.841 

l.b.s 



19.994 



19. mi 



20.045 

4.009 



19.014 



30.34 



32. 42 
32. 23 



31.00 
36.48 



In 
urine. 
(3-D 



Per ct. 
64. 36 



- 






58.19 
55. 1 J 



51.89 
54.68 
16. 13 



In feces 

and 
urine. 

I : 1 



Perct. 



103.27 



101.31 



92. B8 



94.53 

87.86 



84.1] 



Sali- 

B-}ance. jgg 

~ 4) admin- 
istered. 



Grams. 

+ 0.140 
+ .028 

.712 
- .143 



Grams. 









. 572 
.057 



+ 1.638 
+ . 327 

+ 1.205 

.211 

2. 763 

. 552 

. 7:;:; 

3.349 
.670 

• 8.921 

.7-1 



137. 188 16.228 
L573 1 .641 



74. 125 

2. isl 



12U. CIS 
L022 



22. 1 17 



28.273 



1.721 



1 . 678 



10.877 
2.075 



11.710 
2.342 






16.978 
L.697 






L8.983 
3. 797 



20.977 
1.01 i 






38.34 






37. 1-' 



54.25 B7.94 



| 16.540 
.661 



16.23 



50.82 






84.67 









B. (64 






1.05 

.21 



2.10 
. 12 



3.70 

.71 



6 00 
1.20 



B.O0 

1.60 



10. 00 

2. IK) 



80.85 
1.08 



3. 196 

.640 ii 



'« Daily average added in order to complete record, 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



625 



Table XV. — Phosphoric acid balances for Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

N"o. 12. 



Period. 



In food. 



In feces. 



3 



In urine. 



In feces 

and 
urine. 
(2+3) 



In 
feces. 

(2-1) 



In 

urine. 

(34-1) 



7 8 

In feces 
and Balance 
urine. (1-4) 
(4-1) 



Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 



Fore period. 

First subperiod : 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 

Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 

After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



Grams. Grams. 

22.259 ' 7.643 

4.452 1.529 

22.085 J 7.846 

4.417 1.569 



Grams. 
12. 731 
2. 546 

12. 955 
2.591 



Grams. 

20. 374 

4. 075 

20. 801 
4.160 



Per ct. 
34.34 



Per ct. 
57.19 



Per et. Grams. 

91.53 + 1.885 

+ .377 



35. 53 



58.66 



94.19 + 1.284 
I .257 



Grams. 








44. 344 
4.434 



15. 489 
1.549 



25. 686 
2. 569 



41.175 
4.118 



34.93 57.93 



92.85 + 3.169 
4- .316 



22. 566 
4.513 

22. 450 
4.490 

22.2331 
4.447 

22. 525 
4.505 

23. 425 

4. 685 

22. 305 
4.461 



135. 504 
4.517 



5. 167 
1.033 



5. 345 
1.069 



7.6.54 
1.531 



5.069 
1.014 



8.794 
1.759 



6.332 
1. 266 



38. 361 
1.279 



11.591 
2. 318 



13. 235 
2.647 



14. 425 

2.885 



12. 930 
2. 586 



12. 088 
2.418 



13.015 
2.603 , 



16. 758 
3. 352 



18. 580 
3.716 



22. 079 
4.416 



17. 999 
3.600 



20.882 
4.176 



19. 347 
3.869 



22. 90 
23.81 



34.43 
22.50 



37.54 
28.39 



51. 36 74. 26 



58. 95 82. 76 
64.88 99.31 



57. 40 79. 91 



51. 60 89. 14 



58.35 



;. :i 



77.284 115.645 28.31 
2.576 I 3.855 



57.05 



85. 34 



21.483 
4. 297 



22. 174 
4.435 



43. 657 
4.366 



7.067 
1.413 



a 7. 998 
1.600 



15. 065 
1.507 



11. 870 


18. 937 


2.374 


3.787 


12. 694 


20. 692 


2. 539 


4.138 



24.564 
2. 456 



39. 629 
3.963 



32. 89 


55. 25 




36. 07 


57. 25 


93. 32 




34.51 



56.27 


90. 77 



+ 5.808 
+ 1.161 



4- 3.870 
+ .774 



.151 
.031 



4- 4.526 
4- .905 



2.543 
.509 



+ 2.958 
+ . 592 



4-19.859 
+ . 662 



+ '2-546 
+ .510 



r 1. 182 

. 297 



! 4.02S 
+ .403 



1.05 
.21 



2.10 
.42 



3.70 
.74 



6.00 
1.20 



8.00 
1.60 



10.00 
2. 00 



30.85 
1.03 



<• Daily average added in order to complete record. 



626 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 



Table XV. — Phosphoric arid balances for Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages art' per man per day.] 

Summary i< >r nixie men N"os. 3, 9, and 1 ( > excluded). 



Period. 


1 
In food. 


2 3 

In feces. In urine. 


4 

In feces 

and 
urine. 
(2+3) 


5* 

In 

feces. 
(2+1) 


6 

In 

urine. 
(3+1) 


7 

In feces 

and 

urine. 

(4+1) 


8 

Balance. 
(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 

acid 

admin- 
istered. 


Fon period. 

First Bubperiod: 

Total 


Orams. 
L74.618 

::. 880 


Orams. 
1.258 


annus. 

L06. 171 

106. 305 
2.362 


arums. 

L62.870 

3.619 

L62.193 
3.604 


Perot. 

32. 3D 


Perct. 
60. 98 


PercL 

93. 27 


Orams. 
■ 11.748 
+ .261 

6.660 

+ 148 


annus. 


o 


Average 


Becond Bubperiod: 
Total 


L68.853 
3.753 1.242 


33.10 


62. 96 


96.05 



n 


Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 

Prett rrafiri j,/ rind . 

First Bubperiod: 

Total 










' 


343.471 L12.284 212.779 
3.816 1.247 2.364 


325.063 

3.611 


32. 69 


61.95 


94.64 


+18.408 
+ 205 ! 




1" 




177.217 18.356 


L53.689 

•'.341 3 ii;. 


27. 29 
29. 37 


59. II 86 72 


• . 523 

+ 10.907 

. 2 13 

■ ll.ssl 

+ .331 
| 24.196 

24.966 

22.516 

..".01 


9.45 

"1 


Becond Bubperiod: 

Total 


175.093 
3.891 

177.308 
3. 940 

L80. 146 


61. 123 112.763 L64. L86 
L.143 2_finfi 8.R48 


64. 1" 


93.77 


IS >l|| 




4'> 


Third Bubperiod: 

Total 


54. 112 
1 203 

18.860 


L08.282 1(12.424 
2.1D7 3.609 

L07.S90 156.260 


80.54 


61.07 


91.61 


33 30 




74 


Fourth Bubperiod: 

Total 


27. ns 


59.51 


B6. 59 


:,l 00 




Mild 


L.086 2.386 3. 172 

53.971 105.550 L59.621 
1. L99 2.345 i 3.545 

52.514 101.678 154.192 
1.167 2.260 


1 20 


Fifth Bubperiod: 

Total 184. 186 

Average 4. mo 

sixth Bubperiod: 

Total L76.708 

Average 8-927 


29. 25 


57.21 


86. 17 


72.00 

1 60 


29. 72 


57.64 




1 96 


Entin live 

period: 

Total 














1,071.258 
8.967 


809.266 640.996 
1.1 If. 2.374 

60.887 93.951 

l 863 2. oss 

69.254 L02.831 








88.71 


. 120.996 
+ .448 


27:.. 66 
1 02 













. \fti r period. 

Kir-t Bubperiod: 

Total 


171.019 


3. Ill 


64.94 


I 


16. 181 

• 

I 15.985 





Average 

Second -ill. period: 

Total 


177.520 
B.945 





89.01 


68. 28 


91.02 


ii 




L.317 2.271 





Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 












12(1. Ill L96.282 816. 128 
L.885 2.181 


84. 17 




90.79 


82. L16 


(i 














-i 1. rii I i: BALANCE. 

The sulphur which enters the body in the food exists in at Least fcwo 
states, namely, organic sulphur, as a constituent of the protein matter. 
and inorganic sulphur, as found in sulphuric and sulphurous acids and 
their salts. Ln the discussion of the balance these two kinds of sulphur 
are considered together, whereas in the further investigation of the 
metabolic products a separation is secured. 

The principal change which sulphur undergoes in the metabolic 
process is it- oxidation from the organic form to the highly oxidized 
form of sulphuric acid, or sulphates. In other words, the greater 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 627 

part of the sulphur which enters the body in the food is organic, and 
the greater part which is excreted with the feces is inorganic. The 
data discussed below are to be found in Table XVII, page 633. 

INDIVIDUAL DATA. 

No. 1. 

The quantity of sulphur in the food of No. 1 is almost the same 
during the three periods. The daily amount is 0.904 gram in the fore 
period, 0.952 gram in the preservative period, and 0.933 gram in the 
after period. Of this quantity 0.0S3 gram appears in the feces in the 
fore period, 0.077 gram in the preservative period, and 0.111 gram in 
the after period. In the urine is found 0.825 gram in the fore period, 
0.90T gram in the preservative period, and 0.935 gram in the after 
period. Expressed as percentages it is found that of the total sulphur 
exhibited in the food 9.23 per cent appears in the feces in the fore 
period, 8.12 per cent in the preservative period, and 11.88 per cent in 
the after period, while in the urine 91.33 per cent appears in the fore 
period, 95.27 per cent in the preservative period, and 100.20 per cent 
in the after period. The balance is negative in all cases, amounting 
to only 0.005 gram in the fore period, rising to 0.032 gram in the 
preservative period, and amounting to the comparatively very large 
quantity of 0.113 gram in the after period. In this case it is seen that 
there is a marked tendency in the case of No. 1 while uncer observa- 
tion to excrete a larger quantity of sulphur than he is eating in his 
food. During the fore period this excess is extremely minute, but it 
is increased in the preservative and after periods. The principal excess 
of excretion is found in the urine both in the preservative and after 
periods — that is, the general effect of the preservative appears to be 
to increase the excretion of metabolized sulphur, and this is done 
even. at the expense of the tissues of the bod} r during the preservative 
period and to a greater extent in the after period. 

No. .'. 

The quantities of sulphur administered in the food of No. 2 for the 
three periods arc 1.0-17 grains. L. 079 grams, and 1.054 grams, respec- 
tively. Of this quantity «». L53 gram, 0.147 grain, and 0.131 gram 
appears in the feces, respectively; and L.009 grams, 0.985 gram, and 
1.039 grams appear in the urine, respectively. Based upon the per- 
centages of sulphur in the food il is seen that 1 l.»if) per cent. L3.65 

per cent, and 12.40 per cent, respectively, are excreted in the feces 
during the three periods, while in the urine 96.38 per cent. 91.28 per 
cent, and 98.55 per cent are excreted, respectively, in the three 
periods. The balance in all cases is strongly negative but its magni- 
tude during the preservative period is less than half of that of the 



628 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 

tore and after periods. In this case also we find a greater amount 
of sulphur excreted than is found in the food, but the effect of the 
preservative seems to have been to diminish this excessive amount. 

No. ■:. 

The average daily quantities of sulphur administered in the food of 
No. 3 for the three periods are 0.916 gram, 0.968 gram, and 0.954 
gram, respectively. Only the second subperiod of the after period is 
considered-, the first subperiod being broken by illness of the subject. 
Of this quantity there appear daily in the feces for the three periods 
0.104 gram. < ». L22 gram, and 0.103 gram, respectively, and in the 
urine 0.s^5 gram. 0.734 gram, and 0.803 gram, respectively. 
Expressed in percentage of the total quantity of sulphur in the food 
i here appear in the feces for the three periods 11.38, 12.61, and 10.84 
per cent, respectively, and in the urine 90.13 per cent, 75.88 per cent, 
and 84.13 per cent, respectively. The balance is slightly negative in 
the fore period, strongly positive in the preservative period, and 
\ cry -lightly positive in the after period. The effect of the preserva- 
tive in this case seems to have been to decrease the excretion of metab- 
olized sulphur. More nonmetabolized sulphur is excreted during the 
preservative period than in either of the other periods, but the quan- 
tity of metabolized sulphur excreted is very much less in the preserv- 
ative period than in either of the other periods. The fact that the 
preservative period was a period of convalescence for this subject 
probably partly explains the variations in balances, and on account of 
the illness of No. '■'> the data have no comparative value. 

No. -/. 

The quantities of sulphur contained in the food of No. 4 for the 
three periods of observation are 0.989 gram, L. 020 grams, and 0.998 
gram, respectively. Of this quantity there appears in the U^-vs for 

the three periods 0.113 gram, o. 1 1 T gram, and 0.117 grain, respect- 
ively, and in the urine 0.948 gram. 0.911 gram, and 0.959 gram, 

respectively. Expressed as percentages, of the total quantity of sul- 
phur in the food, it appears that for the three period- i L.37 per cent, 
ll. IT per cent, and ll. To per cent, respectively, are excreted in the 
feces, and 95.82 per cent. 89.35 per cent, and 96.03 per cent, respect- 
ively, in the mine. The balance is negative throughout, bu1 is very 
small, especially in the preservative period, being represented by (he 
quantity <u»Tl, 0.008, and <u>TT gram, respectively, for the three 
periods. We have in this instance a slight tendency on the part of 
th<- preservative to increase the excretion of nonmetabolized sulphur 

and to diminish the excretion of metabolized sulphur, 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 629 

No. 5. 

The total quantities of sulphur ingested by No. 5 in the three 
periods are 1.008 grams, 1.033 grams, and 1.015 grams, respectively. 
Of this quantity there appear in the feces 0.11:6 gram, 0.126 gram, and 
0.106 gram, respectively, and in the urine 0.828 gram, 0.908 gram, 
and 0.919 gram, respectively. Expressed in percentages, of the sul- 
phur in the food, it is seen that there appears in the feces for the three 
periods 11.16 per cent, 12.20 per cent, and 10. 41 per cent, respect- 
ively, and in the urine 82.11 per cent, 87.91 per cent, and 90.51 per 
cent, respectively. 

The balance is slightly positive in the fore period, very slightly 
negative in the preservative period, and slightly negative in the after 
period. These data show that the general effect of the preservative in 
this case is to decrease the quantit\ T of nonmetabolized sulphur excreted 
and to increase the quantity of metabolized sulphur. 

No. 6. ■ 

The quantities of sulphur in the food of No. 6 for the three periods 
are 0.912 gram, 0.961 gram, and 0.929 gram, respectively. Of this 
quantity there appear in the feces for the three periods 0.115 gram, 
0.159 gram, and 0.117 gram, respectively, and in the urine 0.783 gram, 
0.920 gram, and 0.896 gram, respectively. Expressed in percentages, 
of the total sulphur in the food, it is seen that there appear in the 
feces 15.92 per cent, 16.50 per cent, and 15.80 per cent, respectively, 
for the three periods, and in the urine 85.95 per cent, 95.80 per cent, 
and 96.12 per cent, respectivel} T , for the three periods. The balance 
is slightly negative in the fore period and very decidedly negative in 
both the preservative and after periods. The data show a slight 
increase in the nonmetabolized sulphur excreted during the preser- 
vative period and a very marked increase in the excretion of the 
metabolized sulphur in the preservative period. 

No 7. 

The quantities of sulphur in the food of No. 7 for the three periods 
are 0.826 gram, 0.875 gram, and 0.869 gram, respectively. Of this 
quantity there appear in the feces 0.094 gram. 0.074 gram, and 0.114 
gram,- respectively, for the three periods, and in the urine 0.804 gram, 
0.827 gram, and 0.754 gram, respectively. Expressed in percentages, 
of the total sulphur in the food there appear in the feces for the three 
periods, respectively, LI. 35 per cent, 8.42 per cent, and 13.14 percent, 
and in the urine ( .*7. v 2r> per cent, 94.62 per cent, and 86.74 per cent, 
respectively. The balance is negative in the fore period, slightly 
negative in the preservative period, and very slightly positive in the 



630 [NFLUENCE OP FOOD PRESERVATIVES OM HEALTH. 

after period. The general effect of the administration of the pre- 
servative appears to be a decrease in the excretion of both non- 
metabolized and metabolized sulphur in the preservative period. In 
the after period the quantity of nonmetabolized sulphur is consid- 
erably increased, while the quantity of metabolized sulphur excreted, 
is again very decidedly diminished. 

No. 8. 

The quantities of Bulphur contained in the food of No. 8 during the 
three periods arc 0.82] gram. 0.882 gram, and 0.879 gram, respect- 
ively. Of this quantity then 1 appear in the feces 0.111, 0.130, and 
0.1-15 gram, respectively, for the three periods, and in the urine 
0.768, o.Tll. and 0.838 gram, respectively. Expressed in percentages, 
of the total sulphur in the food there appear in the feces L3.56, L4.79, 
and 16.52 per cent, respectively, for the three periods, and in the 
urine 93.53, <>.'^K and 95. -i~ per cent, respectively, for the three 
periods. The balance is negative in (he fore period, slightly positive 
in tic preservative period, and strongly negative in the after period. 
The genera] effect of the preservative appears to have been to slightly 
increase the percentage of the nonmetabolized sulphur excreted in the 
feces in tiie preservative period and to decidedly increase it in the 
after period, and to greatly diminish the quantity of metabolized 
sulphur excreted dm ing the preservative period, while a very marked 
increase occurs in the after period. 

No. 9. 

The sulphur daily consumed in the food by No. '•> for the three 
period- was L.097, L.204, and l.l.vt grams, respectively. Of this 
there appear in the feces o.o7i>. <>.lli>. and 0.089 grams, respectively, 
and in the mine 0.922, 0.927, and 0.892 grams, respectively, for the 
three periods. Expressed in percentages, of the total amount of sul- 
phur in the food there appear for the three periods in the feces 7.i^">, 
9.92, and "J. 71 per cent, respectively, and in the urine 84.04, 7<i. ( .»,s, 
and 77..")! percent, respectively. 

The balance is positive in all cases. Its magnitude is considerably 
increased during the preservative period and still further increased 
during the after period. This increase of balance, however, is not 
sufficienl to compensate for the increase in the amount of sulphur in 
t he food. 

The amount of nonmetabolized sulphur excreted appears to he con- 
siderably increased during the preservative period, Imt returns during 
the after period to approximately the name amount as in t he fore period. 
The amount of metabolized sulphur excreted during the preservative 
period is almost the -Mine as that of Hie fore period, hut the percentage 
amount is great l\ decreased, 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 631 

For reasons given elsewhere (p. 587) the results obtained with this 
subject are not included in the summaries. They are stated here, 
however, as a matter of record. 

No. 10. 

On account of illness this subject did not complete the experiment, 
but left the table during the after period. For reasons given else- 
where (p. 587) this subject is omitted from the summaries. The results 
are given here as a matter of record. 

The amount of sulphur consumed in the food b}^ No. 10 is 1.086 and 
1.186 grams, daily, for the fore and preservative periods, respectively. 
Of this amount 0.125 and 0.118 gram, respectively, appear in the feces, 
and 0.852 and 0.8-10 gram, respectively, in the urine. Expressed in 
percentages, of the total sulphur contained in the food there appear 
for the fore period and preservative period in the feces 11.53 and 
9.93 per cent, and in the urine 78. -11 and 7<>.77 per cent, respectively. 

The balance is positive in both periods, its magnitude being increased 
in the preservative period. 

No. 11. 

The quantities of sulphur in the food of No. 11 for the three periods 
are 1.217 grams, 1.168 grams, and 1.153 grams, respectively. Of this 
there appear in the feces 0. 1 52 gram, 0. 154 gram, and < ). 133 gram, respec- 
tively, for the three periods, and in the urine 1.000 gram, 0.985 gram, 
and 0.963 gram, respectively, for the three periods. Expressed in 
percentages, of the total amount of sulphur contained in the food 
there appear for the three periods in the feces 12.48 per cent, 13.21 
pei- cent, and 11.56 per cent, respectively, and in the urine 82.13 per 
cent, 84.34 per cent, and 83.54 per cent, respectively. The balance 
is slightly positive in all cases, but its magnitude is considerably 
diminished during the preservative period. The preservative in this 
case appears to have slightly increased the percentage both of non- 
metabolized and metabolized sulphur excreted. 

No. n. 

The quantity of sulphur which is contained in the food of No. 12 
for the three periods is 1.114. 1.146. and L.098 grams, respectively. 
Of this amount there appear in the feces 0. L39, 0.115, and <>. L22 gram, 
respectively, for the three periods, and in the urine L.008, 0.972, and 
1.016 grams, respectively. Expressed in percentages of the total 
amount of sulphur in the food there appear in the feces L2.51, L0.03, 
and 11.15 per cent respectively, for the 4 three periods, and in the urine 

90.53, 84.76, and 92.54 per cent, respectively, for the three periods. 
The balance is slightly negative in the fore period and after period 



632 



NFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OH HEALTH. 



and positive in the preservative period. The general effect of the 
preservative in this ease is to distinctly decrease the quantity both of 
nonmetabolized and metabolized sulphur excreted. 



SIMMAKY. 



Combining the data for the nine men in one expression for each 
period the following general results are obtained: 

Table XVI. — Sulphur summary, by periods, for nim u>>n. Scries VI. 



Period. 



Fore period 

Preservative period. 

After period 



Sulphur Sulphur 

in food, in feces. 



Sulphur Sulphur Sulphur ».,,,...,.,, 
in urine, in feces, in urine. namm< -- 



Grains. 


Grams. 


Grams. 


Per <■> ut. 


Per <■< ut. 


lira his. 


0.982 


u. 126 


0.886 


L2.86 


90. 22 


-0. 030 


L.018 


. L22 


.90(5 


L2.06 


89. 18 


. - .015 


. 9<J2 


. 125 


. 92 1 


12.61 


93. L6 


- .057 



It is seen that the balance is negative in all cast's, being smallest in 
the preservative period and largest in the after period. The general 
tendency of the preservative seems to be to diminish very slightly the 
excretion of nonmetabolized sulphur— that is, the quantity appearing 
in the feces — and to increase the quantity but decrease the percentage 
of metabolized sulphur, that is the sulphur appearing in the urine. 
These changes are so slight that it may he said that sulphur metabo- 
lism is practically unaffected by salicylic acid, as tar as these data 
-how. 

In regard to the apparent irregularity of a negative balance in the 
fore period especially, it may be stated that the methods which are in 
common use by analysts for determining organic sulphur that is, 
sulphur existing principally in foods are not so complete as the 
method- for determining inorganic sulphur. All the modern methods 
and precaution- for -cenring the whole of the organic sulphur were 
observed during the analytical operations, but there is probably still 
sufficient difficulty in the methods of sampling and analysis to account 
for the -lightly irregular results indicated by the above data. 



SALICYLIC ACID AXD SALICYLATES. 



633 



Table XVII. — Sulphur balances for Series VI. 

[Averages are per day.l 
No. 1. 



Period. 


1 
In food. 


• 

In feces. 


3 

In 
urine. 


4 

In feces 

and 

urine. 

(2+3) 


5 

In 

feces. 
(2-1) 


6 

In 
urine. 
(3-5-1) 


7 

In feces 
and 
urine. 
(4-1) 


8 

Balance. 

(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Forept riod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 

4.815 
.963 


Grams. 

0.440 

.088 

.394 


Grams. 

4.002 
.800 

4. 252 


Grams. 

4. 442 

.888 

4.646 
.929 


Per ct. 

9.14 


Per ct. 
83. 12 


Pt r ct. 
92. 25 


Grams. 

+ 0.373 
- .076 


Grams. 



o 


4. 223 


9.33 


100.69 110.02 


- .423 







.845 


.079 ; .850 




- .084 






Entire fore period: 

Total 


9.038 


.834 


8.2-54 

. 825 


9.088 
.909 


9.23 91.33 100.55 ! - .050 


Average 


.904 


.083 








- .005 






Presefvatwi period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



4. 406 
. 881 


. 360 

.072 


4. 415 

.883 


4.775 
. 955 


4. 735 
.947 


.333 
.067 


4. 654 
.931 


4.987 
.998 


4.683 
.937 


.386 

.077 


a 4. 376 
. 875 


4. 762 
. 952 


4. 759 
.952 


.406 
.081 


4.720 
.944 


5. 126 
1.025 


5.082 
1.016 


.454 
.091 


4,429 

.886 


4. 883 

. 977 


4. 904 
.9S1 


.380 

.076 


4.621 
. 924 


5. 001 
1.000 



8. 17 100.20 

7.03 98.29 

8.24 

8.53 99.18 

8.93 87.15 



10S. 37 



.074 



105.32 - .252 
- .051 



93.44 101.69 - .079 
- .015 



107. 71 



.75 94.2:; 101. 



.367 
.073 



+ .199 
+ .039 



.097 
.019 



Entire preservative pe- 
riod: 

Total 

Average 



Aft* r period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



9. 332 



1.109 
.111 



1.05 
.21 



3.70 
.74 



6.00 
1.20 



- 
1.60 



10.00 
2.00 



28.569 

. 95- > 


2.319 

.077 


27.215 
. 907 


29.531 

. '.is i 


8.12 


95. 27 


in:;, as 


- .965 
- .032 


30. 85 
1 . 03 












1.639 

. 928 


. 652 
.130 

. r>7 

.091 


L680 

.916 

1.771 
. 95 1 


5.232 
1.046 

1.046 


11.H5 


98. 73 


112.78 


Is Is 

! 1 II 




o 


.939 


9. 7 1 


101.66 


111.40 

















9.351 10.460 11.88 100.20 112.09 1.128 

.935 1.046 113 



a Daily average added in order to complete record. 

765(5— No. 84, pt 2—06 11 



634 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEAL III. 



Table XVII. — Sulphur balances for Series VI— Continued. 

[Averages arc per day.] 

ISTo. 3. 



Period. 



Fort pt riod. 

Firs! Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Becond Bubperiod: 

Total 

A vi- rage 



Entire lore period: 

Total 

Average 



Preservativt period. 

First Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Becond Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average •. 

Fifth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

sixtli Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 



K n t i re preservative 

period: 

Total 

Average 



A/U 



riod. 



Kir-i Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Becond Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



In food. In feces. Inurine, 



In feces 

and 
urine, 

(2+3) 



Grams, drum*. Grams. Grams. 
5.553 0.(123 a 5. 448 6.071 
1.111 .125 1.090 1.211 



4.917 .911 

. 963 . 182 



10. 470 
1.047 



5.044 

1.009 



5.326 
1.065 



5. 360 
1.072 



5.384 

1.077 



:..7ln 
1.112 



5.546 

l. L09 



32. 370 

1 . 079 



5. 267 
L.068 



1.055 



10.644 

LOW 



1.643 5.554 

.929 1.111 



In 
feces. 

2 : 1 



Per ct. 

1 1 . 22 



18.52 



In 
urine. 
(3-1) 



Per et. 
98. 1 1 



in f sees 
and Balance. 

urine. (1—4) 
(44-1) ; 



;•- r <•/. 



94.43 112.96 



1.534 

. 153 



10. 091 
1.009 



11.625 14.65 96.38 
1.1(13 



111.03 



680 
L36 


4. 621 
. 92 1 


727 
145 


L517 

.903 


815 
163 


5.108 
1.022 


928 
186 


4.516 
.903 


472 
094 


5.212 
L.042 


797 
159 


5. 57 I 

.1. 115 



5. 301 
1.060 

5.244 
1.049 

5. 928 
L.185 

6. 4 14 
L.089 

6. 68 1 
1. 187 

6.371 
L. 274 



13. 18 91.61 




I. 119 

. 117 



29.548 
. 985 



. 120 



706 

111 



L.807 
.131 



5. L23 
L.025 



l ... I 



33.967 
I. 132 



5. 725 

1. ll". 



l . 1 96 



10.891 

I 089 



ll 698 

I. ITo 



13.65 

15. 21 
17.21 
s. 27 



84.81 
E5.30 
83.88 
91.28 



105. 10 
98. 18 
110.50 
101.11 
99.54 



L4.37 L00.50 114.88 



13.65 



ll. 18 
13.86 



12. in 



91.28 



97.27 









104.93 



1 1 is. 7u 



113. 19 



Grams. 

-0.518 

- .103 

- .128 



Sali- 
cylic 

acid 
admin- 
istered. 



Grams. 










1.1. v. 

.11(1 



.257 
.051 



,082 

,016 



.113 



.060 

- .012 



.026 

. 005 



. 165 



I. .>'.'! 



.. 8 



i « 
, 092 



. 696 
. Ill) 



1.154 
.116 



1.05 

.21 



2.10 
.42 



3. 70 
.74 



6.00 

1.20 



8. (Hi 
1.60 



10.00 

2. 00 



1.08 



" Dailj average added in order to complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



635 



Table XVII. — Sulphur balances for Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

USTo. 3. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


2 

In feces. 


3 

In urine. 


4 

In feces 

and 

urine. 

(2+3) 


5 

In 
feces. 
(2-1) 


6 

In 

urine. 
(3-1) 


7 

In feces 

and 

urine. 

(4-1) 


8 

Balance. 

d-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fore period. 
First subperiod: 


Grams. 


Grams. 


Grams. 


Grams. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Grams. 


Grams. 



Total 

Average 

Second subperiod : 

Total 

Average 



1 Broken by illness. 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Five preservative sub- 
periods: 

Total 

Average 



After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second BuBperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



4.578 0.521 
.916 .104 



4.578 
.916 



4.739 
.948 



4.634 
.927 



4.755 
.951 



5.128 
1.026 



4.934 



0.521 
.104 



.397 
.079 



,925 
,185 



,438 



858 
172 



133 
087 



4.126 
.825 



4.126 

.825 



.664 
.733 



« 3. 665 
.733 



3.588 

.718 



3.740 

.748 



4.647 
.929 



4.647 
.929 



710 



''24.190 
.968 



3. 051 
.122 



4.641 

.928 



4.770 
.954 



Lost. 



517 
103 



18.356 
.734 



4.061 
.812 



4.590 
.918 



4.026 
.805 



.920 
4.132 



11.38 



90.13 



11.38 



8.37 
19.96 



9.21 
16.73 
8.78 



21.407 
.856 



12.61 



90.13 



77.32 



79.09 
75.46 



72.93 
74.97 



75.1 



101.51 -0.069 
I - .013 



101.51 -0.069 
- .013 



85.i 



+ .678 
+ .136 



99.05 + .044 
+ .009 



84.67 + .729 
+ .146 



.66 + .530 
.... + .106 



75 + .802 
.... + .161 



_"_:: 



50 +2.783 
.112 



3.619 
.724 



4.013 
.803 



4. 530 10. 84 
.906 



13 94. 97 



+ .240 

+ .01* 



1.05 
.21 



2.10 
.42 



4.00 



6.00 
1.20 



8.00 
1.60 



21.15 

.85 



a Dairy average added in order to complete record. 
&No. 3 had only five preservative subperiods. 



636 



XFLUEXCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XVII. — Sulphur balances for Series IT — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. 4. 



Period. 


1 

III food. 


2 

111 feces. 


3 
In urine. 


4 

III feces 
and 
urine. 

(2 + 3) 


B 

In 

fro-. 

24 1 


6 

In 
urine. 
(3-s-l) 


7 

111 feces 
and 
urine. 

(44-1) 


s 

Balance. 

1 1 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fort p< Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 
5. 283 

1 . 057 


Grams. 
0. 469 

(KW 


Grams. 

4. 905 
.981 

4. 574 
.915 


5.374 
1.075 

5. 230 
1.016 


l'l /■ rt. 
8. ss 


Pi r rt. 
92. 84 


Per rt. 

101.72 


Grams. 

-0.091 
- .018 

.620 

. l_'l 


Grams. 


o 


Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire fore period: 
Total 


1.610 .656 
. 922 . 131 


14.23 


99.22 


L13. 13 














9.893 1.125 9.479 


10.604 
1.060 


11. 87 


95 «2 


107.19 Til o 




.989 .113 .948 






.071 










Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


1.7(17 
. 953 

5.084 
1.017 

5.077 
1.015 

6. 038 
1.008 

5. 1 1 1 
LOW 

5.191 

1.038 


. If, 1 
.093 

. 557 
.111 

.Cls 

.124 

a. 555 

.111 

. 161 

a. 564 

.113 


4.444 
.889 

L.724 

.945 

4.548 
.910 

4.569 
.912 

4.299 
.860 

L.766 
.958 


4.908 
. 982 

5.281 

1 . 056 

5. 166 
1.033 

5. 1 1 1 
L.023 

5. 052 
1.010 

L.066 


9.73 


93. 22 


102.96 


.111 

- .029 

- .197 

- .039 


1.05 
.21 


Seeo n*t subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 


10.96 


92.92 


LOS. 87 


2.10 
. 12 


12.17 


89. 58 


101.75 


089 


3.70 






- .018 

- .076 
.015 

+ .389 
.078 

.189 


. 71 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


11.01 
13. S3 


90. -19 

79.01 


L01.50 


6. 00 




L.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


8. (HI 


Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


L.60 


L0 86 


91.81 


L02.68 


10. (HI 


Average 

E u t i re preservative 

period: 
Total 


. 028 2. 00 










80. 598 
1.020 


8.511 

.117 


27.340 

.'.ill 


30.851 
L.02S 


11. 17 


89. 85 


100.82 


. 268 30. s:> 


Average 

After period. 
First subperiod: 

Total 


(MIS 


1.03 










4.961 


.542 
LOS 

. 626 

. L25 


4. 737 
.917 

1.848 

. 970 


5. 279 
1 . 056 

. i. i 
I 095 


10.98 


96 is 


L06. 11 


.818 




6.020 
L.004 




.064 o 


Second Bubperlod: 
Total 


12. 17 96.57 


109,04 


.454 




i 9] 















Entire after period: 
i otal 


9.981 


Lies 
. 117 




L0.763 

i 075 


LI. 70 




HiT. 7:; 


. 772 




.077 















" Daily average added In order to complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



637 



Table XVII. — Sulphur balances for Series IT— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 
No. 5. 



Period. 



In food 



Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod : 

Total 

Average 



Grams. 
5.351 
1.070 

4.725 
.945 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 

Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperu d: 

Total 

Average 



10. 076 
. 1.008 



In feces. 



Grams. 

0.765 

.153 



.138 



Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 



30. 985 
1.033 



After pi riod. 

Firs! subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



5. 075 
1.015 



5.079 
1.016 



10. 154 
1.015 



1.457 
.146 



4.894 
.979 


.727 
.145 


5.143 
1.029 


.531 
.106 


5.157 
1.031 


. 662 
.132 


5. 175 
1.035 


.506 
.101 


5.316 
1.063 


.659 
.132 


5.300 
1.060 


.696 
.139 



.781 
,126 



3 



In urine, 



Grams. 

4.565 

.913 

3.711 
.742 



8.276 
.828 



4. 342 

.868 



4.495 
.899 



4. 566 
.913 



4. 632 
.926 



4.670 
.934 



4. 534 
.907 



27. 239 
.908 



. 637 
.127 



420 
084 



a 4. 516 

.903 



4.677 
. 935 



In feces 

and 

urine. 

(2+3) 



In 
feces. 
(2+1) 



Grams. 
5. 330 
1.066 

4.403 

.881 



9.733 
.973 



5.069 
1.014 



5. 026 
1.005 



5.228 
1.046 



5.138 
1.028 



5. 32y 

1.066 



5. 230 
1.046 



31.020 
1.034 



5. 153 
1.031 



5. 097 
1.019 



1.057 
.106 



9.193 
.919 



10. 250 
1.025 



Per ct. 
14.30 



14.65 



10.32 



12.84 



6 

In 
urine. 
(3-5-1) 



In feces 
and 
urine. 

(4-1) 



Per ct. Per ct. 
85. 31 99. 61 



78.54 



82.14 



93.19 



88.72 



87.40 



88.54 



9. 78 89. 51 



12.40 I 87.85 
13.13 85.55 



12. 20 



12. 55 



87.91 



88. 99 



27 92.09 



10.41 90.54 



Balance 

(1-4) 



Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 



Gram*, (•'rams. 
+0.021 

+ .004 

+ .322 

+ .064 



+ .343 
+ .035 



103.58 - .175 
,| - .035 



97.73 
101. 38 

99.29 
100. 24 



+ .117 
+ .024 



- .071 

- .015 



+ .037 
+ .007 



.013 
.003 



98.68 i + .070 
+ .014 



100.11 - .035 
- .001 



101.51 



100. 35 



,078 
016 



018 
003 



100. 95 



010 



1.05 
.21 



2.10 
.42 



3.70 

.71 



6.00 
1.20 



8.00 
1.60 



10.00 
2.00 



30. 85 

1.03 



"Daily average added in order to complete record. 



638 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 



Table XVII.— Sulphur balances for Series IT— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. 6. . 



Period. 



In food. 



in feces. 



8 



In 
urine. 



In feces 

and 
urine. 
(2+3) 



In 
feces. 

(2-1) 



In 
urine. 
(3-1) 



In feces 
and 
urine. 
(4-5-1) 



Balance. 

1 I 



Sali- 
cylic 

aeid 

admin- 
istered. 



Fort ]>' Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Preservatiix p* Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total , 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average , 

Fifth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire preserve tive 

period: 

Total 

Average 



After period 
First Bubperiod: 

Total 

a eerage 

■I Bubperiod: 

Total 

Aver i 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



Grams. 
1.824 

.965 

4.291 



Grams. 

0.680 



.771 
.154 



Grams. 

4.038 



3.796 
. 759 



drams. Perct. 

4.718 14.10 

. 944 



Perct. PereL 

83.71 97. SI 



1.567 17. 97 
.913 



v 16 106. 13 



Grams. 

+0.106 
+ .021 

. 276 
. 066 



Grams. 









9.115 
.912 



1.451 
.145 



7.834 

.7s.; 



J. 286 15.92 
.929 






101.87 



.170 

.017 



4.493 
.899 



L665 

.931 



4.789 
.958 



L867 

. 973 



5. 123 

1.025 



L898 

.980 



.961 



4.645 
. 929 



L646 

. 929 



9.290 
. 929 



722 
144 


4.090 
.818 


4.812 
.962 


733 
147 


4.621 

.904 


5.264 

1.051 


926 
185 


a 1.7 is 
. 950 


5.674 
1.135 


784 
167 


a 5. 066 

1.013 


5.849 
1.170 


873 
175 


1.800 

. 960 


6. 678 

1. 136 


719 
144 


1.390 
878 


:>. 109 

1.022 



16. 07 



15. 75 
19.34 



16.11 
17.04 
14.68 



1.757 
. L69 



27.614 

.920 



. L76 



a. 690 

. 118 



1. 168 

. 117 



1.346 

. 869 



4.611 

. 922 



82.371 

1.079 



16.50 



91.03 
97. 12 



99.14 
104.07 



93. 70 
39.63 



95.80 



5. 22 1 
1.045 



5.201 

l 040 



18.90 






12.70 99.27 



s. 967 



m 126 
1.048 



I ».80 96. 12 



107.10 



112.87 

lis. is 



120.18 
110.74 
104.3] 



L12.30 



112. 16 



111. 97 



112.22 



319 
063 



, 599 
120 



885 

177 



H82 

197 



.V.(. 
,110 



211 
,042 



646 

lis 



579 

lie. 



.in 



l. 136 

. ill 



1.05 

.21 



2.10 

. 12 



3.70 

.71 



6.00 
1.20 



8. IK> 
1.60 



8.00 

1.60 



. 96 



" Daily average added i i"t t" oomplefc 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



639 



Table XVII. — Sulphur balances for Series TY— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

IN"o. V. 



Period. 


1 
In food. 


2 

In feces. 


3 

In 
urine. 


4 

In feces 

and 

urine. 

(2+3) 


5 

In 
feces. 
(2-^1) 


6 

In 
urine. 
(3-1) 


7 

In feces 

and 

urine. 

(4-1) 


8 

Balance. 
(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


Grams. 

4.328 

.866 

3. 935 

.787 


Grams. 
0.607 

.m 

.331 

.066 


Grams. 

3.756 

.751 

4.280 
.856 


Grams. 

4.363 

.873 

4.611 
.922 


Per ct. 
14.02 


Per ct. 
86.78 


Per ct. 
100. 81 


Grams. 

-0. 035 

- .007 

- .676 

- .135 


Grams. 




8.41 


103.77 


117.18 










Entire fore period: 
Total 


8.263 
.826 


.938 
.094 


8.036 
.804 


8. 974- 
.897 


11. 35 


97.25 


108. 60 


- 


.711 

.071 







o 










Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


3.980 

.796 

4.448 
.890 

4.280 

.856 

4.346 
.869 

4.642 
.928 

4.540 
.908 


.428 
.086 

.287 
.057 

.448 
.090 

.337 
.067 

.471 
.094 

.239 
.048 


3.513 

.703 

4.085 

.817 

3.368 
.674 

3.564 
.713 

3.870 
.774 

6.424 
1.285 


3.941 

.788 

4.372 

.874 

3.816 
.763 

3.901 

.780 

4.341 
.868 

6.663 
1.333 


10.75 


88.27 


99.02 


+ .039 
+ .008 

+ .076 
+ .016 

+ .464 
+ .093 

+ .445 
+ .089 

+ .301 
+ .060 

-2.123 
- .425 


1.05 




.21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


6.45 


91.84 


98.29 


2.10 




.42 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


10.47 


78.69 


89.16 


3.70 


Average 


.74 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


7. 75 


82.01 


89.76 


6.00 




1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


10. 15 


83.37 


93.52 


8.00 




1.60 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


5.26 


141.50 


146. 76 


10.00 




2.00 












Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 


26. 236 

.875 


2.210 
.074 


24. 824 
.827 


27. 034 
.901 


8.42 


94. 62 


103. 04 


- 


.798 
. 026 


30.85 

1.03 










After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


4.282 
.856 

4.412 
.882 


.504 
.101 

.638 
.128 


3.6.50 
.730 

3.891 

.778 


4,154 

.831 

4. 529 
. 906 


11.77 


85.24 


97.01 


+ 


. 128 
. 026 

.117 
.024 










Second subperiod: 

Total 


14.46 


88.19 


102.65 




















Entire after period: 
Total 


8.694 

.869 


L.142 

.114 


7.541 
.754 


8.683 
.868 


13.14 


B6.74 




• 


.011 
.001 





Average 
















640 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XVII. — Sulphur balances for Series VI — Continued. 
[Averages are per day.] 

:n"o. 8. 



Period. 


1 
In food. 


•2 
in feces. 


3 

In urine. 


4 

in feces 
and 
urine. 

(2+3) 


In 


6 

In 
urine. 
(8+1) 


7 

In fe< es 
and 
urine. 


S 

Balance. 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 

acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fort pt Hod. 

Firel subperiod: 

Total 


Orams. 
1.334 

. 867 

:;. B74 


lira ins. 
0. 176 

. 637 


(i rums. 
3.988 


drums. 
1.165 
. 833 


Perct. 
10.98 


Per ct. 

85. 1" 


96. 10 


Grams. 

+0. 169 


drains. 







.034 ii 


Second Bubperiod: 

Total 


1.625 


16.44 102.94 119.39 


. 751 i) 




.775 .127 .T'.'s 


. 925 


- .150 






Entire fore period: 

Total 


8.208 L.U3 7.627 3.790 13.56 93.53 107.09 


- .582 




.MM .111 




. . . ( )68 o 








Preservativt period. 

First Bubperiod: 

Total 


1.044 
.809 

L322 
.864 

1.291 

1. 160 
. 892 

1. 765 
.95] 

L599 
.920 


.705 
.141 

. 826 
.165 

.509 

.102 

. 827 

.it;:. 

.434 
.087 

.613 

. L23 


3. Ill 

3.610 

. 722 

3.676 

a 3. 731 
.746 

. 765 

3.949 
.790 


1.1 in 
. 829 

1. 136 
.887 

4.184 


17.43 




102.52 


- .102 

- .020 

- .114 

- .023 

. 1U7 
.M21 

.098 

- .020 

+ .037 
.008 


1.05 




.21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


19.11 




102.64 


2.10 






. 12 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


11.86 


B5.64 97.53 


3.70 




. 837 
1.558 




. 71 


Fourth Bubperiod: 

Total 


L8.54 




102.20 


6.00 




.912 

1.261 
. 852 

1.562 
.912 




1 . 20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


9. 13 


80. 18 


89.61 


8.00 




L.60 


sixth Bubperiod: 

Total 


13.-88 




'.".•. 19 


10. 00 




2.00 










Entire preservative pe- 
riod: 
Total 


26. 171 


3.914 

. L30 


22.2:;:; 
.741 


26. 1 17 
. 872 


1 1.79 




98. 78 


■ .824 

.urn 


30.86 




1.03 












A Jli r pi Hod. 

1-ir-i Bubperiod: 
Total 


1.296 

l. 196 


.807 
.161 

.645 
. 129 


1.209 

. 8 12 

1. 166 


5.016 
1.003 

1.811 


18.81 




116.90 


. 720 

ill 

.816 
.063 







Second subperiod: 
Total 





14.85 




107.03 




















Entire after period: 
Total 


. 879 


l. 152 

. 1 1'. 




. 988 


16.52 




111.78 


1.086 

. 104 



















Daily average added In ir ler to < iplete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



641 



Table XVII. — Sulphur balances for Series VI— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 
No. 9. 



Period. 



Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Preservativt p< Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



In food. In feces. 



Grams. 
5.683 
1.137 

5.285 
1 . 057 



Entire preservati ve 
period: 

Total 

Average 



After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire alter period: 

Total 

Average 



10. 968 
1.097 



5. 585 

1.117 



5. 759 
1.152 



5.830 
1.166 



7.164 
1.133 



5.864 
1.173 



5. 913 
1.183 



36. 115 
1.204 



Grams. 

0.310 

. 0(52 

. 183 
.097 



5. 798 
1.160 



5.739 
1.148 



11.537 

1. 151 



.793 
.079 



3 



In urine. 



Grams. 

4. 671 
.934 

4. 547 
.909 



In feces 

and 
urine. 
(2+3) 



Grams. 
4.981 

.996 



In 
feces. 

(2-1) 



In 
urine. 
(3-1) 



l'< ret. 

5. 45 



Per ct. 
82.19 



7 8 

In feces 

and Balance 
urine. (1—4) 
(4-1) 



Perct. Grams. 
87.65 +0.702 
+ .141 



5.030 9.14 86.04 95.18 + .255 
1.006 +.051 



Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 



Grams. 








9.218 
. 922 



10.011 
1.001 



7. 23 84. 04 91. 27 



,957 



716 
143 


4.948 
.990 


540 
108 


4.570 
.914 


528 
106 


4.780 

.956 


445 
089 


4.567 
.913 


762 
152 


4. 072 
.814 


592 
118 


4.864 
.973 







5.664 

1. 133 



5.110 
1.022 



5. 308 
1.062 



5. 012 

1.002 



4.X34 
.967 



5. 456 

1.091 



583 
119 



27. 801 
.927 



31. 384 

1.046 



,263 
053 



4. 345 



,626 4.578 

,125 .916 



4.608 
.922 



5.204 
1.041 






8. 923 
.892 



,812 
.98] 



101.41 



88.59 

79. 35 

81.99 

63. 74 69. 96 
12.99 69.44 j 82.44 
10.01 82.26 92.27 



9.06 
6.21 



1.92 76.' 





.079 
.016 


+ 
+ 


.649 

.130 


+ 

+ 


.622 
.104 


-2.152 
+ .431 


+1.030 
+ .206 


+ 
+ 


.457 
.092 



4.51 71.94 79.48 



10.91 



90. 68 



+ 1.190 
. 238 



+ .535 

.HIT 



- 



■ 1.725 
+ .173 



1.05 
.21 



2.10 
.42 



3.70 
.74 



6.00 
1.20 



8.00' 
1.60 



10.00 
2.00 



86.90 +4.731 30.85 
+ .158 1.03 



642 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XVII. — Sulphur balances for Series IT — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. lO. 



Period. 


1 
In food. 


•2 
in feces. 


3 

In urine. 


4 
iu feces 

and 
urine. 


E 

In 
feces. 

2 1 


6 

In 
urine. 
(3-1) 


7 

In feces 
and 
urine. 


S 9 
Sali- 

":•;<"";- 23S 

^ ' admin- 
istered. 


J'mt p> riod. 

First subperiod: Qramt. 

Total 5.678 

Average 1.136 


Gfranu. 

(1.702 
.140 

.550 

.110 


drums. 
L215 

. S43 

4.301 
.860 


drums. 
1.917 
.983 

1.851 

.970 


PercL Perct. 

12. 36 74. 23 


1'rr vt. 


drums. 
+ .153 


drams. 




Second Bubperiod: 

Total 


6.183 

1.037 


10. 61 





067 


Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 










10.861 

1 . 086 


l . 252 
. 125 


3.516 

.852 


.977 


11.53 7A ii 


89.94 


+1.093 
+ .109 
















Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


5.546 

1.109 

:». TJi 
1.144 

6. 887 

1. 177 

5. 926 
1.185 

6. :;:>7 
1.271 

6. L56 
1.231 


.1.".! 
.•',71 


3.997 
. 799 

L786 


. 953 

5. l">7 
1.091 

1.7.',:, 

1.894 

1.656 
. 931 

I 185 


13.85 72.07 


85. 92 


+ .781 

. IV. 

+ .053 

■ 1.122 
• .221 

+1.032 
+ .206 

+ 1.701 
+ .340 

+ 1.971 
.394 


1.05 


Average 


.21 


Second Bubperiod: 
Total 


11.73 


95.39 


2. 10 




.134 957 


. 1" 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


. 692 
.138 

.630 
. 126 

.521 
. 104 

. 251 
.050 


4.073 
.815 

L264 

1.135 

.827 

3.984 
.787 


11.75 69. 19 


B0. 94 


a 70 

.74 


Fourth Bubperiod: 
Totsi 


10.63 71.95 




6.00 




1 . 20 


Fifth sub, eriod: 

Total 


8.20 




7;;. 21 


a ik) 




1.60 


Sixtli subperiod: 

Total 


1.08 


63.91 


C7. 98 


10.00 




•■ 00 












Entire preserve t Ive 
period: 

Total 


35. :.'. 3 
1. 186 


. lis 


25. 189 28 722 
.840 . 957 


9.93 


70.77 


80.70 


+ .229 


80.86 




1.03 












After period. 

I'ir-i subperiod:" 

Total 


1.167 


. 77:. 
I ■ ■ 


807 


l.sos 

.962 


13.29 


69. l i 




L.025 







II 

















a Lefl "in in sc( <i after Bubperiod— sick. 



SALICYLIC ACID AXD SALICYLATES. 



6^3 



Table XVII. — Sulphur balances for Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. 11. 



Period. 



In food. In feces. 



Fore period. 

First subperiod 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Grams. 



Grams. 
6. 886 0. 708 
1.377 .142 



1.0.58 



811 
162 



In urine 



In feces 
and 
urine. 

(2+3) 



Grams. Grams. 

a 4. 673 5. 381 

.935 1.076 



5. 325 

1.065 



6.136 
1.227 



In 
feces. 

(2-1) 



Pi r ct. 
10.28 



„£. 't 8 B, ta( , || 

(ES) ' jfiR- I 1 " 4 ) ad,"!,, 
*•* • x > istered. 



Pint. 
67.86 78.14 



15.34 100.70 116.04 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



12.174 1.519 

1.217 .152 



9. 998 
1.000 



11.517 
1.152 



12.48 82.13 94.60 



Gram*. I Grams. 
+ 1.505 I 
+ .301 



.848 

.169 



. 657 



Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


5. 410 
1.082 

5.688 
1.138 

5.842 
1.168 

5.908 
1.182 

6.154 

1.231 

6.031 
1.206 


.750 
.150 

.796 
.159 

.813 
.163 

. 776 

.155 

.681 
.136 

.813 
.163 


5. 4(19 
1.094 

5.338 
1.068 

4. 455 
.891 

4. 602 
. 920 

5. 021 
1.004 

4.661 
.932 


6.219 

1.244 

6. 134 

1.227 

5. 268 
1.054 

5.378 
1.076 

5. 702 
1.140 

5. 474 
1.095 


13.86 


101. 09 


114. 95 


- 
- 

+ 
- 

+ 

+ 


.809 
.162 

.4 If, 
,089 

.574 
.114 

. 530 
.106 

. 4 52 
.091 

. 557 
.111 


1.05 
.21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


13.99 


93.85 


107. 84 


2.10 
.42 


Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average '. 


13.92 


76.26 


90.17 


3.70 

.74 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


13.13 


77. 89 


91.03 


6.00 
1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


11.07 


81.59 




92. M 


8.00 
1.60 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


13.48 




90. 76 


10.00 
2. 00 


Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 


35. 033 
1.168 


4.629 
.154 


29. 546 
.985 


34.175 
1.139 


13.21 


84.34 


97. 55 


+ 


- 8 
. 029 


30.85 

1.03 












After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


5. 72-2 
1.144 

5.810 
1.162 


.697 
.139 

.636 
.127 


4.854 
.971 

4.780 
.956 


5. 551 
1.110 

5.416 

1 . 083 


12.18 


-1.-:; 


97.01 


.171 







o 


Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


10. 96 


B2. 27 


98. 22 


+ 


. 394 
.079 

















Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 


11.532 
1.153 


1.333 
.133 


9.634 
.963 


10. 967 
1.097 


11.66 


83.54 


95. L0 


+ 

+ 


.665 
.056 

















oDaiiy average added in order to complete reeord. 



644 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 



Table XVII. — Sulphur balances far Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day. J 
No. 13. 



Period. 


lu food. 


In feces. 


3 

In urine. 


4 

In feces 

and 
urine. 


B 

In 
feces. 
(2*1) 


« 

In 
urine. 

(3-1) 


7 

In feces 
and 

urine. 
(4*1) 


s 

Balance. 

(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
aeid 
admin- 
istered. 


.■' riort. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 

• 
1.161 

5.334 
1.067 


d rums. 

0. 726 
. 145 

. 667 
.133 


Grams. 
5. L66 

1.033 

4.918 

. 96 1 


Grams. 

5. 892 
1.178 

5.585 
1.117 


Pt ret 

12. 51 


Per cL 

88.99 


Per ct. 
101.50 


Grams. 

-0.087 

- .017 

.251 

- .050 


Grams. 



o 


Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


12. 50 


92.20 


104.71 
















Entire fore period: 

Total 


11.139 
1.114 


1.393 
.139 


10. 084 

1.008 


11.477 
1. lis 


12. 51 


90.53 


103. ( 3 


. 338 
.034 


















• 


PreservaUvt period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


5. 425 

1.085 

5.611 
1.122 

5. 7(i7 
1.141 

5.746 

1.149 

6.075 
1.215 

5. S'J7 

l. 165 


.443 
.089 

. 455 
.091 

.820 
. L64 

.:.17 
.103 

.720 
.14 J 

. 193 
. 099 


4. 236 

.s|7 

5. 129 
1.026 

4. 906 
.981 

4. 734 
.947 

5.178 

1.035 

1.973 


4.679 
. 986 

5.584 
1.117 

5. 726 

1.145 

5. 251 
1.050 

.".. 893 
1.179 

1.093 


B.17 


78.08 




+ .746 

• . 1 1'.' 

+ .027 
- ,005 

- .019 

- .004 

+ .495 
+ .099 

+ .182 
+ .036 

+ .072 


1.05 




.21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


8.11 


91.41 


99. 52 


•'. Id 




.42 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


14. 37 


85.96 


100.33 


3.70 




.71 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


9.00 


82. 39 


91.39 


6.00 




1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


1 1 . B5 
8.46 


85. 1". 
85. 34 


97.00 


- 00 




L.60 


sixth subperiod: 

Total 


10.00 




2. 00 










Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 


34.891 

l. 146 


3. lis 
.115 


29. 161 

. '.'72 


32.599 

1.087 


10.08 


b4.76 


94.79 


1.792 

+ .059 


30.85 




L.03 












A/If r pt rind. 

tbperiod: 
Total 


5. 168 

1 093 

5.519 

1. lot 


.644 
. L29 

.lie. 


(.999 

l.(KK) 

.. L64 
1.083 


5.643 

1. 129 

... 7 1 1 
1. 1 19 


1 1 . 79 


'.M .1 


L08.29 


.180 
086 

.046 










Second Bubperiod: 
Total 


10.51 


93. 57 


L04.08 




















Entire after period: 
Total 


10.962 
L.098 


1 . 22 1 
. 122 


10. 168 
L.016 


11.887 

i. L89 


11. 15 


92 54 


1(13.67 


ii.. 

.011 







o 













" Dailj average added in order t«. complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



645 



Table XVII. — Sulphur balances for Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per man per day.] 

Summary for nine men.. 



Period. 


1 
In food. 


2 

In feces. 


3 

In urine. 


4 

In feces 
and 

urine. 
(2+3) 


5 

In 
feces. 
(2-1) 


6 

I* 

urine. 
(3-1) 


7 

In feces 
and 
urine. 
(4-1) 


8 

Balance. 
(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 
47. 179 

1.048 

41. 197 
.915 


Grams. 

5.494 

.122 

5.870 
130 


Grams. 
40. 242 

.894 

39. 487 
.879 


Grams. 

45. 736 

1.016 

45. 357 
1.008 


Per ct. 
11.65 


Per ct. 

85. 30 


Per ct. 
96.94 


Grams. 

+ 1.443 
+ .032 

-4. 160 
- .093 


Grams. 

o 






o 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


14.25 


95. 85 


110. 10 


o 




o 














Entire fore period: 
Total 


88. 376 
.982 


11. 364 

.126 


79. 729 

.886 


91. 093 
1.012 


12.86 


90.22 


103. 07 


-2.717 







- .030 i 












Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


42. 463 
.943 

45. 012 
1.000 

45. 186 
1.004 

45. 683 
1.015 

48. 298 
1.073 

46. 836 


5. 279 
.117 

5.245 

.116 

5.997 
.133 

5.636 
.125 

5.517 
.122 

5.314 


38. 571 
.857 

41.073 
.913 

39. 750 
.883 

40. 123 
.891 

41. 301 

.918 

43. 892 
.975 


43. 850 
.974 

46. 318 
1.029 

45. 747 
1.016 

45. 759 
1.017 

46. 818 
1.040 

49. 206 
1.093 


12.43 90.83 


103. 27 


—1.387 9.45 


Average 


- .031 .21 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


11.65 '' 91.25 


10'> 90 


1.306 18.90 


Average 




- .029 .42 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


13.27 87.97 


101.24 


i 
- .561 33.30 




- .012 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


12.34 


87.83 


100 17 


- .076 

- .002 

+ 1.480 
+ .033 

■9.37(1 


54 00 


Average 




1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


11.42 


85.51 96.94 


72.00 
1.60 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


11.35 




93 71 105 06 


88.00 




1.041 j .118 


- 052 


1 96 








Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 


273.478 32.988 
1.013 .122 


244. 710 
.906 


277. 698 
1.028 


12. 06 


89.48 101.54 


-4.220 
- .015 


275. 65 
1.02 














After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


44.350 
.985 

44. 950 
.998 


5.963 
.133 

5.297 
.117 


41.014 
.911 

42. 176 
.937 


46. 977 
1.044 

17. it:; 
1.055 


13.44 


92. 49 


105. 99 


2. 627 

- .059 

- 2. 523 

- .057 





Average 





Second subperiod: 

Total 


11.80 


93. 93 


105. 73 





Average 













Entire after period: 
Total 


89. 300 

. 992 


11.260 

.125 


83.190 
.924 


94. 450 
1.049 


12.61 


93.16 105.77 


5.150 

- .057 





Average 












646 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

FAT BALANCE. 
INDIVIDUAL DATA. 

An interesting problem is presented in connection with this work 
in respect of the relative absorption and digestibility of the food in 
the various periods of the experiment, inasmuch as in the fat balance 

the total amount excreted is found in the feces. (See Table XIX. 

page 651). 

No. 1. 

During the fore period the quantity of fat in the food of No. 1 
amounted daily to 87.16 grams, during the preservative period 85.15 
grams, and during the after period to 83.64 grams. This shows a 
progressive decrease in the quantity of fat in the food. There appears 
in the feces for the fore period 1.88 grams daily of fat, in the pre- 
servative period 1.70 grams, and in the after period 2.74 grams. 
Expressed in percentages, there were excreted of fat in the feces in 
the fore period 2.15 percent, in the preservative period 1.99 per cent, 
and in the after period 3. '21 per cent. 

These data show a very slight tendency on the part of the preserva- 
tive to decrease the quantity of fat in the feces; in other words, to 
increase the absorption of one of the principal heat-forming constitu- 
ents. The remarkable fact in connection with these data is that on the 
withdrawal of the preservative the quantity of unabsorbed fat in the 
feces is wvy largely increased and the balance is correspondingly low. 

No. . J . 

In tiic case of No. 2 the average quantity of fat consumed was 
Largest in the fore period, namely. :»7.~>7. smaller in the preservative 
period, namely. 94.16, and smallest in the after period, namely, 
91.77 grams. Of this quantity there appear in the feces in the fore 
period L 73 grams, in the preservative period 3.35 grams, and in the 
after period 3.49 grams. The percentage of fat in the food appearing 

in the feces daily is 4.84 per cent in the fore period. 3.56 per cent 

in the preservative period, and 3.80 percent in the after period. 
By reason of the varying quantity of fat ingested the percentages 

of fat excreted in the feces afforded a better means of comparison 
than the totai quantities. These percentages show that the greatest 

percentage of fat was excreted during the fore period, namely. L84 
per cent, the smallest in the preservative period, namely, 3.56 per 
cent, while in the after period nature appeared to make an effort to 
reestablish the normal condition existing in the fore period, the 
quantity of fat excreted rising to 3.80 per cent. 

These data -how a \ <t\ marked tendency on the part of the preserva 
tive to increase the absorption of the heat-forming elements of the 

tatt \ food from the alimentary canal. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 647 

No. 3. 

The data for No. 3 are exhibited without comment by reason of the 
conditions heretofore stated in connection with this member of the 
table. 

No. 4- 

The average daily quantity of fat in the food of No. 4 in the fore 
period is 96.51 grams, in the preservative period 92.77 grams, and in 
the after period 91.42 grams. The relative amounts appearing in the 
feces for the three periods daily are as follows: 

For the fore period 2.96 grams, for the preservative period 2.81 
grams, and for the after period 2.58 grams. Inasmuch as there is a 
slightl}' diminished quantity of fat in the food in the after period, as 
in the previous case, a more comprehensive idea of the amount of fat 
absorbed from the alimentary canal is found by an inspection of the 
percentage column. This shows that 8.06 per cent of the fat was 
excreted in the fore period in the feces, 3.03 per cent in the preserva- 
tive period, and 2.82 per cent in the after period. These data show 
practically no influence of the preservative as affecting the absorption 
of the fat from the alimentary canal, but a considerable increase in 
this absorption is noticed during the after period. 

No. 5. 

The average daily quantity of fat consumed by No. 5 in the fore 
period is 96.82 grams, in the preservative period 94.03 grams, and 
in the after period 91.37 grams. Here again we find a slightly dimin- 
ishing quantity of fat throughout the three periods. The amounts 
appearing in the feces during these three periods are, respectively, 
3 grains. -2. 80 grams, and 2.93 grams. Expressed in percentages, it is 
seen that of the total fat in the food 3.10 per cent is excreted daily in 
the feces of the fore period, 2.98 per cent in the preservative period, 
and 3.21 per cent in the after period. 

These data again show the influence of the preservative in increas- 
ing the absorption of the fatty substances from the alimentary canal. 

No. 6. 

The average daily quantity of fat in the food of No. 6 in the fore 
period. is 96.91 grams, in the preservative period 94.4.9 grams, and in 
the after period 92.63 grams. The quantity appearing in the feces for 
the fore period is 3.24 grams, for the preservative period 3.92 grams, 
and for the after period 3.39 grain-, which, expressed in percentages, 
represents an excretion of fat in the feces in the fore period of 3.34 per 
cent, in the preservative period 4.14 per cent, and in the after period 
3.66 per cent. In this case the data are exactly the opposite in sig- 
nificance from those of the preceding cases, the administration of the 



()48 INFLUENCE OF POOD PRESERVATIVES ON HKALTH. 

preservative having decidedly increased the quantity of fat in the 
3, thus indicating a decrease in the quantity absorbed from the 
alimentary canal. 

No. :. 

In the case of No. 7 the average daily quantity of fat in the food 
for the fore period is r,7 grams, for the preservative period 66.51 
grams, and for the after period 64.94 grams. Of this quantity there 
appear in the feces of the fore period 2.17 grams, in tin 1 preservative 
period L.75 grams, and in the after period i ; ..V> grams. Expressed in 
percentages of the total quantity of fat in the food there is found to 
be excreted in the feces in the fore period 3.24 percent, in the pre- 
servative period 2.64 per cent, and in the after period 3.93 per cent. 
In this ease the data again indicate the marked effect of the preserv 
ative in increasing" the quantity of fatty substance- absorbed from the 
alimentary canal, and thus decreasing the quantity appearing in the 

feces. 

No. 8. 

The average daily quantity of fat in the food of No. 8 in the fore 
period ia 63.1 \ grams, in the preservative period 63.34 grams, and in 
th<- after period 62.58 grams. Of this quantity there appear in the 
feces of the fore period 2.25 grams, of the preservative period 2.60 
grams, and of the after period 2.40 grams. Expressed as percentages, 
the total amount of fat in the food of No. 8 excreted in the feces ^\ 
the fore period is 3.56 per cent, of the preservative period 4.10 per 
(•cut. and of the after period 3.83 per cent. These data agree with 
those of NO. »;. and show the effect of the administration of the pre- 
servative in decreasing the absorption of the fatty substances from 
the alimentary canal and the increase of these substances in the feces. 

No. 9. 

The average daily quantity of fat in the food of No. !> in the fore 
period was L36. 79 grams, in the preservative period L33.95 grams, and 
in the after period L28.91 grams. Of this quantity there appealed in 
the feces of the fore period 2.49 grams, in the preset vative period .*'.. l.'» 
grams, and in the after period 2.57 grams. Expressed as percentage 

of the total amount of fat in the food. No. '.' excreted L.82 per cent in 

the fore period. 2.57 percent in the preservative period, and L.99 per 

cent in the after period. 

For reasons given elsewhere (p. r>s7) the results obtained with this 
subject are not included in the summaries. They are stated here, 
how ever, as a mat ter of reeord. 

v.. I<>. 

The average daily quantity of fat in the food of No. 1»> in tin' fore 

period is •.♦T..")i grams and in the preservative period !»i . r.» grams. ( )l" 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



649 



this quantity there appear in the feces in the fore period 3.82 grams 

and in the preservative period 2. 71 grams. Expressed as percentage of 

the total amount of fat in the food, No. 10 excreted 3.92 per cent 

during the fore period and 2.99 per cent during the preservative period. 

Owing to illness. No. 10 was absent from the table during the after 

period. For reasons given elsewhere (p. 587) this subject is omitted 

from the summaries. The results are given here, however, as a matter 

of record. 

No. 11. 

In the case of No. 11 the average daily quantity of tat in the food 

in the fore period is 97.67 grams, in the preservative period 95.03 

grams, and in the after period 93.26 grams. Of this quantity there 

appear in the feces of the fore period 3.19 grams, in the preservative 

period 3.01 grams, and in the after period 2.6-1 grams. Expressed in 

percentages of the total quantity of fat in the food there was exareted 

in the feces of the fore period 3.58 per cent, of the preservative period 

3.20 per cent, and of the after period 2.83 per cent. These data show 

a tendency on the part of the preservative to increase the absorption 

of the fatty substances from the alimentary canal and diminish the 

quantity excreted in the feces. This tendency is continued in the 

after period. 

No. 12. 

The average daily quantity of fat in the food of No. 12 in the fore 
period is 117.22 grams, in the preservative period 119.10 grams, and 
in the after period 113.74 grams. Of this quantity there appear in 
the feces of the fore period 5.03 grams, of the preservative period 2.55 
grams, and of the after period 3.11 grams. Expressed as percentages 
of the total quantity of fat in the food there appear in the feces of the 
fore period 4.29 per cent, of the preservative period 2.14 per cent, and 
of the after period 2.73 per cent. These data show a very marked 
tendency on the part of the preservative to increase the absorption of 
the fatty substances from the alimentary canal and to decrease the 
quantity appearing in the feces. This tendency is only partially cor- 
rected during the after period. 

SUMMARY. 

The average figures for the nine men. by periods, taken from Table 
XIX on the fat balances are here inserted for convenience: 

Table XVIII. — Fat summary, by periods, for nine men. Series 17. 



Period. 



Orarru. 

For«' period 9'. 1 1 

l'n servative period 

A i icr period 87. 26 



Pal i'i 



Unmix. 



/'( ret nt. 



Balance. 



Oranu. 



7656— No. 84, pt 2—06 12 



650 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OH HEALTH. 

The daily average quantity of fat in the food of the nine men 
included in the general average is 91.11 grams for the fort 4 period. 
89.40 grams for the preservative period, and 87.26 grams for the after 
period. Of this quantity there appear in the feces of the fore period 
3.19 grams, of the preservative period °2.7*2 grains, and of the after 
period 2.87 grams. Expressed in percentages of the total quantity of 
fat in the food, the amount excreted in the feces of the fore period is 
3.50 per cent, of the preservative period 3.05 per cent, and of the 
after period 3.29 per cent. 

These data show a tendency on the pari of the preservative to 
increase the absorption of tin 4 fatty substances in the alimentary canal 
and to decrease the quantity appearing in the feces. Thi> tendency i*> 
only partly overcome in the after period, duringwhich the quantity of 
fat excreted is greater than in the preservative period, but less than 
in tlje fore period. 

In the consideration of the fat balances it should be remembered 
that the experimental work continued from October to December. 
The colder weather might have been expected to cause a more com- 
plete oxidation of the fat ingested in the food, and the data show such 
a condition in the preservative period; therefore the effect produced 
can not be ascribed entirely to the preservative. In the aftei period, 
however, the amount of fat excreted increases slightly, which would 
seem to indicate that the increasing cold weather had no marked effect. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



651 



Table XIX. — Fat balances for Series VI. 
[Averages are per day.] 

No. i. 



Period. 



Fort period. 



First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Preservatiw period. 



First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire preservative period: 

Total 

Average 



After period. 



First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 
Total 

Avif;:: 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



In food. 



[n feces. 



In feces. 
(2-1) 



Grams. 

442. 53 

429. 09 

85. 82 



446. 37 
89.27 



417.14 
83.43 



440. 35 
88. 07 



431. 32 
86. 26 



420. 37 
84.07 



398. 81 
79.76 



2, 5.54. 36 
85. 15 



411.65 
82.33 



Grams. 

10.18 
2.04 

8.58 
1.72 



Per cent. 
2.30 



2.00 



Balance. 
(1-2) 



Grams. 
432. 35 
86.47 

420. 51 
84.10 



Salicylic 
acid ad- 
ministered. 



6.35 
1.27 



7. 7<; 
1.55 



9.17 
1.83 



10.93 
2.19 



8.46 
1.69 



8. 27 

1.65 



1.42 


1.86 


2.08 


2. 53 



2.01 
2. 07 



440. 02 
88.00 



409.38 

81.88 



431.18 
86. 24 



420. 39 
84.07 



411.91 

82.38 



390.54 
78.11 



.50.94 
1.70 



2. .503. 42 

83. 4.5 



15.78 

3. 16 



3.83 



395. 87 
79.17 



Grams. 








871.62 

87.16 


18.76 ' 
1.88 ... 


2.15 


852.86 
85.28 







1.0.5 
.21 



2.10 
.42 



3.70 
.74 



6.00 
1.20 



8.00 
1.60 



10.00 
2.00 



30. 85 
1.03 



424. 76 
44. 95 


11.60 ' 
'J. 32 .. 


2. 73 


413. 16 

-■2. ■ I 














836.41 

- 


•J. 71 ... 


3.27 



609.08 
80.90 








652 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 



Table XIX. — Fat balance* for Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. £. 



Period. 



Fon period. 



First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Pretervativt p< r><><}. 



First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire preservative period: 

Total 

Average 



After period. 



Mrs! subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 

Total 

.\\ • rage 



In food. In feces. 



3 



In feces. 
(2+1) 



Grams. 
494.88 

98.88 



192. 56 
98. 51 



160. 44 
92. 09 



487. 78 
97. 56 



171.(11 
94. 80 



457. 39 
91. 18 



452. 72 
90. 6 1 



2,824.90 
94.16 



152. If, 
90. 19 



165. 27 
93. 05 



917.78 

91.77 



481. 36 
96. 27 


24.07 
4.81 


5.00 


157. 29 
91.46 












975. 7 1 

97. 57 


47. 26 
4.73 ... 


I.M 


928. 18 
92. 84 







Gram*. Percent 
•23.19 4.6 

4.64 .. 

84.07 
4.81 

17. 26 
4.73 

13.84 2.81 

2. 77 

16.68 3.60 

3.32 

21.69 4.45 

4.34 

18.24 3.85 

3.65 

11.64 2.51 

2.33 

L8.52 4.09 

3.70 

100.51 

3.35 

15.56 3.44 

3.11 

l. 15 

3.87 

34.89 3.80 

3. 19 



Balance. 



Salicylic 
acid ad- 
ministered. 



drams. 
471.19 

94.24 



178.72 

95. 74 



1 13. 86 
B8.77 



166.09 
93. 22 



155.77 
91.15 



1 15. 75 
89.15 



B4.20 
86.84 



2,724.39 
90.81 



136.90 

s:.:;v 



I 15. 9 I 

89. 1 8 



882 -i 



Grams. 






l . 06 
.21 



2.10 
.42 



3.70 
.74 



6.00 
1.20 



8. 00 

1 . f.O 



10. 00 
2. 00 



1.03 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



653 



Table XIX. — Fat balances for Series VI — Continued 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. 3. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


2 

In feces. 


3 

In feces. 
(2-1) 


4 

Balance. 
(1-2) 


Salicylic 
acid ad- 
ministered. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 


Grams. 


Per cent. 


Grams. 


'•'rams. 












Second subperiod: 

Total 


362. 43 
72.49 


9.81 
1.96 


2.71 


352. 62 
70.53 
















Entire fore period: 

Total 


























Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


321. 50 
64.30 

334. 39 
66.88 

331.51 
66.30 

331. 93 
66.39 

308. 01 
61.60 


9.23 

1.85 

14.77 
2.95 

9.56 
1.91 

13.33 
2.67 

10.27 
2.05 


2.87 
4.42 
2.88 


312. 27 
62.45 

319. 62 
63.93 

321. 95 
64.39 

318. 60 
63.72 

297. 74 
59.55 


1.05 




.21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


2.10 




.42 


Third subperiod: 

Total . ... 


4.00 


Average 


.80 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


4.02 


6.00 




1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


3. 33 


8.00 




1.60 








Total 


a 1,627. 34 

65. 09 


57. 16 
2.29 


3.51 


1,570.18 
62. 80 


21.15 




.85 








Total 


311.28 
62.26 

330. 03 
66.01 


Lost. 









Average 











Second subperiod: 

Total 


10.35 

2.07 


3.14 




319.68 
63. 94 





Average 











Entire alter period: 

Total 







































« No. 3 had only live preservative subperiods. 



654 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XIX. — Pat balances for Series 17 — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 
No. 4. 



Period. 


1 
In food. 


2 

In feces. 


3 

In feces. 
(2-s-l) 


4 

Balance. 

(1-2) 


5 

Salicylic 
acid ad- 
ministered. 


Fofi j» rind. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Cframe. 

4S8.58 
97. 72 

476. 49 
95.30 


Qrams. 

16.70 
3.34 

12.86 
2.57 


l'< r cent. 
3.42 


Grams. 

. 171.88 
94.38 

463.63 
'.rj. 73 


Grams. 








Second subperiod: 

Total 


2.70 





Average 


o 









Entire fore period: 

Total 


965. 07 

96.51 


29.56 
2.96 


3.06 


'.»::. 55 


o 


Average 


o 








PreservatiiH period. 

Firs! subperiod: 

Total 


190.87 

98.17 

429. 08 
85. 82 

IM. 15 
96. 88 

(60.38 
92. 06 

468. 92 
98. 78 

449. 82 
89.86 


10.17 
2. 03 

13.08 

2. 62 

12. W 

2.51 

a 12. 76 

2. 55 

20. 48 
4.10 

"15. 11 
3.08 


2.07 
3.05 


480.70 
96. 14 

416.00 
88.20 

171.91 
94.88 

447.62 
88. 58 

lis. 11 

88. 68 

433. 91 
86.78 


1.05 


Average 


.21 


Second Bnbperiod: 

Total 


2.10 




.42 


Third Bnbperiod: 

Total . 


J. 59 


3.70 




.71 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


2.77 
4.37 


6. 00 




L.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


8.00 
1.60 


Sixth subperiod: 


3.43 


10.00 




2. IK) 








Entire preservative period: 

Total 


2,788.02 

92. 77 


84. li 
2.81 


3.03 


2,698.58 
88. 86 


80.85 




1.03 








After period. 
subperiod: 

Total 


lis. is 

89.70 

166. 7:; 
93. 15 


11.35 

2. 27 

11. 17 

2. 88 


2. 53 


187. 13 
87. 13 

451.26 
80.26 


(i 




(i 


second subperiod: 

Total 


3.11 
















Entire alter period: 

Total 


914.21 
81.42 


25 82 
2. 58 


2. 82 


s^s 89 

















Daily average added in order to complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



655 



Table XIX. — Fat bakmcesfor Series IT— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

3STo. o. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


2 

In feces. 


3 

In feces. 
(2-1) 


4 

Balance. 
(1-2) 


5 

Salicylic 
acid ad- 
ministered. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 
487. 58 
97.52 

480. 64 
96.13 


Grams. 
16.08 
3.22 

13.90 

2.78 


Per cent. 
3.30 


Grams. 
471.50 
94.30 

466. 74 

93. 35 


Grams. 








Second subperiod: 

Total 


2.89 














Entire fore period: 

Total 


968. 22 
96.82 


29.98 
3.00 


3.10 


938. 24 
93. 82 







o 








Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


491. 79 
98.36 

457. 62 
91. 52 

485. 12 
97.02 

467. 39 
93.48 

469. 73 
93.95 

449. 19 
89.84 


14.53 

2.91 

12.20 
2.44 

15. 16 
3.03 

12. 26 
2. 45 

16.66 
3.33 

13. 26 
•l. 65 


2.95 


477. 26 
95. 45 

445. 42 
89.08 

469. 96 
93.99 

455. 13 
91.03 

453. 07 
90.62 

435. 93 
8Z i'y 


1.05 




.21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


2.67 


2.10 




42 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


3.12 


3.70 




.74 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


2.62 


6.00 




1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


3. 55 


8.00 




1.60 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


2.95 


10.00 


Average 


2.00 






Entire preservative period: 

Total 


2, 820. 84 
94.03 


84.07 
2.80 


2.98 


2, 736. 77 
91.23 


30.85 




1.03 








After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


450. IS 

90. 04 

463. 48 
92. 70 


18.48 
3.70 

10.82 
2. 16 


l.U 
2.33 


431.70 
86.84 

152. 66 
90.54 





Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 






Average 





Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 


913. 66 
91.37 


29. 30 
2.93 


3.21 


884. 36 
88. 1 1 













656 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 



Table XIX. — F<it balances for Series IV — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 
No. 6. 



Entire preservative period: 

Total 

Average 



After period. 



First -ul-pcriod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subpei lod: 

i otal 

Average 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



Period. 


1 
In Food. 


In !• 


3 

In ft 

(2-1) 


4 

Balance. 

l 2 


5 

Salicylic 
acid ad- 
ministered. 


Fort pi Hod. 

Fir>t subperiod: 

Total 


drums. 
196. 35 
99. 27 

172.75 
94.55 


Grams. 

it;. 53 

3. SI 

15.87 

;;. it 


l'i r cent. 
3.33 


Grams. 

170 B2 


Grams. 

o 


Average 


o 


second subperiod: 

Total 


3. 96 


o 


A verage 


o 








Entire fore period: 

Total 


969. 10 
96.91 


32. 40 

3. 24 


3.34 


93.67 


o 




o 








PreSi mil in pt riml. 

Pirsi subperiod: 

Total 


189.73 

97. 95 

447.75 
89. 55 

184.36 
96. 87 

181.15 
96. 23 

482. 08 
96. 12 

1 19. 58 
89. 92 


13.10 
2. 62 

19.15 
3.83 

20. 97 
1. 10 

it;, til 
3.21 

24.26 

1 . 85 

28. 93 

1.70 


2.67 


176.63 
96. 33 

128.60 
86. 72 

if.:.. 1 1 
93.02 

157. B2 
91.57 

125. 65 
85.18 


1.05 


Average 


.21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 




".10 




.42 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


4.38 






71 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


3.33 






1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total ... 


5.03 


8.00 




1 . 60 


sixth subperiod: 

Total 


5. 32 




A vera ire 


1 . 60 



2,834.65 

01. 10 


117. 15 


4.14 


2,717.20 

on. :.7 










02. 77 

162. 11 

'. io 


21.12 

1.22 

" 12.80 


2. 77 


112.71 
1 10. 6 1 























o 










" Daily average added in order i" complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



657 



Table XIX. — Fat balances for Series IT — Continued. 

[Averages are per day. J 

No. 7. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


2 

In feces. 


3 

In feces. 
(2-s-l) 


4 

Balance. 
(1-2) 


5 

Salicylic 
acid ad- 
ministered. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grunts. 
321. 37 
64.27 

348. 63 
69.73 


Grains. 
13.58 

2.72 

8.14 
1.63 


Per cent. 
4.23 


Grams. 
307. 79 
61. 55 

340. 49 
68.10 


Grams. 



Average 





Second subperiod: 

Total 


2.33 


o 




o 








Entire fore period: 

Total 


670. 00 
67.00 


21.72 
2.17 


3.24 


648. 28 
64.83 


o 


Average 


o 








Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


350. 78 
70.16 

319. 18 
63. 84 

339. 72 
(17. 94 

337. 70 

G7.51 

341.48 
68. 30 

306. 58 

61.32 


10. 92 
2.18 

8.00 
1.60 

11.06 

2.21 

7.71 
1.51 

9.73 
1 . 95 

5.20 
1.04 


3.11 


339. 86 
67.98 

311.18 
62. 24 

328. 66 

65.73 

329. 99 
66.00 

331. 75 
66.35 

301.38 

GO. 28 


1.05 


Average . 


.21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 

A verage 


2. 51 


2.10 
.42 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


3.26 


3.70 


Average 


.74 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


2.28 


6 00 


Average 


1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


2.85 
1.70 


8 00 




1 60 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


10 00 


a verage 


2.00 








Entire preservative period: 

Total 


1 , 995. 44 
66. 51 


52. 62 

1 . 75 


2. 64 


1,942.82 
64.76 


30 85 


A verage .- 


1.03 


After period. 

Firal subperiod: 

Total 


323. 35 
64.67 

326.04 

66. 21 


11.79 
2.3(1 

13.71 

2.71 


;;. 65 


311.56 
62. 31 

312.33 

G2. 47 





Average 





Total 

Average 


1.21 






Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 


649.39 
64.94 


26.50 

2. 55 


;;. 93 


623.89 
62.39 













658 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEAL III. 



Table XIX. — Fat balances/or Seriet VI — Continued. 
[Averages are per day.] 

X . ,. 8. 



Period. 



Fort j» riod. 



Fir»t subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Preservativt jn riod. 



First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third Bubperiod: 

Total 

A\ erage 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth Bubperiod: 
Total 

Average 



Entire preservative period: 

Total 

Average 



,\Jt< r \k i i'ul. 



Firsl Bubperiod: 

Total 

\\ erage 

Second Bubperiod 

Total 

A vera 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 




In feces. 



298. 52 



329.91 
65. 98 



295. 10 

53. H2 



317.59 
63. 52 



320. 88 

64. 1^ 



335.91 
67. 18 



300.70 

60. 1 1 



L, 94 9 

L8.34 



308. 78 
61.75 



117.04 

68. II 



626. 77 



In feces. 



Balance. *«ffi* 

^ *' ministered. 



anting. Grams. Percent. 
332.91 10.63 3.19 
66.58 2.13 



11.86 



(i run IS. (h-(t)llS. 

322. 2s 

64. 15 





59. 70 


2.37 




57. 33 













631.43 
63. 1 1 


22. 19 
2.25 ... 


:;. 56 


608.94 
60. 89 
















15.30 
3.06 



12.71 
2.54 



10.63 
2. 13 



17.00 
:;. in 



1.67 



13.96 
2. 79 



164 
1.31 
3.35 
6. 30 
2. 49 
4.64 



314.61 

62. S 2 



56. 18 



306.96 
61.39 



303. 88 

- 



327.56 
65.61 



286.74 



77. 95 
2. 60 



1.10 



1,822.14 

6 I. 7 1 



1 2. 35 

2. 17 



11.63 

2. 33 



1.00 






305. II 
61.08 



2. 10 



- 



601.79 



1.05 
.21 



2.10 
.42 



3.70 

.71 



0.00 
1.20 



L.60 



10.00 
2.00 



L.08 



SALICYLIC ACID AXD SALICYLATES. 



659 



Table XIX. — Fat balances for Series VI — Continued 
[Averages are per day.] 

:n"o. q. 



Period. 



Fore period. 



First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Preservative period. 



First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire preservative period: 

Total 

Average 



After period. 



First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



In food. 



Grams. 
674. 78 
134.96 

693.11 

138. 62 



In feces. 



1, 367. 89 
136. 79 



139. 90 



649.83 
129. 97 



689. 52 
137.90 



682. 06 

136.11 



659. 45 
131.89 



638.18 
127. 64 



4,018.53 
133. 95 



651. 15 
130. 23 



637. 96 
127. 59 



1 . 289. 1 1 
128. 91 



In feces. Balance. 
(2-s-l) (1-2) 



Grams. Percent. 
11.00 1.63 

2.20 



13.94 
2.79 



2.01 



Grams. 
663. 7s 
132. 76 

679. 17 
135. 83 



24. yi 

2.49 



1.82 



1,342.95 
134.30 



21.52 
4.30 



17.43 
3.49 



15. 17 
3.03 



11.68 

2.34 



17.33 
3.47 



20. 22 

4.04 



2.68 
2. 20 
1.71 
2.63 
3.17 



677.97 
135.60 



632. 40 
126. 18 



674. 35 
134.87 



670. 38 
134.07 



642. 12 
128.42 



617. 96 
123. 60 



103. 35 
3. 45 



3, 915. 18 
130. 50 



Salicylic 
acid ad- 
ministered. 



6.49 1.00 644.66 

1.30 12S.93 

19.19 3.01 618.77 

3. M 123.75 

25.68 1.99 1,263.43 

2.57 126.31 



Grams. 








1.05 
.21 



2.10 
.42 



3.70 
.74 



6.00 
1.20 



8.00 
1.60 



10.00 
2.00 



30.85 
1.03 



660 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 



Table XIX. — Fed balances for Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 
No. lO. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


In f> 


3 

In feces. 

(2-1) 


4 

Balance. 

d-2) 


5 

Salicylic 
acid ad- 
ministered. 


- r ii nl. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


<Jra)n.<. 
.502. 65 
100. 53 

472. 41 
94.49 


<jram.<. 
22. 31 
1. 16 

15.89 
3.18 


J'' r rent. 
4.14 


Ghrcum. 

480. 34 
96.07 

456. 55 
91.31 


Qnmu. 









Second subperiod: 

Total 


3.36 


„ 


Average 


o 






Entire fore period: 

Total 


975. 09 
97. ">l 


38.20 
3.82 


3.92 


936. 89 

93. 69 
















Prest rvaHvt pt riod. 

Fir>t subperiod: 

Total 


180.84 

96.07 

455.80 

yi. it; 

453. :<1 

90.66 

461.06 

92. 21 

465. 01 
93.18 

128. 18 

85.64 


17.89 
3.58 

18.4] 

•_'. lis 

15.71 
3. 11 

15.17 
3.09 

14.24 

2. 85 

1.08 


3.72 


162. 45 

92.49 

442. 39 

88.48 

437. 60 
87. 52 

445.59 
B9.12 

151.67 

90.33 

122. hi 
84.56 


1.05 




.21 


second Bubperiod: 

Total 


2.94 


2.10 


Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 


. 12 


::. 17 




A verage 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


.74 


3.36 


6.00 
1.20 


3.06 


8.00 
L.80 


sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


1 . 26 


10. 00 
2.00 






Entire preservative period: 

Total 


2,744.60 

91. 19 


82. K) 

_'. 7 1 


•j. 99 


2,662.50 

88.75 




Average 


1.08 






After period. 
Fir-t subperiod: a 

Total 


451.44 

90. 29 


it;. 77 


::.7l 


184.67 
36. 94 















a \.. second after subperiod; Bubject n 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



661 



Table XIX. — Fat balances for Series VI— Continued. 
[Averages are per day.] 

:nto. 11. 



Period. 



Fore period. 



First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Preservative period. 



First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire preservative period: 

Total 

Average 



After period. 



First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



In food. 



Grams. 
492.50 
98.50 

484. 21 
96.84 



2 

In feces. 



976. 71 
97.67 



496. 95 
99.39 



453. 71 
90.74 



490. 54 
98.11 



479. 24 
95.85 



476. 07 
95.21 



454. 35 
90.87 



2, 850. 86 
95.03 



459. 83 
91.97 



472. 74 
94. 55 



932. 57 
93.26 



Grams. 
17.37 
3.47 

17.55 
3.51 



3 



In feces. 

(2-1) 



Balance. 

(1-2) 



/'>/• rflit. 

3.53 



34.92 



13. 52 
2.70 



18.36 
3.67 



17.17 
3.43 



14.70 
2.94 



12.16 
2.43 



15.24 
3. 05 



91.15 
3.04 



13.94 
2.79 



12. 46 
2.49 



26.40 
2.64 



3.62 



drains. 
475. 13 
95.03 

466. 66 
93.33 



Salicylic 

acid ad 

ministered. 



3.58 | 



941.79 
91.18 



2. 72 



3.50 



3.07 



2.55 



483. 43 
96.69 



435. 35 

87. 07 



473. 37 
94. 68 



461.54 
92.91 



403. 91 
'.»2. 78 



439. 11 
87. 82 



20 



2,769.71 

91.99 



2.64 



445. 89 
89.18 



460. 28 
92. 06 



2.83 



906.17 
90. 62 



Grams. 









1.05 
.21 



2. 10 
.42 



3.70 
.74 



6.00 
1.20 



8.00 
1.60 



10.00 
2.00 



30. 85 
1.03 



662 [NFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESEBVATIVES ox HKALTH. 

Table XIX. — Fat balances for Series VI — Continued. 

Averages arc per day.] 

ZV<>. 1 J. 



Period. 



l 
In food. 



in feces. 



In feces. 
(2-1) 



Balance. 
1 2 



Salicylic 
acid ad- 
ministered. 



Fort i>< Hod. 



Firsl Rubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



PreservatiiH p< riod. 



Firsl Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

sixth Bubperiod. 

Total 

Average 



Entire preservative period: 
Total 

Average 



After period. 



Firsl Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



'•rams. 

116.87 



Grams. l'< r cent. a rums. 
20.21 3.46 564.12 

l.dl 112.83 



1,172.19 
117.22 



613.89 
L22.78 



596. 66 
L19.33 



607.98 
121.60 



594.36 
L18.87 



594. 15 
L18.83 



566.04 
L13.21 



3,573.08 
L19. in 



562.60 

1 1 2. 62 



574.80 
114.96 



l, L87. in 
LIS. 74 



587.86 30.09 

117.57 6.02 



50. 30 
5. 03 



10.37 
■1. 07 



L0.94 

•_'. L9 



L9.57 
3.91 



9. 98 
2.00 



13.66 

■1. 73 



L2.00 

2. in 



76. 52 



14.97 
2. 99 



16. 10 
:•». 22 



31.07 

3. 11 



5.12 557,77 
111.55 



L29 



L.69 


L.83 


3. 22 


1.68 


•J. 30 


2. L2 




2. 14 



1. 131.89 
112.19 



603.52 
120.71 



585. 72 

117.11 



117.69 



116.87 



580. 19 
116. in 



554.04 
110.81 



3, 196.66 
116.55 



L09.53 



2.80 

111.71 



•J. 73 



1,106.83 
110.63 



Granu 



1.05 

.a 



2. 10 
. 12 



3.70 

.71 



6. oo 
1.20 



s. 00 
1.60 



10.00 
2. CH) 



30. 85 
1.08 



-I Dailj average added in order to complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



663 



Table XIX. — Fat balances for Series IT— Continued. 

[Averages are per man per day.] 

SvuxLmax-y for :n.in.e men. 



Period. 



In food. In feces. 



In feces. 
(2-1) 



Balance. 
(1-2) 



Salicylic 
acid ad- 
ministered. 



Fori p< riod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 

Preserratir* period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total , 

Average 

Entire preservative period: 

Total 

A verage 

After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average , 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



Grams. 

4, 140. 53 



4, 059. 55 
90.21 



8, 200. 08 
91.11 



, 202. 85 
93.40 



, 876. 68 
86. 15 



137. 89 
91. 95 



046. 43 
89. 92 



046. 10 
89.91 



>27.2\» 
85. 05 



24, 137. 24 
89. Hi 



3,881.11 

86. 25 



3, 972. 30 

ss. 27 



r,853. 11 
87. 26 



Grams. 

144. 47 
3.21 

142. 92 
3.18 



Percent. Gram.*. Gram*. 

3.58 3,896.06 

86.58 



3. 52 3, 916. 63 
87. 03 



287. 39 
3.19 



3.50 | 7,912.69 
87. 92 



108. 10 

2.40 



118. 78 
2.64 



137. 96 
3.07 



119. 62 



125. 40 
2. 79 



125. 79 
2.80 



2.57 • 4,094.75 
91.00 



3.06 3,757.90 
83.51 



3. 33 3, 999. 



2.96 



, 926. 81 
87. 26 



3.10 : 3,920.70 
87.12 



3.29 I 3,701.50 

S2.25 



735. 65 
2. 72 



3.05 ! 23,401.59 
I 86.68 



135.34 
3.01 



122. 92 

2.73 



3. 49 
3.09 



3.29 



3, 745. 77 
83.24 



1, 849. 38 



595.15 
84.39 



9.45 
.21 



18.90 
.42 



33. 30 
.74 



54. 00 
1.20 



72. 00 
1.60 



88.00 
1.96 



275. 65 
1.02 



CALORIES IJALANCE. 



A comparison of the total heat value of the food with tho heat value 
of the residual matter in the free- and urine will give an indication of 
the activity of the organism in respect of its relations to the heal and 
energy supplied by the food. The calories were determined by cal- 
culation, a comparison of such results with those obtained by com- 
bustion in an atmosphere of oxidation, m the borax experiment, 
having shown that the two methods give comparable results on :i large 
number of samples. The figures used in the following discussion are 
found in Table XXI, page 669. 



6o4 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PBESEfcVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



INDIVIDUAL DATA. 

No. l. 



The average daily number of calories in the food of No. 1 for the 
fore period is '2A±'2. for the preservative period 2,453, and for the 
after period 2,454. The data show a very close agreement in the 
daily quantity of heat-forming material ingested with the food. The 
residual calories in the feces for the fore period are 62, for the pre- 
servative period 60, and for the after period 96. The residual calo- 
ries in the urine for the fore period are 7^. for the preservative 
period 7!>. and for the after period 7 ( .». Expressed in percentages, 
the calories in the fore period in the feces are 2.55 per cent, in the 
preservative period 2.43 per cent, and in tin 1 after period 3.92 per 
cent: in the urine, 2.95 per cent, 3.21 per cent, and 3.23 per cent. 
respectively. The balance for the fore period is 2,308, for the pre- 
servative period 2,315, and for the after period 2,279. These figures 
represent the actual quantity of heat furnished by the food during the 
progress of the experiment. The data show a slight tendency on the 
pari of the preservative to decrease the calories in the feces. On the 
withdrawal of the preservative, however, the calories in the feces 
increase in a very marked degree. There was hut little change in the 
calories occurring in the urine, there being a slight increase during 
the preservative period, which was maintained without change in the 
after period. The most notable fact in connection with the data is 
the increase in the calories in the feces upon the withdrawal of the 

preservative. 

. >. 

The average number of calories in the food of No. -2 for the three 
periods is 3,015, 3,008, and 3,011, respectively, showing a very cl 
agreement in the heat value for the three periods. There appear] 
the \\>a^ for the fore period L37 calories daily, in the preservative 
period 1 14, and in the after period L06. There appear in the urine in 
the fore period 89 calories, in the preservative period s -~> calories, and 
in the after period 89 calories. The largest percentage of calories 
appears in the feces in the fore period and the smallest in the after 
period. The largest percentage of calories in the urine is in the after 

period, hut it is almost identical with the percentage of the fore period. 

There is a slight diminution in the percentage of calories in the urine 
during the preservative period. The largest balance, namely, 2,816, 
occurs in the after period and the smallest in the tore period. The 
most noted change indicated by the data is in the diminution of the 
calories in the feces upon the addition of tin- preservative, and this 
diminution i- continued, hut t<> a less extent, in tin- after period. 



o>e 
n 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 665 

Xo. 3. 

The sheet for No. 3 is offered without comment on account of the 
illness and consequent interruption of the normal functions during a 
part of the period of observation. 

Xo. 4. 

In the case of No. -4 it is seen that the average daily calories in the 
food number 2,769 in the fore period, 2,833 in the preservative period, 
and 2,904 in the after period, showing a progressive increase in the 
calories of the food. There is a corresponding decrease in the average 
daily calories in the feces, falling from 94 in the fore period to 91 in 
the preservative period and 85 in the after period. In the urine the 
quantity of calories in the preservative period is slightly less than 
during the fore period and the after period, being practically identical 
for these two periods. In this connection, however, the increase in 
the calories in the food in both the preservative and after periods 
must be remembered. The largest balance is found in the after period 
and the smallest in the fore period. The decrease in the calories in 
the feces and their almost constant value in the urine do not corre- 
spond to the increase of the calories in the food. The data therefore 
show an increased consumption of the heat values of the foods during 
the administration of the preservative and in the after period. 

Xo. 5. 

The quantity of calories in the food of No. 5 is almost the same for 
all three periods, being identical for the fore and preservative periods 
and only 8 calories less for the after period. The calories in the feces 
are greatest in the fore period, namely, 116, and decrease throughout, 
being least in the after period. There is but little change in the cal- 
ories in the urine, a slightly larger number appearing in the preserva- 
tive period and the after period than in the fore period. The balances 
are almost the same for all the periods, increasing very slightly in the, 
preservative and after periods. The data show again a tendency to 
diminish the calories in the feces by the administration of the pre- 
servative, although a corresponding decrease is not observed in the 
urine. This indicates an increased consumption of the heat values of 
the food during the preservative period, and this tendency is continued 
in the after period. 

No. 6. 

The calories in the food for No. 6 are somewhat greater in the pre- 
servative period and in the after period than in the fore period. The 
quantity appearing in the feces is almost the same for the fore and 

7656— No. 84, pt 2— 06 13 



066 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 

preservative periods and slightly less in the after period. The quan- 
tity appearing in the urine is greater in the preservative period than 
at any other time. These data show but little effect of the preserva- 
tive in decreasing- the calories in the feces, but a somewhat marked 
effect in increasing the calories in the urine. The general tendency 
therefore is to excrete more organic matter in the urine during the 
administration of the preservative. 

No. 7. 

The calories in the food of No. 7 for the fore and preservative 
periods are almost the same, hut they were slightly increased in the 
after period. The data show a very notable decrease in the calories 

of the feces during the preservative period and a slight decrease in 
the calories of the urine. These data show a very marked tendency 
on the part of the preservative to increase the heat consumption of 
the food during the metabolic processes. 

No. 8. 

The calories in the food of No. 8 are very markedly less in the fore 
period than in the preservative and after periods. The quantity 
appearing in the I'vcvs is correspondingly increased with the increase 
of the amount in tin 4 food. This is not true, however, of the calories 
in the urine during the preservative period, but is partially true in the 
after period. Jn this case there seems to be no notable effect as 
respects the calories resulting from the administration of the preserva- 
tive. Considering the percentage figures, however, it is seen thai 

there is an increase in the amount excreted in tin 4 i\'cc< and a decrease 
in the amount in the urine, resulting in a very slight total increase in 
the total percentage excreted in tli«' preservative period. In the after 
period this slight total increase continues, due to the increase in the 
amount excreted in the urine, the amount in the feces remaining the 
same a- in t lie preservative period. 

No. '.>. 

The calories in the food of No. 9 are somewhat greater in the fore 
period than in either the preservative or after period. Nbtwithstand 
ing t Ids. however, the calories of the feces arc greater in the preserva- 
tive period than in the fmv period, and are somewhat greater in the 
after period than in the fore period. The* calories of the urine are 
practically the same \'"\~ the three periods. 

For reasons given elsewhere (p. 587) the results obtained with this 
subject are not included in the summaries. They are stated here, 
however. as a matter of record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 6(57 

No. 10. 

Owing to illness, No. 1<> was not under observation during the last 
half of the after period. 

The calories in the food were greater in the preservative period than 
in the fore period. Notwithstanding this, however, the calories appear- 
ing in the feces were somewhat greater in the fore period than in the 
preservative period. The calories appearing in the urine were prac- 
tically the same for the two periods. 

For reasons given elsewhere (p. 587) this subject is omitted from the 
summaries. The results are given here, however, as a matter of record. 

Xo. 11. 

In the case of No. 11 the calories in the food are slightly diminished 
in the preservative period and still further decreased in the after 
period. There is also a diminution in the calories in the feces during 
the same periods, which, as shown by the percentage data, is relatively 
a larger decrease than the diminution of the calories in the food. It 
is fair, therefore, to attribute a part of this decrease to the influence 
of the preservative. There is a slightly smaller number of calories in 
the urine during the preservative period, corresponding very closel} T 
to the diminution of the number in the food, and the same is true of 
the after period, as is shown by the percentage of elimination. Thus 
in this case the diminution is somewhat greater than the smaller quan- 
tity in the food would account for, and the data show a tendency on 
the part of the preservative to diminish the calories in the feces and 
also in the urine, and this tendency is more marked in the urine in 
the after period. 

No. 12. 

In the case of No. 1^ there is a rapid diminution in the calorics in 
the food from the fore to the after period. There is a very marked 
decrease in the calories in the feces in the preservative period, greater 
than can be accounted for by the diminished calories in tin 1 food. In 
the after period there is a larger quantity of calories in the feces than 
in the preservative period, although the amount in the food is smaller. 
The number of calories excreted in the urine during the three periods 
remains almost the same. The data show a marked effect of the pre- 
servative in diminishing the calories in the feces during the preserva- 
tive period with practically no effect upon the calories in the urine, 
[nasmuch, however, as the calories in the food are diminished, there is 
an increase in the percentage eliminated in the urine in the after period. 



r><>8 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PBESEBVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



SUMMARY, 



Iii the following table are given the averages by periods for the nine 
men satisfactorily completing the series: 

Table XX. — Calories summary, by periods, for niru men, Series VI. 



Period. 



Calorics 
in food. 



Fore period 

Preservative period 2,849 

After period 



Calories 

ill frees. 



104 
92 
95 



Calories Calories 



Pir <; nt. 
3.70 
3.24 
3.34 



Calories 
in urine. 



/*'/• a nt. 
'J. 7(i 
•J. 68 



Halanee. 



- 
2,680 



There is seen to be an average increase in the calories of the food of 
the preservative period of 31, and in the after period of 30 over the 
quantity in the fore period. Although the number of calories in the 
food was smallest in the fore period, the number excreted in the feces 
is the largest, amounting to 104 calories daily. The calories excreted 
in the preservative period in the feces is 92 daily, and in the after 
period 95. 

These data show the marked tendency on tin 4 part of the preserva- 
tive to diminish the calories in the feces; in other words, to increase 
the combustion of the heat-forming constituents of the food during the 
period of the administration of the preservative. This effect con- 
tinues to some extent in the after period, although there is a marked 
tendency shown to return to the condition of the fore period. 

The actual quantity of calories in the urine is almost the same for 
the three periods. When, however, it is remembered that there is a 
smaller number of calories in the food during the fore period, it is 
evident that there is very slight tendency on the part of the preserva- 
tive to decrease the excretion of calories in the urine. This decrease, 
however, Is very slight, and there is a slight increase in the after 
period. The largest percentage of calories appears in the feces in the 

fore period and the smallest in the preservative period. The per- 
centage occurring in the urine is almost the same for all the periods, 
hut there is ;i slightly Larger percentage found in the urine of the fore 

period. 

These data show a tendency t<» increase the combustion of the food 
in the metabolic process, diowing a total greater heat consumption 
induced by the administration of (he preservative. The balances only 
corroborate in a different form of expression the conclusions already 

drawn. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



6G9 



Table XXI. — Calories balances for Series VI. 

[Averages are per day.] 

UNTo. 1. 



Period. 


1 
In food. 


2 

In 

feces. 


3 

In 
urine. 


4 

In 

feces 

and 

urine. 

(2+3) 


5 

In 
feces. 
(2+1) 


6 

In 
urine. 
(3-1) 


7 

In 

feces 
and 

urine. 

(4-1) 


8 

Balance. 

(1— I) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Calories. 

12, 453 

2, 491 

11,964 
2,393 


Calories 
345 
69 

278 
56 


Calorics 
337 
07 

383 

77 


Calories 
682 

136 

661 
132 


Pi r ct. 

2.77 


P* r d. 

2.71 


Per ct. 
5. 48 


Calories. 

11,771 
2, 355 

11, 303 

2,261 


Cram*. 




Second subperiod: 

Total 


2.32 


3.20 


5.52 


8 










Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 


24,417 
2,442 


623 
62 


720 
72 


1,343 
134 


2. 55 


2.95 


6. 50 


23, 074 

2. 31 is 















Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


12, 325 
2, 165 

12,110 
2, 422 

12,218 
2.444 

12,031 
2, 406 

13, 047 
2,609 

11,859 

2.372 


263 
53 

271 

54 

304 
61 

333 

67 

343 

69 

271 
54 


374 
75 

393 
79 

"389 
78 

387 
77 

402 

80 

41 S 
84 


037 

127 

664 

133 

693 
139 

720 
144 

715 
149 

689 
138 


2.13 


3.03 


5. 77 


11,688 
2, 338 

11,446 
2,289 

1 1 . 525 
2, 305 

11,311 
2, 262 

12,302 

2. 160 

11,170 
2,234 


1.05 

.21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


2.24 


3. 25 


5. 19 


2.10 
. 12 


2.49 


3.18 


5. 67 


3.70 
.71 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


2.77 


3.22 


5. 98 


6.00 
1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average* 


2.63 


3. OS 


5. 71 


8.00 
1.60 


2.29 


3. 52 


5.81 


10.00 

2. (HI 












Entire preservative 
period: 
Total 


73, 590 
2, 453 


1,785 
60 


2, 363 
79 


4,148 

138 


2.43 


3.21 


5. 64 


69, 442 

2,315 


so -;. 




l 03 










After pi Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


12,016 
2, 403 

12,520 
2,504 


550 
110 

411 
82 


393 

79 

400 
80 


943 
189 

811 

162 




3.27 




11,073 

2.211 

11,709 
2,342 







o 


Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


3.2S 


3.19 


6. 19 




(1 












Entire after period: 
Total 


24, 536 
2,454 


961 

% 


793 

79 


1,754 
175 


3. 92 


3. 28 


7. 15 


22, 782 

,,,, 





Average 
















"Daily average added in order to complete record. 



670 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XXI. — Calories balances for Series VI — Continued. 
[Averages arc per day.] 

ISTo. 3. 



Period. 



In food. 



In 

feces. 



8 



In 
urine. 



In 
feces 

and 
urine. 
(2+3) 



In 
feces. 
(2-5-1) 



In 
In feces 

urine. and 
:'. : 1 urine. 
(4+1) 



Balance. 

1 i 



9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 



Fort period. 

Fir^t aubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



< Maries. 
15,213 

3,013 

14,983 

2, '.is: 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



I'ri si i rut iii pi riod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

sixtii subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire preservative 

period: 

Total 

Average , 



Ajti r period. 

Fir-t subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Calories 
650 

130 

71S 

111 



Calories 

■i isl 



108 



Calories Per ct. 

1,131 1.27 

226 



Per ct. 

:;. 16 



Perct. 

7. 13 



126 4.81 
JJ5 



2. 73 



7.54 



( uloru s. 
L4.082 
2,817 

18,807 

•J. 762 



30, lit; 1,368 
3.015 137 



89 



19 



SMI I 

978 



L62 
032 



L42 

028 



143 
059 



90,238 

3, 00s 



620 

1((1 



598 
120 



643 
L29 



656 
131 



370 
71 



635 
127 



:;. 122 

111 



14,681 467 

2.936 9:5 



16, 132 
8,086 



lis 



Fm Ire niter period: 

Total 80, 118 

3,011 



L,069 
106 



Ki:. 926 

81 185 

(09 1,007 

82 -201 

435 1 078 

87 -J b', 



102 
80 

168 
93 

i:;:; l, 



L.058 
212 



3.49 


•2. 71 


6.21 


1.01 


'1. 76 


.80 


1.24 


'J. s7 


7.11 


1.:;:: 


i. <;:. 


6. 99 


2. 40 


3.00 




1.29 


•J. 98 


7.22 



2 547 

109 



3. 7'.' 



906 
181 



l.'.l 1,048 
90 209 



2. 82 



6.61 



i, 17 



2.92 <•.. 76 



1,949 
89 196 






2. 96 


















13,965 

2, 793 



13,796 
2,760 



14,084 
2.816 



1 UM 
2,816 



14,610 

2, Vl-2 



13,730 

•J. 7 it; 



2,809 



l 1,889 

2, s77 



28 164 
2,816 



1 . 06 
.21 



8.70 

.71 



6. 00 
1 . 20 



8. 00 
1.C.0 



10.00 
2. 00 



1.03 



"Daily average added in urder to complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



671 



Table XXI. — Calories balances for Series VI— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 
No. 3. 



Period. 


1 
In food. 


2 

In 

feces. 


3 

In 

urine. 


4 

In 
feces 
and 
urine. 

(2+3) 


5 

In 
feces. 
(2-1) 


6 

In 
urine. 
(3-1) 


In 

feces 
and 
urine. 
(4-1) 


8 

Balance. 

(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fore period. 
First subperiod: 


Calories. 


Calories 


Calorics 


Calories 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Calories. 


Grams. 



Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Broken by illness. 



Entire fore period : 

Total 

Average 



Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



13, 068 
2,614 


388 

78 


356 

71 


744 
149 


2.97 


2.72 


5.69 


12, 324 
2,465 
















13,068 
2,614 


388- 
78 


356 
71 


744 
149 


2.97 


2.72 


5.69 


12.824 
2,465 






















" 













Five preservative sub- 
periods: 

Total 

Average 



13, 580 
2, 716 


316 
63 


13,797 
2,759 


635 
127 


13,860 
2, 772 


304 
61 


14,603 
2,921 


571 
114 


14,711 
2,942 


326 

65 



317 
63 



a 324 
65 



62 



325 
65 



313 
63 



l> 70, 551 
2,822 



2, 152 
36 



1,587 
63 



633 

127 



959 
192 



612 

122 



896 

179 



639 
128 



2.33 



4.60 



2.19 



3.91 



2.22 



150 



3.05 



2.33 



4.66 



2. 35 6. 95 



2. 22 



4.42 



2.13 



4.34 



12. '.»47 
2,589 



12, 838 
2.567 



13 248 

2, 650 



13.707 
2, 742 



It. 072 
2, 81 1 



2.25 



5.30 



66,812 

2. 672 



" Daily average added in order to complete record. 
&No. 3 had only live preservative subperiods. 



1.05 
.21 



2.10 

.42 



4.00 

.SO 



6.00 
1.20 



8.00 
1.60 



21.15 

.s5 



After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


14, 397 
2,879 

14,964 
2,993 


Lost. 

399 

80 


302 
60 

311 
62 






2.10 




















Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


710 

142 


2.67 




2.08 1.71 


14,254 
2,861 














Entire after period: 
Total 



















































672 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XXI. — Calories balances for Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

3STo. 4. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


2 
In 


3 

In 

urine. 


4 

In 

feces 

and 

urine. 

(2+3) 


5 

In 

(2-1) 


6 7 

In 
In feces 

urine. and 
(3-^1) urine. 
(4-8-1) 


8 

Balance. 
1 1 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


Calories. 
13,890 

2. 77s 


Calories Calories 

!•• 416 
91 


Calories 
871 
174 

893 
179 


Per et. 
3.28 


Per et. 
2.99 


Per ct. 
6. 27 


( kdories. 

13,019 
2,604 

12,909 
2,581 


Oram. 



o 


Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire fore period: 

Total 


13,802 
2, 760 


487 
97 


406 
81 


3.53 


2.94 


6.47 














27,692 912 822 

2,769 ' 94 82 


1 764 


3.40 


2.97 


6.37 K-938 n 




176 






2, 593 













Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


14, 162 381 
2, 832 76 

13,957 463 
2, 791 93 

14,286 442 
2,857 

14, 056 <i 400 
2,811 80 

14 518 570 


395 

79 

421 

84 

386 

77 


776 
155 

884 
177 

828 
166 


2.69 


2.79 


5.48 


13,386 
2, 677 

13,073 
2,614 

18, 158 

2,691 

13,260 


1.05 




.21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


3.32 


3.02 


6.33 


2.10 




.42 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


3.09 


2.70 


5.80 


3.70 




.74 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


Kit; 806 
81 161 

373 943 
75 189 

106 867 
81 173 


2.84 


2.89 


5.73 


6.00 




1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


3.93 


2. 57 


6.50 


13, 575 
2, 715 


8.00 




2, 904 1 14 

14,018 u461 
2,804 92 


1.60 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


3.29 


2.90 


& 18 


13,161 
2,681 


10.00 


Average 

Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 

Aj't< f period. 

Writ ■ubperiod: 

Total 


2.00 










84,997 • 2,717 
91 


2,387 5,104 
80 170 


3.20 


2.81 


6.00 


7'.), 898 

2,663 


30.85 
1.08 










14,020 
2,804 

16,028 


72 

187 

'.'7 


408 

81 

420 
B4 


154 

907 

l-l 


2.J58 


2. 90 


... 18 


18,262 
2,650 






Second niDperiod: 

Total 


3.24 


6.04 


14,116 
2,884 






Entire after period: 
Total 

Average 










29,048 


M9 




1,675 




2.84 


6.77 


27,868 
2,786 













<< Daily average added in order to complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



673 



Table XXI. — Calories balances for Series Fi— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

INTo. 5. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


2 

In 
feces. 


3 

In 
urine. 


4 

In 

feces 

and 

urine. 

(2+3) 


5 

In 
feces. 
(2-1) 


6 

In 
urine. 

(3-1) 


7 

In 
feces 
and 

urine. 

(4-D 


8 

Balance. 

(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Calories. 
14, 467 
2,893 

14, 191 
2,838 


Calories 
611 

122 

550 
HO 


Calories 
392 

78 

349 

70 


Calories 
1,003 
201 

899 

180 


Per et. 
4.22 


Per ct. 
2.71 


Per ct. 
6.93 


Calories. 

13, 464 

2,692 

13, 292 
2,658 


Grams. 






o 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


3.88 


2.46 


6.34 


o 






o 










Entire fore period: 
Total 


28, 658 
2,866 


1,161 
116 


741 
74 


1,902 
190 


4.06 


1 
2.59 6.64 


26, 756 
2,676 



n 










Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


14,652 
2,930 

14, 041 

2,808 

14, 315 
2,863 

14,267 
2,853 

14, 536 
2,907 

14,169 

2,834 


579 
116 

408 
82 

526 
105 

388 

78 

509 
102 

516 
103 


386 

77 

389 
78 

383 


965 

193 

797 
159 

909 


3.95 


2.63 


6.59 


13, 687 
2,737 

13,244 
2,649 

13,406 
2,681 

13,488 
2,697 

13,616 
2, 723 

13, 266 
2, 653 


1 05 




.21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


2.91 


2.77 


5.68 


2.10 
.42 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


3.67 


2.68 


6.35 


3.70 




77 \ 18? 


74 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


391 

78 

411 

82 

387 

77 


779 
156 

920 
184 

903 


2.72 


2.74 


5.46 


6 00 


Average 


1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


3.50 


2.83 


6.33 


8 00 


Average 


1.60 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


3.64 


2.73 


fi 37 


10.00 


Average 


181 






2.00 












Entire preservative 
peiiod: 
Total 


85, 980 
2,866 


2,926 

98 


2,347 
78 


5,273 
176 


3.40 


2.73 


6.13 


80, 707 
2,690 


30.85 


Average 


1.03 












After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


14,141 

2,828 

14,437 
2,887 


491 
98 

359 

72 


a 391 882 

78 176 

399 758 
KG 152 


3 47 


•> 77 


6.24 


13. 259 
2,662 

13, 679 
■J. 735 





Average 







Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 


2.49 


2.76 


5.25 












28,578 
2,858 


850 

85 


790 
79 


1,640 
164 


2.97 


2.76 


5.74 


26,938 
2,694 















a Daily average added in order t<> complete record. 



674 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XXI. — Calories balances for Series TY — Continued. 
[Averages are per day.] 

No. e. 



Period. 



In food. 



In 
feces. 



In 
urine. 



4 

In 
feces 
and 

urine. 
(2+3) 



•"> 


G 


7 
In 


In 


In 




feces. 


urine. 


and 


(2*1) 


(8*1) 


urine. 
(4-1) 


P< r rt. 


]>> r (A. 


Per ct. 


4.19 


2. 4."> 


6.64 


4.7."> 


2.82 


7.07 



Balance. 



Sali- 
cylic 

acid 
admin- 
istered. 



pt Hod. 

First subperiod: 
Total 

Average 

ad subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



Preservutin j» ri<,<l. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 



Kntire preservative 

period: 

Total 

Average 



Calorie*. 

13,700 
2, 740 

14,017 
2. BOB 



AJti r period. 
□bperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Kntire alter period: 

Total 

Avenge 



Calories 

574 
115 

666 
133 



27,717 
2.772 



13,572 

2.711 



13,806 
2.761 



14,131 



14,197 



ii.cn 

2.i»2S 



U.707 
2,011 



85,027 
2,834 



11,010 



14,366 



28,406 
2.841 



f Mates Gafane* 

335 909 

67 182 

325 991 

65 ios 



Calories. 

12.701 
- 



1,240 

121 



660 1,900 
190 



632 

106 



637 
127 



693 
139 



5*14 
113 



643 

120 



127 



3,702 

123 



110 



01 



372 
74 



77 



"399 
80 



a 111 
83 



410 
84 



301 



904 
181 



1,023 
205 



1.U02 
2LS 



'.i7s 
196 



1,062 

212 



934 
L87 



2,291 
76 



:;::: 



1,164 

II.-. 






1.071 
211 



,i,i, 



,887 
L84 



3. 02 



1.61 

4.90 



3.97 
1. 10 
1.30 



L85 



1.07 



:;. 17 



4.06 



2.38 



2.74 j 6.66 



2.. s0 7.41 
2.82 7.73 



02 6 1 
. 87 7. : 






2. 69 



7. u:. 



7.68 



2. L6 






2. Iii 6. IT 



Grams. 







13,026 

2.606 , 



25,817 



12,668 

2,533 



12,788 
2.656 



2,608 



13,219 



18,562 

2.711 



2.754 



79,034 



12, 969 
2, 69 1 






2,657 



1.05 
.21 



2.10 

. 12 



6.00 

1.20 



8.00 

1.60 



8.00 
1. 60 






" Dailj a l( d in order to complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



675 



Table XXI. — Calories balances for Series IT— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

UNTo. 7. 



Period. 


1 
In food. 


2 

In 
feces. 


3 

In 
urine. 


4 

In 

feces 

and 

urine. 

(2+3) 


5 

In 
feces. 
(2-1) 


6 

In 
urine. 
(3-1) 


7 

In 

feces 

and 

urine. 

(4-M) 


8 

Balance. 

(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Calories. 

11,483 

2,297 

12,410 
2,482 


Calories 
455 
91 

251 
50 


Calories 
319 

64 

355 

71 


Calories 
774 
155 

606 
121 


Per ct. 
3.96 


Per ct. 
2.78 


Per ct. 
6.74 


Calories. 

10, 709 

2, 142 

11,804 
2,361 


Grams. 








Second subperiod: 

Total 


2.02 


2.86 


4.88 




















Entire fore period: 

Total 


23,893 
2,389 


706 

71 


674 

67 


1,380 
138 


2.95 


2.82 


5.78 


22, 513 
2, 251 





Average 













Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


11,864 
2,373 

11,869 
2,374 

11,908 
2,382 

12,025 
2,405 

12, 084 
2,417 

11,849 
2,370 


313 

63 

238 

48 

330 

66 

229 
46 

321 
64 

167 
33 


286 
57 

321 
64 

289 
58 

277 
55 

298 
60 

362 
72 


599 
120 

559 
112 

619 

124 

506 
101 

619 
124 

529 

106 


2.64 


2.41 


5.05 


11, 265 
2,253 

11,310 
.2, 262 

11,289 
2,258 

11,519 
2,304 

11,465 
2,293 

11,320 
2,264 


1.05 


Average 


.21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


2.01 


2.70 


4.71 


2.10 




.42 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


2.77 


2.43 


5.20 


3.70 




.74 


Fourth subperiod: 
Total 


1.90 


2.30 


4.21 


6.00 


Average 


1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


2.66 


2.47 


5. 12 


8.00 
1.60 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


1.41 


3.06 


4.46 


10.00 




2.00 












Entire preservative 
period: 
Total 


71,599 
2,387 


1,598 
53 


1,833 
61 


3,431 
114 


2.23 


2.56 


4.79 


68,168 
2,273 


30. 86 




1.03 








After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


1 1 . B22 
2,364 

12, 212 
_-. 1 12 


351 
70 

478 
96 


298 
60 

316 
63 


649 
130 

794 
159 


2.97 


2.52 


5.49 


11,173 
2,234 

11,418 
2, 288 










Second subperiod: 

Total 


3.91 


2.59 


6. 50 




















Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 


24,034 
2, 103 


829 
88 


m 

61 


1,443 
144 


3. 45 


2.55 


6.01 


22, 591 
•J. 2fi0 













676 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XXI. — Calories balances for Series TT— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. 8. 



Period. 


l 

Iu food. 


In 
Feces. 


3 

In 

urine. 


4 

In 

feces 

and 

urine. 

(2+3) 


5 

In 
feces. 
(2*1) 


6 

In 
urine. 
(3-1) 


7 

In 

feces 
and 

urine. 

(4+1) 


8 

Balance. 
(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Foreperiod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Calorie*. 
12,918 
2,583 

12,665 
2, 533 


Calories 
964 

73 

466 
93 


Calories 

298 
60 

313 
63 


Calorics 
662 
132 

779 
156 


Per rt. 
2.82 


Per ct. 
2.31 


Per ct. 

5.13 


( taloru .-•. 
12,251 
12, 451 

11,886 

2.:;:: 


'drains. 




Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


3.68 


2.47 


6.15 




o 










Entire lore period: 

Total 


■_>."), 578 
2, 558 


830 
83 


611 
61 


1, ill 
144 


3.25 


2.39 


5.63 


24, 137 
2.414 




o 












Prefer I, it in period. 
Kir-t subperiod: 

Total 


13,622 

2, 72 1 

14,088 
2,807 

13,202 

2. CIO 

13, 185 
2,697 

14,835 
2, B67 

14,264 
2, 853 


551 1 
110 

573 
115 

374 

75 

575 
115 

301 
60 

634 

127 


297 
59 

307 
61 

292 

.58 

a 283 

57 

1525 
65 

814 

63 


B47 

169 

880 
L76 

666 

133 

L72 

626 
125 

948 
L90 


4.04 


2. is 


6. '22 


12,775 

13,153 
2,681 

12.536 
2. 507 

12.627 

13,709 
2. 742 

13,316 
2,663 


1.05 
.21 


Second Bubperiod: 

Total 


4.06 


2.19 


6. 27 


2.10 


Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 


.42 


2. 83 


2.21 


5. 04 


3.70 
.74 


Fourth subperiod: 
Total 


4.26 


2.10 


6. 86 


6. CM) 
L.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


2.10 


2.27 


«.: '.7 


S.IMI 


Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


1.60 


1. 11 


2.20 


6. 65 


10. 00 

2. 00 






Entire preservative 

period: 
Total 


82,941 
2, 765 


3,007 
100 


1,818 
61 


1,825 
L61 


3.63 


2. 19 


5. 82 


7s. ip; 
2,604 






L.03 










Aft* r i" Hod. 

Fir-t subperiod: 

Total 


2,671 

1 1, 169 
2, 898 


501 
101 

,u7 
101 


840 
68 

67 


Ml 

L69 

-II 
L68 


:?.77 




6. 32 


12,512 
18,628 










-. cond subperiod: 
Total 




2.81 


5.81 
















Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 


27, 825 


1,011 
101 


674 
67 


L68G 

L69 


3. 63 


2. 12 


6.06 


26, l io 
2,614 















'i Daily average added in order to complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



677 



Table XXI. — Calories balances for Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. 9. 



Period. 


1 
In food. 


2 

In 
feces. 


3 

In 
urine. 


4 

In 
feces 
and 

urine. 

(2+3) 


5 

In 
feces. 
(2-5-1) 


6 

In 

urine. 

(34-1) 


7 

In 
feces 
and 
urine. 

(44-1) 


8 

Balance. 
(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Calories. 

16, 793 
3,359 


Calories 
270 
54 

437 

87 


Calories 
396 
79 

379 

76 


Calories 
666 
133 

816 

163 


Per ct. 
1.61 


Per ct. 
2.36 


Per ct. 
3.97 


Calories. 
16, 127 
3,226 

16,250 

3, 250 


Crams. 




Second subperiod: 
Total 


17,066 
3,413 


2.66 


2.22 


4.78 






Entire fore period: 
Total 










33,859 
3,386 


707 
71 


775 

78 


1,482 
148 


2.09 


2.29 


4.38 


32, 377 
3,238 



n 














Preservative period. 

First subperiod : 

Total 


16, 793 
3,359 

15, 829 
3,166 

16,812 
3,362 

16, 835 
3,367 

16, 712 
3,342 

16, 195 
3,239 


692 
138 

485 
97 

484 
97 

254 

51 

599 
120 

538 
108 


407 
81 

373 
75 

390 

78 

383 
77 

357 
71 

414 

83 


1,099 
220 

858 
172 

874 
175 

637 

127 

956 
191 

952 
190 


4.12 


2.42 


6.54 


15,694 
3,139 

14, 971 


1.05 




.21 


Second subperiod : 
Total 


3.06 


2.36 


5. 42 


9 in 


Average 


2, 994 . 42 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


2.88 


2.32 


5.20 


15, 938 3. 70 


Average, 


3, 187 . 74 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 


1.51 


2.28 


3.78 


16,198 6.00 
3,240 




Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


3.58 


2.14 


5.72 


15, 756 
3, 151 

15,243 
3. 049 


8.00 




1.60 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


3.32 


2.56 


5.88 


10.00 


Average 


'2.00 


1"" 






Entire preservative 
period: 
Total 


99, 176 
3,306 


3,052 
102 


2,324 

77 


5,376 
179 


3.08 


2.34 


5.42 


i 
93,800 30.85 


Average 


3,127 1.03 










After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


16,551 
3,310 

16, 622 
3,824 


230 
46 

581 

116 


363 

73 

396 

79 


693 
119 

977 
195 


1.39 


2.19 


3.58 


15,958 

3, 192 

15,645 
3. 129 










Second subperiod: 

Total 


3.50 


2.38 


.">. B8 





Average 



















Entire after period: 
Total 


33,173 i 811 
3,317 


759 

76 


1,570 
157 


2. II 


2. 29 


i.:;; 


31.603 
:;. L60 





Average 




















ImS 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH, 



Table XXI. — Calories balance* for Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 
No. lO. 



Period. 



In food. 



In 
feces. 



Fore }>< Hod. 

First Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 



( hlorit 8. ( 'nlories 

16,400 631 

8,280 126 

16,877 445 

3, 275 89 



Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 



32,777 1,076 
3.278 108 



i'ri st rVOtiVt j» rind. 

First BUbpeiiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second suBperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 

sixth Bubperiod: 

Total 

Average 



3 



In 

urine. 



Calories 



354 

71 



714 
71 



16,886 

3,377 



16, 697 
3,339 



16,740 
3,348 



L6, 185 

3, 297 



17.078 
3,416 



16, ill 



591 

118 



100 



5-19 
110 



162 

90 



185 
37 



Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 



100, 330 2, 674 
3,344 89 



Aji' r period. 
First Bubperiod: a 

Total 

Average 



349 

70 



402 

80 



380 
76 



347 
69 



271 
54 



4 


.") 


In 




feces 


In 


and 


feces. 


urine. 


(2+1) 


(2+3) 









In 
urine. 



Calories Per H. 
991 3.85 
198 



Per et. 
2. 20 



799 
160 



1,790 3. 
179 



2.18 



910 3.50 
188 



2.07 



901 ! 2.99 
L80 



II 



929 3.28 
1st; 



799 
160 



761 
152 



2.71 



156 1.13 
91 



2,112 1,786 2.67 
To M0 



16,273 596 387 988 3.66 
3.255 119 67 1*7 



2. 27 
2.10 
2. 13 
1 . 65 



Per -•/. 

6.01 



4.88 



Balance. 
(1-4) 



Calories. 

15, 409 
3,082 

15,578 
3,115 



5.46 



5.57 
5. 10 

L85 



2.77 



1.77 



07 5. 73 



3, 099 



Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 



(irams. 








L5.946 



15,796 
3,159 

15,811 
3, 162 

3,137 

16.:; 17 
3,264 

15,988 

:;. 198 



3,184 



15,340 



1.05 



2.10 

.42 



3.70 

.71 



6.00 
1.20 



8.00 
1.60 



10.00 
2.00 



1 . 03 



a \.. second alter Bubperiod; subject 111. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



679 



Table XXI. — Calories balances for Series VI — Continued. 
[Averages are per day.] 

:n"o. 11. 



Period. 



In food. 



•J 



In 
feces. 



Fori p< Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire fore period: 

T«»tal 

Average 

Preservative period . 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 

After perirxi. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



In 
urine. 



feces 
and 

urine. 
(2+3) 



In 
feces. 
(24-1) 



Ca&Qms < it >r:;s f:iivr;rs C'llorns P; : ri . 

15.790 582 «456 1,038 3.69 

3,158 116 91 :08 



15,668 610 

3,134 123 



158 
092 



6S7 
127 



565 
113 



"v, 
155 



15,271 
3.051 



15, 620 
3,124 



30, 891 
3,089 



438 

8S 



1,0:4 

211 



3.93 



In 

urine. 
(34-1) 



In 
feces 

and 
urine. 

(44-1) 



Perrt. Perct. 

2. 8J 6. 57 



6.73 



Balance. 

(1 -4) 



Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 



Calories. Grams. 

14,752 

2, 9"0 



31,458 1.198 
3.146 120 



89 1 2, 0^ 2 
S9 209 



3.81 



2.84 



5.65 



541 
109 



596 
119 



592 
118 



212 
42 



499 
100 



574 
115 



m 

96 


1,026 

205 

1 . 034 

207 

1,006 
201 

595 
119 

926 

185 

969 


3.39 


3.01 


6.40 


438 

38 


3.86 


2.83 


6.69 


414 
83 


3.79 


2.65 


6.43 


383 


1.36 


2. 46 


3.82 


427 
85 


3.16 


2.71 


5. 87 


395 


3.75 




6.33 



93,774 3,017 2,539 
3, 126 101 85 



436 
87 



431 

86 






382 
76 



87 



768 

77 



5,556 3.22 2.71 5.95 
185 



822 2. 86 
164 



818 2.7(1 
163 



2.53 
2.45 



1,635 

ltil 



2. 81 



5.38 
5.20 



5.29 



14,614 
2, 923 



29. 3C6 

2. 937 



15,010 
3,002 

11. 121 

14.631 
2, 926 

14,970 
2,994 

14,850 
2, 970 

14,333 
2,866 



2. 10 
.42 



3.70 
.74 



6.00 
1.20 



8.00 

1.60 



10.00 
2.00 



88,218 30.85 
2.941 1.03 



14,449 

2,890 



14,807 

2, '.'til 



29, 256 

2,925 



«i Daily average added in order to complete record. 



680 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XXI. — Calories balances for Series TT — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 
No. 1:2. 



Period. 



In food. 



In 



3 



In 
urine. 



In 

In 
and feces, 
nrine. (2-=-l) 
(2+3) 



In 

urine. 



In 
feces 

and 



(3-h1) nrine. 



(4-1) 



Balance. 
(1-4) 



Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 



Fon pi riod. 

First subperiod: Calories. 

Total 16,766 

Average 3,353 

Second subperiod: 

Total 17, 325 

Average 3,465 

Entire lore period: 

Total 31,091 

Average 3,409 

- rvativi period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Tbird subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 100,988 

Average . 3,366 

After period. 

Plrel subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire after period: 

Total 82,874 

Average 



Calories 
656 
131 

6-55 
131 



Calories 
433 

87 



Calories J'i r <f. 
1,089 3.91 

'-'is 



Pi ret. 

2.58 



406 1,061 
81 212 



2.34 



I'ir ct 
6.50 



3.12 



Calories. 
15, 677 
3,135 

16, 264 
3, 253 



Grams. 









1,311 
131 



839 

B4 



2, 1.50 
215 



. -". 



2.46 



6.31 



31,941 
3.194 



16,958 

3,392 



16,810 
3,362 



16,730 
3.316 



16,878 

3,376 



17,114 
3. 423 



16, 498 
3,300 



16,376 



B.300 



387 
77 



3*7 

77 



642 

12 .s 



76 



S 
112 



430 



367 

73 



754 2.28 

153 



124 811 2.30 
85 162 



422 1.064 3.81 
84 213 



395 
79 



420 



425 

85 



775 
155 



978 
196 



2.25 
3.26 



B55 2. 61 

171 



2,784 2,453 5,237 2.76 
82 175 , 



168 



a 523 
105 



llfi 



138 

s7 



s|s 



m 
176 



191 



is:; 



2. 83 



3.17 



3.00 



2.17 4.45 

2.52 I 4.82 

2. 52 6. 36 

2.84 4.59 



2. 15 
2.58 



5.71 

5.18 



16, 204 
3,241 

15, 999 
3,200 

15, 666 
3,133 

16, 103 

3.221 

16, 136 
8,227 

15,643 
3, 129 



2. 13 5. 19 



2. 62 






5.36 









8,099 



1.05 
.21 



2.10 
.42 



3.70 
.74 



6.00 
1.20 



8.00 
1.60 



10.00 
2.00 



95, 751 30. 8ft 
8,191 1.03 



15,642 
8, 109 



Bl,040 | 
8, 104 " 



"Daily average added in order to complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



681 



Table XXI. — Calories balances for Series TT— Continued. 

[Averages are per man per day.] 

Summary for nine men. 



Period. 


1 
In food. 


2 

In 
feces. 


3 

In 
urine. 


4 

In 

feces 

and 

urine. 

(2+3) 


5 

In 
feces. 
(2-1) 


6 

In 
urine. 
(3-1) 


7 

In 
feces 
and 
urine. 
(4-1) 


8 

Balance. 
(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
admin- 
istered. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Calories. 

126, 675 

2,815 

126, 975 
2,822 


Calories 

4,692 

104 

4,687 
104 


Calories 
3,467 
77 

3,383 


Calories 

8, 159 

181 

8.070 


Per ct. 
3.50 


Per ct. 
2.64 


Per ct. 
6.14 


Calories. 

118, 516 

2,634 

118, 905 
2,643 


Grams. 








Second subperiod: 
Total 


3.47 


2.57 


6.04 







75 179 
















Entire fore period: 
Total 


253, 650 
2,818 


9,379 
104 


6,850 
76 


16, 229 
180 


3.70 


2.70 


6.40 


237, 421 
2,638 






















Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


128,081 
2,846 

126, 887 
2,819 

127, 589 
2,835 

127, 646 
2,835 

131,467 
2,921 

127, 464 
2,832 


4,069 
90 

4,171 
93 

4,546 
101 

3, 737 


3,364 


7.433 


3.18 


2.63 


5.80 


120,648 
2,681 

119, 228 
2,649 

119, 634 
2,658 

120,571 
2,678 

123,815 
2,751 

119, 702 


9.45 




75 165 


.21 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


3,488 
77 

3,409 


7,659 
170 

7. 955 


3.29 


2.75 


6.04 


18.90 




.42 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


3.56 


2.67 


6.23 


33.30 




76 177 
3. 338 7. 075 


.74 


Fourth subperiod: 
Total 


2.76 


2.53 


5.29 


54.00 




83 




1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


4,114 
91 

4,321 
96 


3,538 

78 

3,441 
76 


7,652 
170 

7,762 
172 


3.09 


2. 58 5. 67 


72.00 




1.60 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


3.15 


2. 58 5. 73 


88.00 




2,660 1.96 








Entire preservative 
period: 
Total 


769, 134 
2,849 


24, 958 
92 


20, 578 
76 


45, 536 
169 


3.24 


2.68 5.92 


723,698 275.65 




2,680 1.02 








After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


125, 723 
2,794 


4,322 

96 

4,244 
94 


3,441 
76 

3,445 

77 


7,763 
172 

7,689 
171 


3.44 


2. 74 6. 17 


117, 960 
2,622 

122,888 
2,731 










Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire after period: 

Total 

Average — 


130, 577 
2,902 


3.25 


2.64 5.89 












256, 300 
2,848 


8,566 
95 


6,886 

77 


15, 452 

172 


3.34 


2. 69 6. 03 


240, 84S 
2,676 













SOLIDS BALANCE. 

A study of the solids balance gives valuable indications respecting 
the effect of the preservative upon the process of digestion and assimi- 
lation. It also furnishes data of important physiological significance 
in other respects* 

INDIVIDUAL DATA. 

No. 1. 

The average daily quantity of solids in the food of No. 1 for the fore 
period is 467 grams, for the preservative period 474- grams, and for 

the after period 4-7t> grams. It is thus seen that there is very little 
7656— No. 84, pt 2—06 14 



682 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

variation in the total quantity of solids, the amounts being as nearly 

alike as can be secured when a varied ration of uncomminuted food is 
used. Of this quantity there appear in the feces 14 grams daily in the 
fore period, 13 grams daily in the preservative period, and 19 grams 
daily in the after period. In the urine there are found 58 grams daily 
in the fore period. (>2 grams in the preservative period, ami 63 grams in 
the after period. Expressed in percentages, of the total quantity of 
solids it is found that 3 per cent appear in the feces in the fore period, 
2.66 per cent in the preservative period, and 4.08 per cent in the after 
period. The respective percentages occurring in the urine are 12.32 
in the fore period, 13.12 in the preservative period, and 13.28 in the 
after period. Inasmuch as by far the greater quantity of solid matter 
in the food is consumed in the production of heat and energy, the 
balance must be strongly positive. In this case the daily balance for 
the fore period is 305 grams, for the preservative period 399 grams, 
and for the after period 393 grams, showing very little difference in 
respect of the quantity of solids excreted. It is noticed that there is 
a slightly smaller quantity of solids in the feces In the preservative 
period than during either the fore or after period; a slightly greater 
quantity in the urine during the preservative period than in the fore 
period and a somewhat greater quantity during the after period. 
The percentage numbers show the same tendency as the weights, the 
smallest percentage of solids in the feces being in the preservative 
period and the largest in the after period. The effect of the pre- 
servative in this case appears to have been to secure a slightly greater 
degree of absorption during the preservative period than in the fore 
period, and on the withdrawal of the preservative the absorption of 
the food was much less complete. 

No. .'. 

A much larger quantity of solid food was consumed by No. 2 than 
by NO. 1. In the fore period the exact daily quantity of dry food 
consumed is 604 grams, in the preservative period 598 grams, and in 

the after period 612 grams. There appeal- in the \\^-rs for the fore 

period 27 grams of solids, during the preservative period 21 grams. 

and dining the after period^22 grains. In the mine are found 66 

grams of solids daily in the fore period. 67 grams in the preservative 
period, and 69 grams in the aft<r period. Expressed in percentages, 
tin- quantity in the feces in the fore period is 1.17 per cent, in the 
preservative period 3.95 per cent, and in the after period 3.52 per cent. 

The percentages occurring in the mine during these periods are L0.88 

iii the fore period, 11.22 in the preservative period, and Ll.SOinthe 

after period. The balances are .Ml grams, .'»<»7 grains, and 521 grams 

I'm- the three periods, respectively . 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 683 

These data show that the quantity of solids in the feces diminished 
slightly in the preservative period and also in the after period. The 
solids in the urine increase slightly in the preservative period and to 
a greater extent in the after period. The percentage of solids in the 
feces is greatest in the fore period and smallest in the after period. 
The percentage of solids in the urine is least in the fore period and 
greatest in the after period. 

No. 3. 

The quantity of solids in the food during the fore period is 530 
grams, during the preservative period 592 grams, and during the 
after period (second subperiod only) 633 grams. This shows a very 
marked increase in the amount of food eaten in the preservative 
period over the fore period and in the after period over the pre- 
servative period, due to the fact that in this case the quantity of food 
was increased after the recovery of the subject from the illness occurring 
in the fore period. Expressed in percentages, the largest quantity of 
solids eliminated in the feces is in the preservative period, namely. 
2.98, and the smallest in the after period, namely. 2.56. In the urine 
the smallest quantity was eliminated in the preservative period, namely, 
7.92, and the largest in the fore period, namely, 9.51. The balances 
are very marked, being highest in the after period and lowest in the 
fore period. 

No. 3 is, of course, an exceptional case by reason of the illness 
experienced in the early part of the experiment. The data, therefore, 
are given merely for their individual worth and not because they have 
any value for comparison. 

No. 4- 

The total quantity of solids consumed in the food by No. 4 during 
the fore period is 535 grams, during the preservative period 556 grams. 
and during the after period 569 grams. In the feces there appear in 
the fore period 20 grams daily of solids, in the preservative period 
L9 grams daily, and in the after period 18 grams daily. In the urine 
during the fore period are found 63 grams of solids, in the preserva- 
tive period 67 grams, and in the after period 7<> grams. The percent- 
age of solids in the fore period recovered in the free- i- 3.76 daily, in 
the preservative period 3.50, and in the after period 3.24. The per- 
centages of solids recovered in the urine daily are 11.72 in the fore 
period. L2.06 in the preservative period, and L2.27 in the after period. 
The balances are 452 grams daily in the fore period. 4t'»'.» in tin 4 pre- 
servative period, and 48] in the after period. There appear- to be a 
slight tendency in this case for the preservative t«> diminish the quan- 
tity of solids in the feces, and this tendency is continued through the 
after period. There is a progressive increase of the solids in the urine 



684 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

in the preservative and after periods, and this increase is only slightly 

gTeater than the increase in the quantity of solids in the food consumed, 
a- shown by the percentages for the three periods, namely, 11.72, 
L2.06, and 12.27. The largest percentage of solids in the feces is 

found during the fore period and the smallest in the after period, and 
this must he considered in connection with the increasing amount of 
food, from which it might he expected that the solids in the feces would 
increase proportionately, but this is not the case. 

No. 5. 

The total solids consumed daily in the food i- 558 grams in the fore 
period. 563 grains in the preservative period, and .">f>4 grams in the 
after period, showing a very small variation during the 4 entire period 
of observation. There appear in the feces during the fore period 25 
grams of solids daily, in the preservative period '21 grams, and in the 
after period In grams. In the urine there appear daily 57 gram- of 
solids in the fore period, <>i? grams in the preservative period, and 02 
grams in the after period. The largest percentage of solids in the 
feces is in the fore period, namely. 4-53, and the smallest in the after 
period, namely. 3.17. The largest percentage of solids in the urine is 
found in the after period, namely, 11.03, and the smallest is found in the 
fore period, namely. l<».^3. The largest balance is in the after period, 
namely. 484 grams, and the smallest in the fore period, namely, 476 
grams. The apparent tendency of the preservative in this case Is to 
diminish the percentage of solids in the feces, and this tendency is 
continued through the after period. On the other hand, there is a 
slight tendency to increase the quantity of solids in the urine. 

No. <;. 

In the case of No. 6 the average daily quantity of solids in the food 

is :».;7 grams in the fore period, .v.*; grams in the preservative period, 
and 561 gram- in t he aft er period. Of this quantity there appear in 
the feces during the fore period 26 grams daily of solids, during the 
preservative period -!."> grams daily, and during the after period 24 
grams daily. There also appear in the urine 49 grams daily in the 
fore period, -~>7 grams daily in the preservative period, and 56 grams 
daily in the after period. Expressed in percentages, 4.84 percent of 
the solids appear in the \'vr^s in the fore period, L53 percent in the 
preservative period, and 1. 28 in the after period. In the urine there 
are found 9.20 percent of solids in the fore period, L0.33 percent in 
the preservative period, and 9.98 per cent in the after period. There 
i> an apparent tendency in this case to slightly decrease the quantity 
of solids in the feces, and this is continued through the after period, 

and to slightly increase the quantity of solids in the urine during the 

preservative period, and this is only slightly diminished in the after 

period. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 685 

No. 7. 

The quantity of solids found in the food of No. 7 during the fore 
period is 481 grains daily, during the preservative period 482 grams 
daily, and during the after period 488 grams daily. Of this there 
appear in the feces 14 grams daily in the fore period, 11 grams daily 
in the preservative period, and IT grams daily in the after period. In 
the urine are found 58 grams daily during the fore period, 54 grams 
daily during the preservative period, and 49 grams daily during the 
after period. Expressed in percentages the quantity of solids found 
in the feces during the fore period is 2.95 per cent daily, in the pre- 
servative period 2.21 per cent daily, and in the after period 3.44 per 
cent daily, while in the urine are found during the fore period 12.<»^ 
per cent daily, in the preservative period 11.12 per cent daily, and in 
the after period 10.12 per cent daily. The largest balance is in the 
after period, namely, 422 grams daily, and the smallest in the fore 
period, namety, 409 grams daily. The principal effect of the pre- 
servative in this case is to decrease the amount of solids in the feces 
during the preservative period, a decrease which is more than regained 
during the after period. The tendency also appears to be to decrease 
the quantity of solids in the urine during the preservative period, and 
this tendency is continued during the after period. 

No. 8. 

The quantity of solids in the food of No. 8 in the fore period is 531 
grams daily, in the preservative period 575 grams daily, and in the 
after period 587 grams daily. Of this quantity there are found in the 
feces 17 grams in the fore period, 19 grams in the preservative period, 
and 21 grains daily in the after period. In the urine there are found 
54 grains daily in the fore period, 56 grams daily in the preservative 
period, and 60 grams daily in the after period. The largest percentage 
of solids in the feces occurs in the after period, namely. 3.56 per cent, 
and the smallest in the fore period, namely, 3.14. The largest per 
centage of solids in the urine occurs in tin 4 after period, namely. L0.25 
and the smallest during the preservative period, namely. ( .'.71 percent. 
The largest balance is found in the after period, namely, 506 grain- 
daily, and the smallest in the fore period, namely. 4f>l grams daily. 
There is an apparent tendency in this case for the preservative to 
increase the quantity of solids in the feces, and this tendency is main- 
tained through the after period. There is also manifested a tendency 
on the part of the preservative to increase the actual amount of solids 
in the urine in the preservative period, and this is continued in the 
after period. There is, however, a decrease in the percentage amount 
excreted in the urine in the preservative period. 



68G INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

Xo. 9. 

The daily quantity of solids in the food of No. 9 is 634 grams in the 
fore period. 624 grams in the preservative period, and 623 grams in 

after period. Of this quantity there are found in the tVct^ L6 grams 
in the fore period. 23 grams in the preservative period, and Is grams 
in the after period. In the urine there are found 66 grams in the fore 
period, 71 grams in the preservative period, and 1-2 grams in the after 
period. 

The largest percentage of solids in the feces occurs in the preserva- 
tive period, namely, 3. 75 per cent, and the smallest in the fore period, 
namely, '2.-J4 per cent. The largest percentage of solids in the urine 
occurs in the after period— 11.55 per cent — and the smallest in the fore 
period — 10.4s per cent. The balance was positive in all cases, the mag- 
nitude being greatest in the fore period and least in the preservative 
period. 

For reasons given elsewhere (p. 587), the results obtained with this 
subject are not included in the summaries. They are stated here, 
however, as a matter of record. 

No. 10. 

Owing to illness this subject was not connected with the 4 experiment 
during the second half of the after period. The daily quantity of 
solids in the food of No. 1<> in the fore period was 660 grams and in 
the preservative period r>7»; grams. Of this quantity there are found 
daily in the feces 2] and 1^ grams, respectively, and in the urine 54 
and 56 grams, respeci i\ ely. 

Expressed in the form of percentage, we have in the feces the elimi 
nation of 3.20 and 2.68 per cent, respectively, and in the urine 8.13 
and 8.27 per cent, respectively. 

The balance is somewhat increased in the preservative period. Not 
withstanding the slightly increased consumption of solids in the pre- 
servative period, the solids eliminated in the feces are slightly less 
during tin- preservative period than in the fore period. The solids 
eliminated in the urine arc approximately the same. 

For reasons given elsewhere (p. 587), this subject is omitted from the 
summaries. The results are given here, however, as a matter of record. 

No. //. 
The total quantity Of SOlids in the food of No. 1 1 in the for*' period 

amounts to <r21 grams daily, in the preservative period 622 grams 
daily, and in the after period 615 grams daily. It is thus seen that 
there is \ ery little variation in the quantity of solids during the whole 
course of the observation. Of this amount 25 grams dailj appearin 



SALICYLIC ACID AXD SALICYLATES. 687 

the feces in the fore period, 24 grams in the preservative period, 
and 22 grams in the after period; TO grams of solids appear daily in 
the urine in the fore period, 69 grams in the preservative period, and 
66 grams daily in the after period. Expressed in percentages the 
largest percentage of the solids in the feces is in the fore period, 
namely, 4.04 per cent, and the smallest in the after period, namely, 
3.53 per cent. The largest percentage of solids is found in the urine 
in the fore period, namely, 11.27 per cent, and the smallest in the after 
period, namely, 10.73 per cent. The largest balance in this case is in 
the preservative period, namely, 530 grams daily, and the smallest in 
the fore period, namely, 526 grams daily. In this case the effect 
of the preservative upon the solids balance is very slight. There is 
a tendency, however, to diminish the solids in the feces during 
the preservative period and this tendency is increased in the after 
period. The solids in the urine in the fore period and preservative 
period are almost identical, but there is a small decrease in the after 
period perhaps due in part to the slightly decreased quantity of solids 
in the food; the percentage of decrease, however, is slightly greater 
in the after than in the preservative period. 

Ko. l.\ 

The total quantit} T of solids in the food of No. 12 in the fore period 
is 660 grams daily, in the preservative period 653 grams daily, and 
in the after period 610 grams daily. The total solids in the food in 
this case diminished slightly in the preservative period and again in 
the after period. Of these solids 27 grams were found daily in the 
feces of the fore period, 21 grams in the preservative period, and 23 
grams in the after period. In the urine 63 grams of solids daily are 
found in the fore period. 65 grams in the preservative period, and 67 
grams in the after period. The largest percentage of solids in tin 4 
feces is in the fore period, namely, 4.12 per cent, and the smallest in 
the preservative period, namely, 3.20 per cent. In the urine the 
largest percentage of solids is found in the after period, namely. L0.54 
per cent, and the smallest in tin 4 fore period, namely. ( .>..~><> per cent. 
The largest balance is found in the fore period, namely, .~>7<» grams 
daily, and the smallest in the after period, namely, 550 grains daily. 
In this case the preservative exerts a marked tendency to diminish 
the amount of solids in the feces during the preservative period, a 
tendency which was only partly overcome in the after period. 



688 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



MM MARY. 



The summary by periods only for the nine men completing the series 
is given in the table following, the averages having been taken from 
Table XXIII (page 689), giving the solids balances in full: 

Table XXII. — So/i<ls sum morn, by periods, for nine m>n. Series IT. 



Period. 



Fore period 

Preservative period 
After period 



Solids in 
food. 



Oranu. 
666 

664 

568 



Solids in 
feces. 



(i nuns. 

22 

19 
20 



Solids in 

urine. 



(•rums. 
59 
62 
63 



Solids in 
feces. 



Per cent. 
3.92 
3.46 
3.59 



Solids in 
urine. 



l'< r <; //,'. 
10.75 
11.01 
11.02 



Balance, 



drams. 
17 4 
483 
485 



The average daily amount of solids consumed increased slightly from 
period to period, there being an increase of 9 grams in the preserva- 
tive period and 4 grains additional increase in the after period. The 
largest percentage of solids in the feces is found in the fore period, 
namely. 3.92 per cent, and the smallest in the preservative period, 
namely, 3.46 per cent, while the quantity in the after period is 3.59 
per cent. The smallest percentage of solids in the urine is found in 
the fore period, namely, 10.75 per cent, while the quantities in the 
preservative period and the after period are almost identical. The 
largest balance is found in the after period, namely. 485 grams daily, 
the smallest in the fore period, namely, 474 grams daily, while the 
balance for the preservative period is almost the same as that of the 
after period, namely, 483 grams dail} r . 

These data show a tendency on the part of the preservative to increase 
the absorption from the alimentary canal of the solids in the food, as 
shown by the decrease of solids in the feces, and also to increase the 
katabolic activities of the body as indicated by the increased excretion 
of solids in the urine. 



SALICYLIC ACID AXD SALICYLATES. 



689 



Table XXIII. — Solids balances for Strips VI. 

[Averages are per day.] 
No. 1. 



Period. 



Fart period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 

Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Sixth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire preservative 
period : 

Total 

Average 

After period. 

Fir-t subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 



In food. 



Qrams. 

2,394 
479 

2.27:, 
155 



3 



Grams. 

78 
1(3 



2,3(30 
472 

2,338 
468 

2,340 
468 

2, 305 

461 

2,568 
514 

2,315 
463 



14,226 

174 



2, 325 
465 



4,7(30 
476 



In feces 
and 



(2+3) 



In 
feces. 
(2-1) 



Grams. Grams. Per ct. 
269 347 3.26 
54 69 



306 
61 I 



2.73 



In 
urine. 
(3-1) 



In feces 

and 

urine. 

(4-1) 



Per ct. Per ct. 
11.24 14.49 



13. 45 16. 18 



Balance. 

(1-4) 



Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
ad- 
minis- 
tered. 



Grams. Grams. 
2. 047 
410 

1,907 
381 



140 
14 



0(0 

5 s 



3. 00 12. 32 15. SI 



62 


301 


12 


60 


5,; 


314 


11 


63 


63 


"308 


13 


62 


66 


314 


13 


63 


73 


311 


lfi 


62 


59 


319 


12 


64 


C79 


1,867 


13 


62 



363 
73 


2.63 


12.75 


15.38 


370 


2.40 


13.43 


15.83 



14 



371 
74 


2.69 


13.16 


15. &5 


380 

76 


2.86 


13.62 


16.49 


384 

77 


2.84 


12.11 


14. 95 


378 


2.55 


13.78 


16.33 



2,246 2.66 13.12 15.79 



110 
22 



2, 435 84 

17 



317 
63 


427 
85 

399 


4.73 


13.63 


is. 37 


315 


3.45 


12.94 


16.39 



6:; 



194 
19 



63 



-_ 



4.0s ia 



3, 954 

395 



1,997 
399 

1,968 
394 



1.05 

.21 



2.10 

.42 



1,969 3.70 
394 . 74 



1,925 6.00 
385 1.20 



2,184 8.00 
437 1.60 



1,937 10.00 
3s7 2. 00 



11,980 30. 85 
399 1.03 






2, 036 
407 



3, 934 



« Daily average added in urder to complete record. 



690 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

Table XXIII. — Solids balances for Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

ISTo. ^. 



Period. 


1 
lu food. 


2 

In feces. 


3 

In urine. 


4 

in feces 

and 
urine. 
(24-8) 


•"> 

In 
feces. 

(2-1) 


6 

In 

urine. 
(3-1) 


7 

In feres 
and 
urine. 
(4-1) 


8 

Balance. 
(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 

acid 

ad- 
minis- 
tered. 


Fort period. 

First Bubperiod: 
Total 


Orams. 

2,999 
600 

3,040 


Orams. 
128 
26 

112 


Gram*. 

70 

305 
61 


l,r<iin.<. 
180 
96 

117 
89 


Per <t. 

4. 27 


Perct. 

11.74 


Per ct. 
16.01 


Grams. 

2,519 
504 

2, 593 
519 


Grams, 

o 






o 


Second sabperiod: 
Total 


1.67 10.03 


14.70 


o 




28 





Entire fore period: 
Total 










6, 039 270 


<:.")7 
66 


927 

93 


1.47 10.88 


15.35 


•"-.112 
511 







604 27 


o 










Prest rvativt }>< Hod. 

First Bubperiod: 
Total 


2,925 
685 

2, 937 
587 

2,996 
599 

3,009 


107 
21 

124 

25 

131 
26 

138 
28 

76 
15 

132 

26 


308 
62 

330 
66 

337 

67 

332 

66 

366 
73 

838 

IIS 


415 
33 

454 
91 

468 
94 

470 
94 

112 
88 

170 

'.'1 


:;. 66 


10.53 


11. 1'.' 


2.510 
502 

2,483 
496 

2,528 

50:> 

2. :.:;'.» 


1.05 




■Jl 


Second Bubperiod: 

Total 


■1. 22 


11.24 


15.46 


2.10 




.42 


Third Bubperiod: 

Total . . 


1.37 


11.25 


L5.62 


3. 70 




.71 


Fourth Bubperiod: 
Total 


1.59 


11.03 


15.62 


6. 00 


Average 

Fifth Bubperiod: 
Total 


602 

3,100 


:.tis L20 


2.45 


11.81 


14.26 


2,668 

532 

2,193 
499 


8.00 




L60 


Sixth Bubperiod: 

Total 2,963 


4.45 


11. 11 


15.86 


10.00 

2. 00 


Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 












17,980 

598 


708 
24 


2,(111 

67 


2,719 
91 


3. 95 


1 1 . 22 


16. 16 


16,211 

507 


80.86 

l 09 














AJtl r ],i rind. 

First Bubperiod: 

Total 


3,021 
604 

619 


19 

121 
24 


842 


186 

S7 


3. 11 


11.82 


11. 13 


517 

2,624 

626 







o 


Second Bubperiod: 

Total 


349 170 

70 9 1 


8.J91 


1 1 . 28 


i .. L9 




(1 


Entire after period: 
i otal 










6,115 215 
612 


691 


906 

91 


3. 52 


11.30 


14.82 


5, 209 







II 

















" Daily average added in order to complete record, 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



691 



Table XXIII. — Solids balances for Series IT— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

IINTo. 3. 



Period. 



Fore period. 
First subperiod: 



In food. In feces. 



In urine. 



In feces 

and 
urine. 

(2 + 3) 



In 

feces. 

(2-1) 



In 
urine. 
(3-5-1) 



7 

In feces 

and 

urine, 

(4-5-1) 



Balance. 

(1-4) 



Per ct. Grams. 



Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
ad- 
minis- 
tered. 



Gravis. 



Total 1 

Average j 

Second subperiod: ' .1 

Total ' 2,651 78 


252 
50 


Broken 

330 
66 


by illn( 
2.94 


JSS. 

9.51 


12.45 


2,321 
464 






Entire fore period: 
Total 


i 










2,651 78 
530 16 


252 
50 


330 
66 


2.94 


9.51 


12.45 


2, 321 
464 
















Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


2,826 
565 

2,872 
574 

2,890 

578 

3,065 
613 

3, 137 
627 


63 
13 

133 
27 

60 
12 

120 
24 

65 
13 


135 

27 

a 255 
51 

261 
52 

262 
52 

259 

52 


198 
40 

388 
78 

321 
64 

382 
76 

324 
65 


2.23 


4.78 


7.01 


2,628 
525 

2,484 
496 

2,569 
514 

2,683 
537 

2,813 
562 


1.05 


Average 


.21 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


4.63 


8.88 


13.51 


2.10 




.42 


Third subperiod: 
Total 


2.08 


9.03 


11.11 


4.00 




.80 


Fourth subperiod: 
Total 


3.92 


8.55 


12.46 


6.00 


Average 


1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 
Total 


2.07 


8.26 


10.33 


8.00 




1.60 












Five preservative 
subperiods: 
Total 


b 14, 790 
592 


441 
18 


1,172 
47 


1,613 

65 


2.98 


7.92 


10.91 


13, 177 
527 


21.15 


Average 


.85 










After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


3,048 
610 

3,163 
633 


Lost. 


251 
50 

252 
50 






8.23 






















Second si ll (period: 
Total 


81 
16 


333 
67 


2.56 


7.97 


10.53 


2, 830 

566 






















Entire after period: 
Total 














l 






































1 





'i Daily average added in order to complete record. 
b No. 3 had only live preservative subperiods. 



692 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XXIII. — Solids balances for Series VI— Continued. 

[Averages arc per day.] 

No. 4. 



Period. 


1 

in food. 


Iii feces. 


3 

In urine. 


4 

In feces 

and 

urine. 

(2+3) 


5 

In 
feces. 
(2+1) 


6 

In 

urine. 
(8+1) 


7 

In feces 
and 

urine. 
-11 


8 

Balance. 

(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
ad- 
minis 

tered. 


/■'<//< pi riod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


Grams. 

2,680 

536 


Qrams. 
93 

19 

108 
22 


(•runts. 
315 
63 

312 
62 


drains. 

408 

82 

420 

84 


PercL 

3.47 


PercL 
11.75 


Per ct. 
15.22 


Grams. 

2, 272 
454 

2,251 

450 


(,'nuus. 


o 


Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


2,671 
534 


4.04 


11.68 


15. 72 




o 


Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 

Preservativt period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 










5, 351 
535 


201 
20 


627 
63 


828 
83 


3.76 


11.72 


15. 47 


4,523 
452 
















2,751 

550 

2, 736 
547 

2,788 
2 765 


84 
17 

102 
20 

98 
20 

a 85 

17 

117 
23 

a 98 
20 


319 

64 

330 
66 

332 
66 

346 
69 

330 

66 

355 
71 


403 
HI 

432 
86 

430 
86 

431 

86 

447 
89 

453 
91 


3.05 


11.60 


14.65 


2,348 
469 

2, 304 
161 

2,358 
472 

2,834 

467 

2,415 

483 

2, 328 

I.,". 


1.05 
21 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


3.73 


12.06 


15.79 


2 10 


Average 


.42 


Third subperiod: 
Total 


3.52 


11.91 


15. 42 


3.70 

71 


Fourth suBperiod: 
Total 


3.07 


12.61 


15.59 


6.00 


Average 


553 

572 
2,781 


1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


4.09 


11.58 


16.62 


8.00 


Average 


1.60 


Sixth Bubperiod: 

Total 


3. 52 


12.77 


16. 29 


10.00 




2.00 














Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 


16,688 


584 
19 


2,012 
67 


2,5% 

87 


3. 50 


12.06 


L5.56 


ii. us: 

469 


SO 85 


Average 


1. 08 












Ajt> r period. 

FiiBl subperiod: 
Total 


2,768 
568 

2, 022 


7s 
16 

km: 


348 
69 

71 


421 

M 

(61 
92 


2. 82 


12.40 




2,845 
469 

2, 161 
192 





\ \ erage 





Becoud subperiod: 
'1 otal 


8. 68 


12, 15 


L6.78 







58 1 2 1 




















Entire after period: 

Total 


5,688 L84 698 




8.24 


12.27 


16.53 


L,80fl 
(81 







71) 
























" Daily average added in order to complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



693 



Table XXIII. — Solids balances for Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

IN"o. o. 



Period 


1 

In food. 


2 
In feces. 


3 

In urine. 


4 

In feces 

and 
urine. 
(2+3) 


5 

In 
feces. 

(2-1) 


6 

In 
urine. 
(3-1) 


7 

In feces 

and 

urine. 

(4-1) 


8 

Balance. 
(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
ad- 
minis- 
tered. 


Fan p« Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 

2,824 

565 

2,758 
552 


Grams. 

132 

26 

121 
24 


Grams. 

295 

59 

276 
55 


Grams. 
427 
85 

397 

79 


Per ct. 

4. 67 


Per ct. 
10. 45 


Per ct. 
15.12 


Grams. 
2,397 
480 

2, 361 
473 


Grams. 


o 


Average 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


4.39 


10.01 


14.39 




o 


Average 










Entire fore period: 
Total 


5,582 
558 


253 
25 


571 

57 


824 
82 


4.53 


10.23 


14.76 


4,758 
476 


o 


Average 


o 












Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 
Total 


2,867 
573 

2, 753 
551 

2,787 
557 

2,804 
561 

2,862 

2,814 
563 


126 
25 

89 
18 

113 
23 

82 
16 

107 
21 

115 
23 


297 
59 

292 

58 

306 
61 

321 
64 

321 
64 

317 
63 


423 
85 

381 
76 

419 
84 

403 

-1 

428 
86 

432 

86 


4.40 


10. 36 


14.75 


2,444 

488 

2, 372 
475 

2,368 
473 

2,401 
480 

2, 434 
486 

2,382 

477 


1 05 


Average 


.21 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


3. 23 


10.61 




13.84 


2.10 


Average 


.42 


Third subperiod: 
Total 


4.05 


10.98 


15.03 


3.70 


Average 


.74 


Fourth subperiod: 
Total 


2.92 


11. 45 


14.37 


6.00 


Average 


1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 
Total 


3.74 


• 
11.22 


14.95 


8.00 


Average 


1.60 


Sixth subperiod: 
Total 


4.09 


11.26 


15.35 


10.00 


Average 


2.00 












Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 

Average 


16,887 
563 


632 
21 


1,854 

62 


•J. (86 

83 


3.71 


10.98 


14.72 


14,401 
480 


- 
1.03 












After pt Hod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


2, 791 
558 

2,850 
570 


101 
20 

78 
16 


a 312 

62 

310 
62 


413 

- 

78 


3.62 


11.18 


14.80 


2,378 
175 

- - 
192 






Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


2.71 


10.88 


13.61 






Entire after period: 

Total "... 

Average 


5,64] 

.v,i 


179 
18 


622 
62 


801 
80 


5.17 11.03 
1 


'1 L20 


1,840 
184 







a Daily average added in order to complete record. 



694 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XXJJI.—Solidg balances for Series I '/—Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 
No. 6. 



Period. 


1 
in food, 


a 

In feces. 


3 
[n urine. 


4 

In feces 

and 

urine. 

(2+3) 


5 

In 

feces. 
(2-1) 


6 

urine. 
(3-1) 


7 

In feces 
and 
urine. 
(4+1) 


8 

Balance. 
(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
ad- 
minis- 
tered. 


Fore poind. 

First BUbperiod: 

Total 


Oram*. 

2,631 


Grams. 

119 


Q rams. 

242 

48 

252 
50 


Grams. 

361 


Per ct. 
4. 52 


l'i r rt. 
9.20 


Perct. 

13. 72 


Grams. 
2,270 


drums. 





526 24 

2, 736 HI 
547 28 


72 




i".i 


Second suDperiod: 

Total 


393 
79 


5.15 


9.21 


L4.36 


2,843 














Entire fore period: 
Total 


260 
637 26 


491 
49 


7.-.1 


4.84 1 9.20 14.05 


1,613 
162 


Average 








■ itirt period. 

First BUbperiod: 

Total 


2,602 112 
520 22 

2, 721 130 


•11-1 
54 

•>7r> 


384 4.30 


U). 15 14.76 


2 218 1.05 




77 




413 21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 


405 
81 

419 
84 

424 

85 

13»; 
87 

410 

82 


L78 


10.11 14.88 


2,316 2.10 

4'> 


Average 


5 1 1 26 

2,745 \ 143 «276 
549 29 Bfi 


Third subperiod: 
Total 


5. 21 


10.05 


15.27 


2,826 
465 

2,854 

471 

2. i:;s 
188 

510 


:;. To 




.71 


Fourth subperiod: 
Total 


2,778 i 117 
556 23 

2,874 132 


"307 
61 

304 


4.21 


11.05 


15.26 


6.00 




1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 
Total . . 


1.59 


10.58 


15.17 


8,00 




575 

2, %0 
592 


26 61 

121 289 

24 58 




L.60 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


i.p'.' 9.76 


18.85 




Average 


L. 60 









Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 


16,680 


755 
25 


1,723 
57 


_', ITS 
83 


4.53 


10.33 


U.S., 


11.202 
473 


. 96 










After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


2,761 
562 

2,848 

570 


li:. 
29 

19 


278 
56 

282 

50 


423 
,X5 

377 
75 


5.25 i 10.07 


L5.82 


■_',::ss 







167 


Second BUbperiod: 
Total 


8.84 9.90 


18.24 


J. 171 


Average 













Entire after period: 

'i otal 




240 560 

Ji 


SI Ml 

BO 


i 28 


1 I. 26 


1,809 
181 





Average 


561 


(i 














ii;ui\ average added In ordei to complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



695 



Table XXIII. — Solids balances for Series IT— Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

HKTo. 7. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


2 

In feces. 


3 

In urine. 


4 

In feces 

and 
urine. 

(2+3) 


In 
feces. 
(2-1) 


6 

In 

urine. 
(3-s-l) 


7 

In feces 

and 

urine. 

(4-M) 


8 

Balance. 

(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
ad- 
minis- 
tered. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 

2,317 

463 

2,490 
498 


Grams. 
91 

18 

51 
10 


Grams. 

289 

58 


Grams. 

380 

76 


Per ct. 
3.93 


Per cf. 
12.47 


Per ct. 
16.40 


Grams. 

1,937 
387 

2,150 
430 


Grams. 

o 


Average 


o 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


289 340 
58 68 


2.05 1 11.61 


13. fin 


o 






n 










Entire fore period: 
Total 


4. S07 
481 


142 
14 


578 720 
58 72 


2.95 1 12.02 


14.98 


4, 087 




409 










Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 
Total 


2,376 
475 

2,402 
480 

2,396 
479 

2,431 
486 

2,434 
487 


62 

12 

48 
10 

64 
13 

46 
9 

67 
13 


243 305 

49 61 

275 323 


2.61 10.23 


12.84 


2,071 
414 

2, 079 


1.05 




.21 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


2.00 11.45 13.45 


2.10 


Average 


55 

246 
49 

266 
53 

263 
53 

317 
63 


65 

310 
62 

312 
62 

330 
6G 

350 


415 . 42 


Third subperiod: 
Total 


2.67 10.27 12.94 


2,086 3.70 




417 . 74 


Fourth subperiod: 
Total 


1.89 10.94 12.83 
1 


2,119 6.00 




424 1 - 20 


Fifth subperiod: 
Total 


2.75 10.81 13.56 


2, 104 

421 

2,085 


8.00 




1.60 


Sixth subperiod: 
Total 


2,435 ' 33 

4X7 7 


1.36 


13. 02 14. 37 


10.00 




70 




117 










Entire preservative 
period: 
Total 


14,474 320 
482 11 


1,610 1,930 
o4 64 


2.21 


11.12 13.33 12.544 30.85 


Average 




418 1.03 




1 . . .. ! 






After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


2,395 
479 


70 
14 

98 
20 


243 
49 

251 

50 


313 
63 

349 

70 


2.92 


..... ...,,. 

10.15 13.07 '>.082 









H6 

2,139 
128 





Second subperiod: 
Total 


2,488 
498 


3.94 


10.09 14.03 





Average 















Entire after period: 
Total 


4,883 
488 


168 
17 


494 662 


:;. 1 1 


10.12 13 66 4 221 1 n 






422 

















696 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XXIII. — Solids balances for Series VI — Continued. 
[Averages are per day.] 

:nto. 8. 



Period. 


1 
In f 1. 


in feces. 


3 

In urine. 


4 

in feces 

and 
urine. 
(2+3) 


5 

In 
feces. 
(2+1) 


6 

In 
urine. 
(3-1) 


: 

In feces 

and 
urine. 
(4h-1) 


8 

Balance. 
(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 

acid 

ad- 
minis- 
tered. 


Jon pi riod. 

Fir-t subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 

•i, mi 

533 

2,641 

52y 


Grams. 

73 
15 

94 
19 


Grams. 

254 
51 

281 


drums. 
327 
65 

375 


Per ct. 
2. 74 


Per ct. 
9.52 


Pir ct. 
12.26 


Grams. 

2,340 
468 

2,269 


(i nuns. 








Second subperiod: 
Total 


3.56 


10.63 


14.18 







56 75 


454 -0 












Entire fore period: 
Total 


."), :;n 


It'. - fftfi 702 


3.14 


10 07 


13.22 


4,609 ' 
461 


Average 


531 17 54 70 










Preservattvt pi riod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


2,847 
569 

2, 777 
555 

2,760 
552 

2,827 
565 

3,008 
602 

3,040 

r>08 


108 


QRC 


367 
73 

391 

78 

344 
69 

386 

77 

362 
72 

386 


3.79 


9.10 


12.89 


2,480 
496 

2, 386 
477 

2,416 
483 

2, 441 
488 

2,646 

530 

2,664 

531 


1 05 


Average 


22 52 

114 277 

23 ftf 


.21 


Second subperiod: 
Total '. 


4.11 


9.98 


14.08 


2.10 


Average 


.42 


Third subperiod: 

Total 


73 
15 

114 
23 

60 


271 
51 

a 272 
54 

802 


2:64 


9.82 


12. 46 


3.70 




.74 


Fourth subperiod: 
Total 


4.03 


9.62 


13.65 


6.00 




1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 
Total 


1.99 


10.04 


12. 03 


8.00 




12 60 
92 291 


1.60 


Sixtb subperiod: 
Total 


3.03 


9.67 


12.70 


10.00 




is 59 77 


2.00 












Entire preservative 
period: 
Total 


17,259 
675 


561 i 1,675 2,236 
19 56 75 


3. 2a 


9.71 


12. '.if. 


If), (123 








500 


1.03 












After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


2, 807 

;><;i 
612 


106 
21 

103 
21 


:;i2 

(12 
289 


lis 
84 

892 

7s 


3.78 


11.12 


11. V.I 


177 

2,666 
684 










Second miBperiod: 

Total 


3.37 


•.». us 


12.82 




















Entire after period: 

Total 




209 
21 


601 
60 


S10 

M 


8.66 




18.81 5.055 1 






606 















a Daily average added in order t<> complete record. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



697 



Table XXIII. — Solids balances for Series VI — Continued. 
[Averages are per day.] 

N"6. y. 



Period. 


1 
In food. 


2 

In feces. 


3 

In urine. 


4 5 6 

In and eS Tl1 In 
urine feces - urine - 
(M) < 2+1 > ^1) 


7 

In feces 

and 
urine. 
(4+1) 


8 

Balance. 
(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 

acid 

ad- 
minis- 
tered. 


Fort period. 

Pirsl subperiod: 

Total 


Grams. 

3, 157 
631 

3,178 
636 


Grams. 

60 
12 

95 
19 


Grams. 

330 

66 

334 

G7 


Grains. Per <■!. 
390 1.90 


Pt r ct. 

10.45 


Per ct. 

12.35 


Grams. 

2. 767 

553 

2, 749 


Grams. 






78 

429 

80 




o 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


2. 99 10. 51 


13.50 







551 1 


Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 














6,335 155 
63 1 16 


664 819 
66 82 


2.44 


10.48 


12.03 


5. 516 

55' > 










ativt period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


3,117 159 
623 32 

3,1:50 106 
626 21 

3, 129 108 
626 22 


373 
75 

334 
67 

341 
68 


532 


5.10 


11.97 


17.(17 


517 


1.05 


Average 


106 

440 

88 




.21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 


3.39 


10.07 


14.00 


2,000 2.10 
538 .42 


449 
90 


3. 45 


10.90 



14.35 


3.70 
530 . 74 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: 
Total 


3,146 
629 

3,141 


78 
16 

139 


366 414 
73 89 

335 474 
67 95 

384 407 
77 99 


2. 48 


11.63 


14.11 


2,702 

540 

2,667 


6.00 
1.20 


4. 43 


10.07 


15.00 


8.00 




628 28 


533 l oo 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


3,062 113 
612 23 


3.69 


L2.54 16.23 


2,565 10.00 






513 2. 00 








Entire preservative 
period: 

Total 


IS, 725 703 
23 


2,133 2,836 
71 95 


3. 75 


11.39 


15.15 1 ft- 889 


30.85 


Average 




529 


1 . 03 








Aftt r period. 
Firsl subperiod: 

Total 


3,113 ii; 


339 

381 

70 


385 

77 

514 

103 


1. is 


10. Ml 


12.: 37 


2,728 





rage 


623 

3,119 
624 


9 

133 

27 


546 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


1.26 


12.22 


16. is 


2,605 
521 






















Entire after period: 
Total 


6,232 170 
18 


720 899 

72 


2.87 11.55 14.43 


5, 333 

533 

























•1)5(5— X... 84, pt 2—06- 



15 



698 



NFLTJENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 



Table XXIII. — Solids balances for Series 17 — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

No. LO. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


In feces. 


3 

In urine. 


4 

In feces 

and 

urine. 
(2+3) 


5 

In 

feces. 


6 

In 

urine. 
(3-1) 


7 

In feces 

and 
urine. 

1 : 1 


8 

Balance. 

1 . 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
ad- 
minis- 
tered. 


Fort pi vim]. 

Fir<t Bubperiod: 

Total 


Oram*. 

657 

3,310 
662 


Oram*. 
125 
25 

17 


Orams. 

262 

52 

273 


Gram*. 
387 

77 

359 

72 


Pi r et. 

3. SO 


Perct. 

7. '.'7 


Pint. 
11.78 


(Irani*. 
2 899 


(in mi a. 





580 


Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Entire fore period: 
Total 


2. 60 


8.25 


10.85 


2, 951 
590 

















6,596 '211 535 
660 21 54 


7 If, 3.20 


S.ll 


11.31 


:>, 850 o 


Average 

Preservatiw pt Hod. 

Firel subperiod: 

Total 


7.") 


. . 













:;. 117 
6*3 

3, 392 
678 

3,300 
660 

3, 337 
667 

8, 168 
694 

3,871 
674 


121 

21 

105 
21 

112 
22 

90 

18 

78 
16 

37 

7 


261 
52 

289 

287 

57 

287 

57 

278 
f.6 

275 
55 


382 

76 

394 
79 

399 

so 

;;77 
75 

356 
71 

312 

62 


:;.:>! 


7. 68 


11. is 


3,035 
607 

2, 998 
599 

2,901 
580 

2,960 

.".'.•2 

3,112 

3,059 
612 


1.05 

."1 


Second Bubperiod: 

Total 


3.10 


-..v 


11 C," 


2. 10 


Average 

Third subperiod: 

Total 




. 12 


3.39 


8.70 


12. 09 


3.70 




.71 


Fourth Bubperiod: 
Total 


2.70 


8.60 


11.30 




Average 

Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


1.20 


2.25 


8.02 


10. 27 


8.00 




1 . 60 


Sixth subperiod: 
Total 


1. 10 


8. 16 


9.28 


10.00 


cage 

Entire preservative 
period: 
Total 


2.00 










676 


513 
18 


1.H77 
56 


2.220 
71 


2. 68 


s. 27 


10.91 


18,065 
60S 






i.e.; 












After period. 

First subperiod: a 
Total 


3,298 


1 22 
24 


277 


399 

so 


8.70 


8. il 


12.11 


2.894 

;.7-.» 

























" No BeCOnd after subperiod; subject ill. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



699 



Table XXIII. — Solids balances for Series VI— Continued. 
[Averages are per day.] 

:no. 11. 



Period. 


1 
In food. 


2 

In feces. 


3 

In urine. 


4 

In feces 

and 

urine. 

(2+3) 


In 

feces. 
(2-1) 


6 7 

j In feces 
(3-1) (4 ^ 1} 


8 

Balance. 

(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 

acid 
ad- 
minis- 
tered. 


Fore period. 

First subperiod : 

Total 


Gravis. 

3, 120 

624 

3,093 


Grams. 

122 

24 

129 


Grams. 

a 359 

72 

341 
68 


Grams. 

481 

96 

470 
94 


Per et. 
3.91 


Per ct. Per et. 
11.51 15.42 


Grams. 
2, 639 
528 

2,623 

525 


Grains. 








Second subperiod: 
Total 


4.17 


11.02 15.20 







619 26 





Entire fore period: 
Total 










6,213 251 
621 25 


700 
70 


951 
95 


4.04 


11.27 15.31 


- 
5,262 [ 
526 | 










Preservative period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


3,192 
638 

3,089 
618 

3,143 
629 

3,087 
617 

3,088 
618 

3,070 
614 


117 
23 

115 
23 

108 
22 

123 
25 

124 
25 

121 
24 


374 
75 

340 
68 

353 
71 

355 
71 

328 
66 

313 
63 


491 

98 

455 
91 

461 
92 

478 
96 

452 

90 

434 

87 


3.67 


11.72 15.38 


2,701 


1.05 








540 . 21 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


3.72 


11.01 


14.73 


2,634 2.10 




527 . 42 


Third subperiod: 
Total 


3.44 


11.23 


14. 67 


2,682 3.70 




537 . 74 


Fourth subperiod: 
Total 


3.98 


1 + 50 


15. 48 


2, 609 6. 00 






521 1.20 


Fifth subperiod: 

Total 


4.02 10.62 


14. 64 


2, 636 8. 00 




528 1.60 


Sixth subperiod: 

Total 


3.94 


10.20 


14.14 


2,636 10.00 
527 2. 00 














Entire preservative 
period: 
Total 


18, 669 
622 


708 
24 


2,063 
69 


2,771 
92 


3.79 


11.05 


14.84 


• 
15, 898 30. 85 




530 1 . 03 












After period. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


3,039 
608 

3,111 

622 


110 
22 

107 
21 


322 
64 

338 
68 


432 
86 

445 

89 


3. 62 


10. 60 


14.22 


2,607 1 




522 


Second subperiod: 
Total 


3.44 


10.86 


14.30 


2, 666 




533 












Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 


6,150 
615 


217 
22 


660 
66 


877 
88 


3.53 


f0.73 


14.26 


5, 273 
527 


1 











u Daily average added in order to complete record. 



700 



NFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



Table XXIII. — Solids balances for Series VI — Continued. 

[Averages are per day.] 

:v<>. is. 



Period. 


In food. 


•> 

in feces. 


3 
In urine. 


4 

In feces 

and 

urine. 

(2+3) 


i <> 7 

111 In to a5d" 
feces, urine. ,;' '' 

2 1 :;:i "[-;";'; 


B 9 

Sali- 
cylic 

Balance, acid 
(1-4 1 ad- 
minis- 
tered. 


Fori ]>' riod. 

Fir-t sabperiod: 
Total 


Grams. 
3,247 


drains. 
147 


(i rams. 

321 

65 

307 


Grams. 

171 
91 

432 


Per ct. l'< ret 
L53 9.98 


Per et. 
14.5] 


Oram*. Grams. 
2, 776 




29 
3,356 | 125 




Second Bubperiod: 

Total 


:;. 72 9. 15 


12.87 


2 924 ii 




671 -2.") 61 











Entire fore period: 
Total 


6, 608 

660 


272 631 
27 63 


903 
90 


4.12 9.56 13. 68 R.70n n 








570 








ative period. 

First Bubperiod: 
Total 


3,271 
655 

650 

617 

3,273 

655 

3,826 
666 

3,230 


87 

17 

88 
18 

142 

- 

85 
17 

128 

26 

97 
19 


283 

57 

314 
63 

33S 
68 

327 

6. r ) 

340 
68 

357 

71 


370 
74 

402 

80 

480 
96 

112 
B2 

168 

91 

i.M 
91 


2.66 


8.64 


11.30 


2,904 

581 

2,850 
570 

2. 767 
551 

2,861 


1.05 




21 


Second Bubperiod: 

Total 


2.7! 


12.36 


2.10 
. 12 


Third Bubperiod: 

Total 


L89 10.44 


14.83 






.71 


Fourth Bubperiod: 
Total 


2. 60 9. 99 


12.59 






1 20 


Fifth Bubperiod: 

Total 


10.22 


14.07 






671 1.60 


sixth Bubperiod: 
Total 


8.00 11.05 14.06 


2,776 10.00 






2.00 






Entire preservative 
' period: 

Total 


L9,602 
653 


627 

21 


1 . 959 
65 


- 


8 20 10.00 


13.20 


17,006 30.85 




1.03 










AJti r pi riod. 

Fir-i Bubperiod: 
Total 


... L88 

3,208 
642 


111 
23 

a L16 

23 


329 
66 

69 


143 
89 

461 


L0.82 


L3.90 


2,748 o 




n 


Second Bubperiod: 
Total 


8.62 10.75 


14.87 


2.717 

















Entire after period: 
Total 


610 


280 

23 


671 
67 


904 
90 


8.60 L0. 64 


L4.18 


5, 192 


















"Daily average a- Med in order to complete record, 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



701 



Table XXIII. — Solids balances for Series T7— Continued. 

[Averages are per man per day.] 

Summary for nine naeia. 



Period. 


1 

In food. 


2 

In feces. 


3 

In urine. 


4 

In feces 
and 

urine. 
(2+3) 


5 

In 
feces. 
(2-1) 


6 

In 
urine. 
(3-1] 


7 

In feces 
and 
urine. 
(4+1 ) 


8 

Balance. 

(1-4) 


9 

Sali- 
cylic 
acid 
ad- 
minis- 
tered. 


Fori: period . 

First subperiod: 

Tots 1 


dram*. 

24, 879 

551 

25, 063 
557 


Grams. 
983 
22 

973 
22 


Grams. 

2,699 

60 

2,669 
59 


Grams. 

3,682 

82 

3,642 
81 


Per. ct. 
3.97 


Per ct. 
10.89 


Per ct. 
14.86 


Grams. 

21,197 

469 

21,421 

476 


Grams. 








Second subperiod: 
Total 


3.88 11.05 


14. 53 












" " " 







Entire fore period: 

Total 

Average 


49,942 
555 


1,956 
22 


5,368 
59 


7,324 
81 


3.92 


10. 75 


14.67 


42, 618 
474 













Preservative pe riod. 

First subperiod: 

Total 


25, 194 

560 

25,005 
556 

25, 192 
560 

25, 279 

562 

26, 122 

580 

25,608 
569 


865 
19 

866 
19 

935 
21 

856 
19 

884 
20 

868 
19 


2,656 
59 

2,747 
61 

2,767 
61 

2,840 
63 

2,865 
64 

2,899 
64 


3,521 

78 

3,613 

80 

3,702 
82 

3,696 

82 

3,749 
83 

3,767 
84 


3.43 


10.54 


13.98 


21,673 
482 

21,392 
476 

21, 490 

478 

21,583 
480 

22, 373 
497 

21,841 

485 


9.45 




.21 


Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Third subperiod: 
Total 


3.46 


10.99 


14.45 


18.90 
42 


3.71 10.98 


14.70 


33.30 

.74 


Fourth subperiod: 

Total 

Average 

Fifth subperiod: ' 
Total 


3.39 11.23 


14.62 


54.00 
1 20 


3. 38 10. 97 


14.35 


72.00 
1 60 


Sixth subperiod: 
Total 


3.39 11.32 


14.71 


88.00 
1 96 










Entire preservative 
period: 

• Total 

Average 


152, 400 
564 


5,274 
19 


16, 7"4 

62 


22,048 
82 


3.46 11.01 


14.47 


130, 352 
4S3 


275. 65 
1.02 


Aftf r period. 

First subperiod: 
Total 


25, 093 
557 

26, 014 

578 


928 
21 

908 
20 


2, 79S 
62 

2,8&4 

63 


3, 726 
83 

3,742 
83 


3.70 11.15 


14.85 


21,367 
474 

22 272 

""' 495 





Average 





Second subperiod: 

Total 

Average 


3.49 10.89 


14. 3S 






Entire after period: 

Total 

Average 


51,107 
568 


1,836 
20 


5,632 
63 


7,468 

*3 


3.59 11.02 


14.61 



13,639 
185 








SUMMARY OF RESULTS. 



MEDICAL AND CLINICAL DATA. 



A study of the clinical and medical history of the men under obser- 
vation indicates thai the administration of the salicylic acid at first 
produces a stimulating effect upon the processes of solution and absorp 
tion of the food materials from the alimentary canal. There is a 
smaller proportion of the food products in the feces, both in the indi- 
vidual cases and as a whole, during the preservative period, and part of 
the after period is subject still to the effect of the administration of the 



702 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 

preservative. There is also reported in the clinical and medical his- 
tory an increased appetite in the ease of the majority of the subjects. 
Although the quantity of food which had been found sufficient for the 
normal functions of the body during the fore period is not diminished, 
and even to a slight extent in mo>t instances increases, a feeling of 
hunger develops in almost every case, showing a disturbance of some 
kind in the metabolic process. The nature of this disturbance is dis- 
closed in the chemical studies, while its observation is a prominent 
feature of the clinical and medical history. Judged by- the develop- 
ment of hunger alone, the administration of the salicylic acid might 
be considered a stimulant. When, however, all the functions of the 
body are in a normal state there is no need of a stimulant, and the effect 
produced by the administration of the acid is evidently therefore an 
abnormal one. In cases where it is advisable to stimulate temporarily 
the digestive organs an effect such as that produced would be desira- 
ble, if not continued too long. The physiological history of the use of 
stimulants, however, shows that they are temporary in their effects; 
that the increased activity induced by them is at the expense of the 
total vitality of the organs. Hence, stimulants are indicated only for 
temporary or intermittent use. The truth of this statement is wholly 
established by the subsequent data gathered from the clinical and 
medical history of the subjects. The temporary hunger, while accom- 
panied in a number of cases by heaviness and uneasiness in the epigas- 
tric region, does not cause any very great discomfort, and in the 
majority of cases the abnormal desire for food soon decreases. The 
same quantity or a slightly increased quantity of food is consumed 
throughout the administration of the preservative. 

Tin 4 loss in weight which Is observed in almost all cases indicates 
that the apparent stimulation of the digestive process is not attended 
with any corresponding benefit in the building up of the tissues of 
the body. Assuming, as is done constantly in these studies, that the 
energy developed by each individual remains practically constant, any 
increased absorption of food materials ought to have been followed 
by an increase in body weight. On the contrary, as is shown in the 
Btudy of the balances, the katabolic activities are increased more 
Strongly than the anabolic. There is a more vigorous tearing down 
of tie- tissues of the body than there is a building up thereof , and 
thus the observations made in the clinical and medical history" are 

thoroughly corroborated by the chemical studies of the foods and the 

products of metabolism. 

The general study of the medical data shows in some instances 
decidedly unfavorable symptoms attending the use of salicylic acid, 
while in a minority of cases no unfavorable symptoms of a diagnost ic 
character are developed. After carefully weighing all the dal i, 
favorable and unfai orable to the salicylic acid, disclosed in the detailed 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 703 

statement of the medical history, the conclusion is inevitable that, 
taken as a whole, the effects produced by its administration are unfa- 
vorable. It is true that there are individual cases which, taken 
alone, would lead presumably to a contrary opinion, and to these due 
weight is given in the general conclusion. As a jury considering 
conflicting testimony gives weight to that which seems most con- 
vincing and least open to doubt, so in the decision of this case from 
the medical history the verdict must follow the weight of testimony 
and be given against the defendant, namely, salicylic acid. 

A summary of the most important indications leading to these con- 
clusions is as follows, dealing with the average results obtained in 
the body weight, effect on the blood and the urine, and the metab- 
olism of nitrogen and phosphoric acid. 

BODY WEIGHT. 

If all the variations in weight be taken as a whole for the nine men 
who completed the periods, it is noticed that there is a gradual dimi- 
nution in weight,, which falls from 62.71 kilograms with an average of 
555 grams of dry food per day in the fore period to an average of 
t'd. '27 kilograms with an average of 56-i grams of diy food per day in 
the preservative period. This loss of weight is continued in a more 
marked degree in the after period, where the average weight is 61.61 
kilograms with 568 grams of dry food. Thus, although the quantity 
of food is increased, the weight of the body is diminished. The general 
conclusion, therefore, is in regard to the effect of the preservative 
upon the weight of the body, that there is a greater waste than there 
is a building up of the tissues, assuming, as we may practically do. 
that the amount of energy and the temperature remain reasonably 
constant. The general effect, therefore, of the salicylic acid is, under 
the conditions specified, to diminish the weight of the body; in other 
words, to interfere with the processes of nutrition by exciting the 
katabolic activities to a greater degree than the anabolic. The com- 
parison of the weights of each of the subjects, as well as of their 
average weights, is best shown by consulting the graphic charts in 
connection with the text. (Figs. 1 and 2.) 

MICROSCOPIC BODIES IX THE BLOOD. 

There is an increase in the number of red corpuscles in the blood 
and also a slight increase in the number of white corpuscles during 
the period of the administration of the preservative. The intensity of 
the color of the blood diminishes, however, both in the preservative 
period and in the after period. There is a marked decrease in the 
number both of red and white corpuscles in the after period. The 
apparent increase, therefore, in the preservative period i-> followed by 



7l>4 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

a very considerable decrease in the after period. No conclusion. 
favorable or unfavorable, can be drawn from this observation regard- 
ing the use of the preservative, though, apparently, if there is any 
effect produced it should be attributed to a favorable influence of the 
preservative in increasing the number of red corpuscles. 

THE URINE. 



There is but little influence noticed due to the salicylic acid on the 
volume of the urine. The average quantity of urine excreted per day 
i- very slightly largerin the preservative period than in the fore period 
for the nine men taken together, while in the after period it is slightly 
less. There is, therefore, a very slight tendency manifested, which is 
of no particular significance, to increase the volume of the urine. 
There is also noticed a slight increase in the total solids excreted in 
the urine, and this increase is maintained in the after period. This 
observation is in harmony with that indicated by many of the other 
phenomena which show that the salicylic acid has increased the kata- 
bolic activities of the body. 

PRESENCE <)F ALBUMIN. 

In so far as the limited observations show, the administration of the 
salicylic acid did not produce any notable effect upon the occurrence 
of albumin in the urine during Series VI. 'There was, however, a 

marked tendency shown in the special study. Series XI. to increase 

the occurrence of albumin in the urine. (See p. 7:i<'».) 

MICROSCOPIC BODIES. 

The occurrence of microscopic bodies in the urine is a normal con- 
dition, and therefore the only point which can be considered here i- t<» 
determine whether or not the exhibition of the salicylic acid tended 
to increase or diminish this number. The ma-- data collected for the 
nine men indicate that there was a tendency on the part of the salicylic 
acid to increase (he number of microscopic bodies in the urine, the 
average relative occurrence rising from 68.3 per cent in the fore period 
to T^..*» per cent in the preservath e period, and showing still an addi- 
tional rise to 79.4 percent in the after period. Inasmuch as most of 
the microscopic bodies are considered t<> he more or less associated with 
the katabolic products of the bod}', their increase tends t<> confirm the 
supposition already entertained, namely, that the salicylic acid has a 
greater influence upon the destruction of the tissues of the body than 
it has upon their restoration. To this extent the increased appearance* 
of microscopic bodies is to be regarded a- an unfavorable indication. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 705 



EXCRETION OF THE SALICYLIC ACID. 



As in most of the cases when an additional and extraneous substance 
is added to a food product, the kidneys are called upon to bear the 
principal effort of excretion. In the case of salicylic acid a large part 
of it is excreted unchanged in the urine. Other portions undergo 
changes of a more or less definite nature, and these changed products 
are also excreted to a large extent Irv the kidneys, and thus the burden 
of their work is increased. It is eYident, therefore, that the exhibi- 
tion of the salicylic acid tends to increase the burden which is placed 
upon the kidneys as the principal excretory organ of the body. Every 
increase of a burden of this kind must tend to shorten the period of 
activity of this organ and thus produce a deleterious effect. This is 
shown, therefore, to be the case in this instance, and for this reason it 
may be fairly supposed that salicylic acid is a deleterious substance, in 
that it increases the amount of work demanded of the kidneys. 

NITROGEN METABOLISM. 

The data collected show that the general effect of the salicylic acid 
is to slightly increase the quantity of metabolized nitrogen excreted 
by the kidneys, while the quantity of nonmetabolized nitrogen 
excreted in the feces is slightly decreased, resulting in a small decrease 
in the total percentage of nitrogen eliminated. The balance is some- 
what greater in the preservative period, although the amount of nitro- 
gen ingested is slightly decreased. These data indicate that the preser- 
vative tended to increase slightly the digestibility and absorption of 
the nitrogen ingested. 

PHOSPHORIC ACID METABOLISM. 

While in the case of nitrogen the general tendenc} T of the salicylic 
acid is to increase the quantity of metabolized nitrogen excreted, the 
contrary effect is shown in respect of the phosphoric acid. There is a 
well-developed tendency during the administration of the salicylic acid 
to increase the store of phosphoric acid in the body, since the amount 
absorbed from the alimentary canal is slightly increased and the quan- 
tity excreted by the kidneys is decreased. It is evident, therefore, 
that there is a storing of phosphatic material in the tissues, due to tin 1 
effect of salicylic acid. It is doubtful if such an increased store would 
prove of any lasting benefit in its effects, nor would it be just to claim 
that it would be injurious. The most that can be said in this case IS 
that there is a decided disturbance of phosphoric acid metabolism in 
the direction of increasing the stores of phosphorus in the body, while 
in the case of nitrogen there is no marked effect produced on the 
metabolic process. 



SERIES XI. 

THE EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID AND SODIUM SALICYLATE UPON 
THE NITROGENOUS ELEMENTS OF THE URINE. 



PRELIMINARY STUDT 



FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE RATION AND 
METHODS OF ANALYSIS. 



Before entering upon the special study respecting the influence of 
salicylic acid and salicylates upon the excretion and composition of 
the urine, a preliminary experiment was conducted to determine the 
kind of ration best suited to this particular investigation and also for 
the purpose of comparing the two most promising methods, namely, 
the Morner-Sjoqvist and the Braunstein methods," for the determina- 
tion of urea. It will also be noted that analyses were made of the 
daily samples and of a composite sample made by mixing aliquot portions 
of the daily samples. These samples were composited each day and 
preserved until the end of the period by the addition of chloroform 
and thymol, the object in view being to determine whether any mate- 
rial change took place in the samples upon standing. 

Tin: Ration. 

For the purposes of this preliminary investigation three men were 
placed on a definite diet for a limited time, the character of the ration 
being unchanged throughout the series of observations, as shown in 
Table I. 

Table I. -l><iih/ ration, showing amount of food "//</ quantity of nitrogen ingested in the 
preliminary experiment, Series XI. 





No 


. 1 . 


No. 2. 




Ration. 


W.IL'll! 

of I I. 


Nitrogen. 


Weight 
of food. 


Nitrogen. 


Weight 
of food. 


Nitrogen. 


ist: 


C nuns. 

90 
TO 

100 

16 

| 80 

LOO 
70 
28 

160 

206 


Grams. 

I • 

! - 

.88 

I. L2 
.08 
.06 

1 li 


(1 nuns. 

100 
I mi 

1 50 
1 

,n 

30 
60 

II 
L50 


Grams. 
ii 19 

! ■ 

2.2* 

•j 7 

.in 
.06 

1. 11 


(i nuns. 
80 


drams. 
0. 1.". 




f 7(1 1 


l of wheat 


i ";:: 1 




80 
LOO 

1 fl 




• , i k . 






Bread 


l L2 


I'.uiter . . 


08 


('..!:■ 




Milk . 


1. 11 






Total nitrogen i"r breakfast 








5.13 






















722 for description of methods. 



"(Mi 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



707 



Table I. — Daily ration, showing amount of food and quantity of nitrogen ingested in tin 
preliminary experiment, Series XI— Continued. 





N< 


. 1. 


No 


.2. 


No 


. 3. 


Ration. 


Weight 
of food. 


Nitrogen. 


Weight 
of food. 


Nitrogen. 


Weight 
of food. 


Nitrogen. 


Lunch: 

Milk 

Bread 


Grams. 
206 

25 


Grams. 

1.11 

.41 


Grams. 

203 

40 


Grams. 

1.11 

. 60 


Grams. 
206 
25 


Grams. 
1.11 
.41 






1.52 




1.77 




1.52 












Dinner: 


150 

33 

45 

70 

150 

172 

113 

60 

28 

150 

206 


3.58 
.50 

1 .29 

1 .. 

.99 

.OS 

.06 

1.11 


100 

200 

f 33 

45 

I 70 

f 150 

<^ 172 

{ 113 

90 

28 

150 

206 


4.47 
.67 

1 .29 

1 .92 

1.49 
.03 
.06 

1.11 


80 

150 
1 33 

I s 

f 150 

\ 172 

113 

60 
28 

412' 




Roast beef 


3.58 


Potatoes 

Lima beans 


.50 
\ .29 




f 








I .92 




J 


Bread 

Butter 


.99 
.03 


Coffee 

Milk 


"2.22 


•Total nitrogen for dinner 




7.48 




9.04 




8 53 






Total nitrogen for day 




15.66 




15.94 




16.71 



The important point in selecting the ration was to secure a uniform 
ingestion of-nitrogen. Table I shows that No. 1 consumed for break- 
fast 6.66 grams of nitrogen, for luncheon 1.52 grems of nitrogen, and 
for dinner 7.48 grams of nitrogen, making a total of 15.66 grams per 
day. Xo. 2 had for breakfast 5.13 grams of nitrogen, for luncheon 
1.77 grams of nitrogen, and for dinner 9.0-1 grams of nitrogen, making 
a total of 15.94 grams of nitrogen per day. No. 3 consumed for break- 
fast Ik66 grams, for luncheon 1.52 grams, and for dinner 8.53 grams, 
making a total of 16.71 grams per day. The periods of observation 
were short in order to avoid any dislike of the food which might have 
occurred had so uniform a diet been enforced for a long time. The 
fore period covered only three days, the period of administration of 
the salicylic acid six days, and the after period three days, making 
altogether a period of twelve days of observation. During the first 
preservative subperiod of four days 0.25 gram of salicylic acid and 
during the second subperiod of two days 0.50 gram of salicylic acid 
is administered daily. The results obtained in the preliminary study 
are given in Table II. 

Analytical Results. 



INDIVIDUAL DATA. 
No. 1. 



In the case of No. 1 the average volume of the urine excreted daily 
in the fore period is 967 <•<•. The average daily quantity for the entire 
preservative period Is L,008 cc, and for the after period L,107 cc. 



7"s IXl'IJ'l- X< i; OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

The administration of the salicylic acid apparently produced an increase 
in the volume of urine, which tendency continued during the after 
1>< nod. 

During the fore period the average daily nitrogen eliminated in the 
urine is Li. 653 grams, during the preservative period 13.286 grams, 
and during the after period L4>566 grams. These data show a slight 
tendency on tin 4 part of the preservative to decrease the amount of 
nitrogen eliminated in the urine. A comparison of the nitrogen in 
the urea by the two methods of observation shows quite concordant 
results. Unfortunately the determination of the total nitrogen elimi- 
nated in the urea for the after period in the composite sample was lost. 
There is distinctly less nitrogen eliminated as urea in the preservative 
period than in the fore period. In respect of uric acid nitrogen the 
average daily quantity eliminated in the fore period is 0.243 gram in 
the composite -ample, in the composite sample of the preservative 
period 0.210 gram, and in the composite sample of the after period 
0.258 gram. These data also show a distinct diminution in the amount 
of uric acid nitrogen eliminated during the administration of the sali- 
cylic acid. 

The -tiidy of the total quantities and percentages of urea and uric 
add eliminated i- a matter of interest. The total quantities of urea 
eliminated, as determined by the two methods, are practically the 
same, and the comparison will he based upon the first method alone 
It is -ecu that the average daily weight of urea eliminated in the fore 
period is 28.346 grams in the composite sample. For the composite 
-ample of the preservative period it is 25.75 crams. There was no 
composite sample examined for the after period. The average for the 
daily examinations of the after period shows an elimination of 28.51 1 
grams of urea daily. These data show a markedly depressing effect 
produced by the preservative upon the quantity of urea eliminated. 
In respect of uric acid, the average daily quantity eliminated in the 
fore period, as determined in the composite sample, is o.T-JT gram, in 
the preservative period in the composite sample 0.628 gram, and in 
the composite -ample of the after period o.TTi' gram. We find here 

again a marked tendency on the part of the preservative to diminish 
the average weight of the uric acid eliminated. The ratio of the uric 
acid nitrogen to the total nitrogen eliminated in the fore period in the 
composite sample Is •'>'».:'». in the preservative period in the composite 

-ample »',;;.:;, and in the after period in the composite sample 56.5. 

This ratio shows that the depressing effed of the preservative upon 

the elimination of nitrogen is exerted more powerfully upon the 

nitrogen in uric acid than on the other nitrogenous constituents. 

In the fore period the average daily percentage of ingested nitrogen 
which i- eliminated in the urine is 93.6 in the composite sample, in 
Composite sample of the preservative period 84.8, and in the com 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 709 

posite sample of the after period 93. Thus it is seen that the exhibi- 
tion of the preservative has diminished in a marked degree the per- 
centage of the total nitrogen of the food eliminated in the urine. 
Confining the comparison to the first method for the determination of 
the urea, it is found that 90.4 per cent of the total daily nitrogen 
eliminated in the urine is eliminated as urea during the fore period, 
90.5 per cent during the preservative period, and 91.5 per cent in the 
after period, showing that the administration of the preservative has 
not changed the percentage amount of nitrogen eliminated as urea to 
any great extent. 

The percentage of total nitrogen that is eliminated as uric-acid nitro- 
gen in the fore period is 1.7 per cent in the composite sample, in the 
preservative period 1.6 per cent in the composite sample, and in the 
after period 1.8 per cent in the composite sample. Again, there is a 
very slight tendency shown here on the part of the preservative to 
diminish the percentage of uric-acid nitrogen eliminated. 

No. 2. 

In the case of No. 2 the average dail\ T volume of urine in the fore 
period is 1,037 cc, the average daily volume in the preservative period 
is 1,212 cc, and the average for the after period 1,863 cc. The aver- 
age for the after period, however, is only for two days, as the urine 
for the second da}^ was lost. These data show a slight diuretic effect 
of the salic}dic acid during the period of administration, and this 
effect is increased enormously in the after period, which can only be 
attributed to the continued action of the drug. 

The average daily quantity of nitrogen eliminated in the urine in 
the fore period is 13. 473 grams, in the composite for the preservative 
period 13.661 grams, and in the composite for the after period 13.279 
grams. These data show a slight increase in the elimination of nitro- 
gen in the urine during the administration of the preservative, both 
over the fore period and over the after period. The quantities of 
nitrogen eliminated as urea, determined by the two methods, agree 
very well. There was no composite 1 , however, examined for tin after 
period. There was a slight increase in the amount of nitrogen excreted 
as urea during the preservative period. In respect of uric acid, the 
average daily amount of nitrogen eliminated in the form of uric acid 
in the fore period in the composite sample is <>. L68 gram, in the com- 
posite sample for the preservative period it is 0.156 gram, and for the 
after period 0.139 gram. Again, we find here a tendency manifested 
by the preservative to diminish the excretion of nitrogen in the form 
of uric acid. 

The average daily quantity of urea excreted by No. 2 in the fore 
period is 25.727 grains in the composite sample: in the composite 
sample for the preservative period 26.661' grams, and tor the average 



710 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OH HEALTH. 

of daily sampler for the after period 25.542 grams. In this case there 
is a slight tendency on the part of the preservative to increase the 
average daily amount of urea excreted. The average daily quantity 
of uric acid excreted by No. 2 in the fore period is 0.503 gram in the 
composite sample, in the preservative period it is 0.468 gram, and in 
the after period 0.415 gram. In this case there seems to be a marked 
tendency to diminish the average daily quantity of uric acid excreted, 
due to the influence of the preservative, and this tendency is continued 
in the after period. The ratio of the uric-acid nitrogen to the total 
nitrogen eliminated in the fore period is s<>.-j in the composite sample, 
in the preservative period ^7.4. and in the after period in the composite 
-ample 95.5. These data indicate a diminished quantity of uric-acid 
nitrogen in relation to total nitrogen eliminated under the influence of 
the preservative, and this tendency i- markedly increased in the after 
period. 

Of the total nitrogen ingested in the food 84.5 per cent is eliminated 
in the urine by No. 2 in tin 1 composite sample of the fore period, in the 
composite sample of the preservative period. 85.7, and in the composite 
sample of the after period 83.3. These data indicate a slight tendency 
on the part of the preservative to increase the quantity of nitrogen in 
the urine under the action of the preservative. The percentage of the 
total nitrogen in tin 1 urine excreted as urea during the fore period in 
the composite sample is 89.2, in the preservative period 91.2 in the 
composite -ample, and in the average of daily samplesof the after period 
89.2. These data show a slight tendency on the part of the preserva- 
tive to increase the percentage of total nitrogen excreted as urea. The 
percentage of uric-acid nitrogen excreted in the composite 4 sample in 
tie- foic period is L.2, in the composite sample of tin 1 preservative 
period 1.1. and in the composite sample of the after period L.0. There 
i- practically no influence, therefore, exerted by the preservative in 
this case in changing the relative percentage of uric-acid nitrogen 
excreted. 

No. S. 

In the case of No. .", the average daily volume of urine excreted in 
the fore period i-> ''»7.~> cc, in the preservative period !<»<» cc, and in the 
after period 1.111 cc. These data show again a slight tendency on the 
part of the preservative to increase the volume of urine, which is 
greatly accentuated on the withdrawal of the preservative in the after 
period. This phenomenon having occurred in all three cases would 

indicate a tendency on the part of t he -alicy lie acid to stimulate the 

secretory organs connected with the elimination of the urine to extra 
ordinary activity upon the withdrawal of the salicylic acid. This is 
an apparent tendency which is worthj of further investigation. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 711 

The average daily quantity of nitrogen eliminated by No. 3 in the 
fore period is 12.911 grams, in the preservative period 13.380 grams, 
and in the after period 13.939 grams. These data show a slight ten- 
dency on the part of the preservative to increase the elimination of 
nitrogen during the administration of the preservative, and this 
tendency is maintained in the after period, though not in proportion 
to the great increase in the volume of the urine. The average daily 
quantity of urea excreted, as determined by the first method of exam- 
ination, in the fore period is 11.785 grams in the composite sample, 
in the preservative period 12.099 grams in the composite sample, and 
in the after period, in the average daily samples, 12.129 grams. Here 
there is manifested a slight influence on the part of the preservative 
to increase the total quantity of nitrogen excreted as urea. In respect 
of the uric acid the average daily amount excreted by No. 3 in the 
composite sample is 0.191 gram, in the preservative period in the 
composite sample 0.161 gram, and in the after period in the composite 
sample 0.202 gram. Here we find again a tendency on the part of 
the preservative to diminish the quantity of nitrogen eliminated as 
uric acid. 

In regard to the average daily quantity of urea excreted by No. 3, 
as determined by the first method, it is found to be 25.227 grams in 
the composite sample, in the composite sample of the preservative 
period 25.902 grams, and in the average of the daily samples of the 
after period 26.607 grams. The average daily quantity of uric acid 
excreted by No. 3 in the composite sample of the fore period is 0.571 
gram, in the composite sample of the preservative period 0.183 gram, 
and in the' composite sample of the after period 0.603 gram. In this 
case there is an apparent tendency on the part of the preservative to 
diminish the average dail} T quantity of uric acid excreted. If, now, 
we consider the ratio of the uric acid nitrogen to the total nitrogen 
eliminated, we find that this ratio in the composite sample of the fore 
period is 67.7, in the composite sample of the preservative period 83.1, 
and in the composite sample of the after period 69.1. Here there is 
indicated a very strong tendency on the part of the preservative to 
increase the ratio of the uric acid excreted to the total nitrogen elimi- 
nated, and thus to apparently decrease the relative quantities of uric 
acid nitrogen excreted, a tendency which has been uniform in all three 
of the present cases. The total percentage of nitrogen of the food 
excreted in the urine by No. 3 in the composite sample of the fore 
period is 77.1, in the composite sample of the preservative period so. 
and in the composite sample of the after period 83.4. There is here 
an apparent tendency on the part of the preservative to increase the 
percentage of the total nitrogen in the food eliminated in the urine 
The total nitrogen in the urine eliminated as urea in the composite 



712 [NFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

sample of the fore period in the case of No. 3 is 91.1, in the composite 
sample of the preservative period 90.4, and in the average of daily 
samples of the after period 91, indicating a slight tendency on the part 
of the preservative to decrease the relative amount of nitrogen excreted 
a- urea. 

In regard to the percentage of nitrogen excreted as uric acid in the 
case of No. 3 in the fore period, it is 1.:.. in the preservative period 
L.2, and in the after period 1.4 per cent, in each case determined in 
the composite sample. These data indicate a tendency on the part of 
the preservative to diminish the relative proportion of uric acid nitro- 
gen eliminated. 

SUMMARY. 

We now have to consider the case of Nos. 1. ^. and 3 as a whole. 
It i- seen that the average daily volume of urine excreted in the fore 
period is 893 cc, in the preservative period 981 cc and in the after 
period 1,298 cc. These data indicate that the general effect of the 
preservative is to act a- a diuretic, ami this effect is enormously in- 
creased immediately after the withdrawal of the drug. This would 
seem to indicate that the maximum excitation produced by the exhibi- 
tion of salicylic acid is not manifested immediately at the time of its 
administration, nor within six days, hut is shown in a much more 
marked degree immediately after the administration is withdrawn. 
In other words, the stimulation of the excretory organs eliminating 
urine does not reach its maximum until some time, at least six days, 
after the first administration of the preservative. 

The average quantity of nitrogen ingested daily is L6.10 grams. Of 
this, there is eliminated in the fore period in the urine L3.689 grams, 
in the preservative period L 3. 429 grams, and in the after period L4.009 
grams. These data -how a slight general tendency on the part of the 
preservative to diminish the quantity of nitrogen eliminated in the 
urine during the administration of the preservative, hut the elimina- 
tion i> increased in the after period. 

In regard to the nitrogen eliminated as urea, as determined bv the 
first method, it is seen that in the fore period the average daily amount 
i- L2.348 grams, for the preservative period L2. 180 grams, in the com- 
posite samples, respectively, and for the after period L2.638 grams in 
the average of daily samples. The general indication, therefore. [$ 
that the effect of the preservative is to slightly diminish the tutnl 
quantity of nitrogen eliminated as urea, but the quantity eliminated is 
increased to above normal on the withdrawal of the preservative. 

The average daily quantity of uric-acid nit rogen excrete* I in the com 
I >« . - i t « • sample of the fore period is 0.201 gram; in the composite sam 
pie of th<; preservative period <>. 177 gram, and in the composite 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 713 

sample of the after period 0.207 gram. Here there is a manifest ten- 
dency on the part of the preservative to diminish the daily quantity of 
uric-acid nitrogen excreted. 

When the total quantity of urea excreted is taken into consideration. 
it is seen that in the composite sample of the fore period it is 20.438 
grams by the first method of determination; in the composite sample 
of the preservative period it is 26. 074 grams, and in the average of 
daily samples of the after period 27.055 grams. Here is noted a ten- 
dency on the part of the preservative to diminish the average daily 
quantity of urea excreted, and there is an increase in the quantity of 
urea in the after period. 

The average daily quantity of uric acid excreted in the fore period 
is 0.601 gram, in the preservative period 0.529 gram, and in the after 
period 0.620 gram in the composite samples. These data indicate a 
tendency on the part of the preservative to diminish the total quantity 
of uric acid excreted. 

The ratio of the uric-acid nitrogen excreted to the total nitrogen 
eliminated in the fore period, in the composite sample, is 68.3, in the 
composite sample of the preservative period 75.9, and in the com- 
posite sample of the after period 67.6. This increase in the ratio 
shows a corresponding decrease in the relative amount of uric-acid 
nitrogen excreted in relation to total nitrogen eliminated. 

The average percentage of nitrogen eliminated in the fore period in 
the composite sample is 85, in the composite sample of the preserv- 
ative period 83. -i, and in the composite sample of the after period 87. 
There is a slight tendency, therefore, on the part of the preservative 
to diminish the average daily percentage of total nitrogen eliminated 
in the urine. 

The total nitrogen in the urine eliminated as urea in the fore period 
is 90.2 per cent, in the preservative period 91.4 in the composite 
sample, respectively, and in the average daily samples of the after 
period 90.7. There is here, therefore, manifested a tendency on the 
part of the preservative to increase the relative percentage of nitrogen 
eliminated as urea, the conclusion being based upon the results 
obtained by the Morner-Sjoqvist method. 

The percentage of uric acid nitrogen excreted per day in the fore 
period (based on total nitrogen eliminated) is 1.5, in the preservative 
period L.3, and in the after period 1.5, indicating a slight tendency t<> 
decrease the relative quantity of nitrogen eliminated as uric acid 
nitrogen. 

7656— No. 84, pt 2—06 16 



714 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 



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716 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



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acid nitrogen 
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SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



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INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



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SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



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TI i-i 


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712 gS 


Til- X 

r. r. x 
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t-OS I- TT- 

1~ i.O — BC 

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16.71 
L6.73 


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INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



CO 



,*s ^ - 



Salicylic 

acid 

adminis 

i' red. 


|ooo 

■J 


o o 




- 
i~ i~ i- 1» 


0.~ 

2 71 

CO 






r — 

"g " 7 I 

£§fiS.O 

- 


acid ni- 
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mined 

bj 

Folin 

method. 

L.6 

l. 1 
1.7 


eo 


'" : 


—::::— 


CO 

X 

X. 
X. 


77 • 

71 • 

en • 




■- 

- 
- 


Deter- 
mined 

by 
Braun- 

stein 
method. 

Perct. 

90. i 

90. 7 


i- 

s 


OS I 


DQOOiC 

r r i — — ' 
5 x -■ - 




I >< ■ i ■ i 
mined 

b3 
Morncr- 

iii.-i nod. 


P( r ct. 
91.2 
91.7 
90.7 


CN 




91.2 

■I ., 


o 


r. • 

t : 




Per 

c.iii ..I 

In- 
gested 

nitro- 
gen 

elimi- 
nated 

in 

urine. 


l'i r ct. 
85. 9 
90.2 
79. 1 


Ifi 




76; 9 
84.6 
84.0 
38, i 


7>i 

X 


:: ; 
St ■ 




Ratio 

ul uric 

acid 

nitrogen 
elimi- 
nated 
to total 

nitrogen 
elimi- 
nated. 

62.0 
70.8 

6 1. i 


CO 


CO • 

* 1 


- Z 7 1 71 

7 i r-i — ■ ?o 
i^ i^ i^ i^ 


X 


-. • 




Total 

uriencid 

elimi- 
nated, 
deter- 
mined 

by 

Folin 

method. 


Grams. 
2.002 
L.840 

1 - M 


5. 736 
. 687 

6. 102 
.601 


L.626 
L.646 
L.639 
L.646 


i- r. i- 77. 

i~ 7 1 i~ 71 
SO EO 




Total urea elimi- 
nated. 


mined by 

Braun- 

Btein 

method. 


Grams. 
80.293 
84. 748 
74.218 


239. 259 
26.584 

240. m 

2(5. 71 2 


71.595 

72. 462 
79. 07.") 
78.988 


302. 060 
25. 172 

310.322 
26.860 




Deter 
mined by 
Morner- 
8j6qvist 
method. 


Grams. 

81. i 

74.189 


240. 562 

26. 729 

287.900 


72.264 
79. L83 
79.237 
78.886 


309. 570 
25. 798 

2:.. 7s; 




Nitrogen eliminated in urine. 


A- in lc 
acid. 
deter- 
mined by 

Folin 
method. 


< i I'll III S. 

0.669 
.614 
. 688 


1.916 
.213 

L.805 
.20] 


-- i- i - r 


2.124 

.177 

2.12:; 
.177 




- 
- 

< 


Deter- 
mined by 
Braun- 
stein 
method. 


. / - r 

2 '" 2 - 

;i-r'- 
- ooeoec 


111. 767 
L2. U9 

112.808 
12.478 




141.104 
1 1 . 769 

1 14.968 
12.080 




Deter- 
mined by 
Morner- 
Sjoqvist 
method. 


Grams. 


112.376 
12. 186 

111.132 
L2.348 


17.0] i 


L44.613 
12.051 

L44.529 

12.1111 




r-i 


drams. 
11. Ml 
i:;. 166 


123. 182 
L3.687 

123.199 
L3.689 


77. r — i - 


18.244 




§1 


18.3] 
18.31 




s 

- 
- 

- 


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CO 




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SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



721 



oo 


§s 




Of 

oeo 

CO 




ooo 


oo 






2" 


CO 


i 2 : 


CO 


CO ■ 


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uO 




CI — 

do 

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cm 

d 

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122 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 



Methods op Analysis Employed and Comparison of Results. 



UREA DETERMINATIONS. 



Two methods of determining the urea, which are regarded as the 
besi of those in use, were employed, and the data obtained were com- 
pared. These were the MOrner-SjOqvist and the Braunstein method. 
The principle of the M6rner-SJ6qvist method depends on the fact that 
the nitrogenous constituents of the urine, with the exception of urea. 
ammonia, bippuric acid, and kreatinin, are precipitated by means of a 
solution of barium chlorid and barium hydroxid (50 grams Ba(OH)., 
and 350 grams BaCl a per liter) and a mixture of alcohol and ether 
(2:1); 5 <•<• of urine. 5 cc of the barium solution, and 100 cc of the 
alcohol-ether solution are mixed and allowed to stand over night. It 
is then filtered into a beaker or porcelain dish and the precipitate 
washed with 50 to 7.3 cc of the alcohol-ether mixture. The filtrate is 
then evaporated at a temperature not exceeding 55 c C, and when 
solvents have disappeared a small quantity of water i^ added and about 
".."> gram of magnesium oxid. It is then evaporated to dryness or till 
the fumes are no longer alkaline. The residue is transferred into a 
K jeldahl flask and nitrogen determined in the usual manner. The nitro- 
gen found is calculated to urea by multiplying by the factor 2.1-107. 

According to Braunstein the above method is inapplicable in the pres- 
ence of hippuric acid. His modification of the method consists in 
taking up the evaporated residue in a small quantity of water and 
adding 1<» grains of crystallized phosphoric acid and heating in an air 
bath for four and one-half hours at 14<> 145 C. The residue is then 
transferred to a K jeldahl digestion flask and nitrogen determined. 

In the following table are given the comparative 4 data obtained by 
the two methods on the daily samples and the composite samples: 



Table III. 



-Comparison of the tir<> methods for tin determination of urea. 





Daily sample. 


Composite sample. 


Daily 
sample, 
M <£ 8. 
method. 


Compo- 
site 

sample, 
Braun- 
stein 

method. 


Bubject 


M. .V s. 
method. 


Braun 

stein 

method. 


M. & B. 
method. 


Braun- 
stein 
method. 


No. i 



No. :: 


J I.Ms 

•JT. :::.7 
26.649 


24.827 
27. 298 

26.016 

•J... 1 19 


28.846 

•-'7.D71 

26.227 
25.674 


i 


+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 


+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 







SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 723 

URIC ACID DETERMINATIONS (fOLIN'.S MODIFICATION OF HOPKINS'S METHOD)/' 

In order to precipitate the uric acid and to remove the small amount 
of mucoid substance which is always present the following reagent is 
employed: 500 grams of ammonium sulphate and 5 grams of uranium 
acetate are dissolved in 650 cc of water, to which 60 cc of a 10 per 
cent solution of acetic acid are further added. 

Seventy -five cubic centimeters of this reagent are added to 300 cc of 
urine. After standing five minutes the mixture is filtered through 
two folded filters, the filtrate is divided into two portions of 125 cc 
each, representing 100 cc of the original sample, and l\ cc of concen- 
trated ammonia added. The solution, after stirring, is set aside until 
the next day. 

The precipitated ammonium urate settles to the bottom of the 
beaker during this time. The supernatant liquid is poured through a 
filter (Schleicher and Schull, No. 575), a hardened filter being found 
the most serviceable, and the precipitate is collected and washed by a 
small amount of a 10 per cent solution of ammonium sulphate. 

After washing three or four times on the filter with the 10 per cent 
ammonium sulphate solution the precipitate is washed back into the 
same beaker in which the precipitation was made, using about 100 ccof 
water. Fifteen cubic centimeters of concentrated sulphuric acid are 
then added and the solution titrated immediately with one-twentieth 
normal potassium permanganate. The first trace of a rose color 
throughout the entire fiuid is taken as the end point. Each cubic 
centimeter of the standard permanganate N 20 is equivalent to 
0.00375 gram of uric acid. Owing to the solubility of ammonium 
urate, a final correction of 0.003 gram for each 100 cc of urine 
employed is necessary. 

KREATININ DETERMINATIONS (fOLIN's METHOD).** 

In this work kreatin was detenu i no* 1 along with and calculated as 
kreatinin. The method is based on the reaction of kreatinin with 
alkaline picric acid solution. The red colored solution produced by 
this reaction has, when in proper dilution, the same shade of color as 
potassium bichromate solution. 

The solutions required are: Half normal potassium bichromate; 10 
per cent caustic soda; saturated (1.2 per cent) picric acid solution and 
normal hydrochloric acid where kreatin and kreatinin are determined 
together. 

The determination is carried out in the following manner: Ten cc 
of urine are placed in a 500 re graduated flask, 5 vc of normal hydro- 
chloric acid added and the mixture heated on the water bath for three 

oZts. physiol. Chem., n : 552. &Zts. physiol. Chem., L904, 41 : 223. 



72-4 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 

and one-half to four hours, with a proper return condenser attached. 
At the end of this time the flask is cooled, the acid is neutralized, and 15 
cc picric acid solution and 5 cc of the caustic soda solution are added. 
The contents of the flask are thoroughly mixed and allowed to stand 
for five minutes. It is now made up to mark and compared with the 
half normal bichromate solution in a colorimeter. The Duboscq color- 
imeter was used in this work. 

Ten milligrams of pure kreatinin treated in same way gives a depth 
of color S.l mm of which corresponds to 8 mm of the bichromate 
solution. The urine picrate solutions are all compared with 8 mm 
of the half normal bichromate solution and adjusted till the depth of 
color is the same as the standard. 

If the reading' after adjustment of*the urine picrate solution is 6.2 

mm. then 10 cc of the urine would contain In x '., = 13.06 mg of 
kreatinin. 

XAXTIIIX DETERMINATIONS (KRUGER-BCHMID METHOD). « 

Free 400 cc of urine from proteids by coagulation and filtration, add 
24 grams of -odium acetate and 35 cc of 1^ percent sodium bisulphite, 
heal to boiling and add 30 cc of L5 per cent copper sulphate. Boil 
three minute- with careful watching and stirring. After cooling and 
Altering, the precipitate is washed until colorless. The precipitate is 
returned to the original beaker and 200 CC of water added. After 
heating to boiling, 30 cc of sodium sulphid is added, then acetic acid 
to acidity and the solution warmed on the steam bath until the copper 
sulphid settles. Filter while warm and wash with warm water, add 
In cc of In per cent hydrochloric acid and evaporate in a ^^^ cc porce- 
lain dish to a volume of L0-15 cc. During the process and on stand- 
ing two hours the uric acid settles out. This is filtered on a small 
filter paper washed with 3 per cent sulphuric acid until the total vol- 
ume of lilt rate and washings is 75 cc. The nitrogen of the precipitate 
multiplied bv 3 gives uric acid, to which add 3.5 mg. 

Tie- uric acid filtrate IS made alkaline with sodium hydroxid and 
then acidified with acetic acid. After warming to 70 . 1 cc of In per 
.cut ar.tic acid and In <•<• of potassium permanganate are added. 
Shake one minute, treat with L0 cc of sodium bisulphite and 6 cc of 
ir» pci- cent copper sulphate, boil for three minutes, alter the wash 

with dilute copper sulphate, and determine the nitrogen in the pre- 
cipitate which i- that of the xanthin bases. 

oHoppe Seyler'w Thierf elder, LD03, [>. 136. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 725 

SPECIAL STUDY OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE NITROGENOUS CONSTIT- 
UENTS OF THE URINE AS AFFECTED BY THE PRESERVATIVES. 

INTRODUCTION. 

It is a very common opinion among medical practitioners and phys- 
iologists that salicylic acid when properly administered has some spe- 
cific effect upon the excretion of certain of the nitrogenous elements of 
the urine, notably uric acid. One of the principal difficulties attend- 
ing investigations of this character heretofore has been the uncer- 
tainty attending the methods of determination with regard to accuracy 
as to the quantities of nitrogen present in various forms. Some of 
these nitrogenous elements are present only in small quantities, and 
therefore any inherent fault of the method itself or any failure in 
proper manipulation on the part of the analyst is likely to introduce 
very serious errors into the results. The data which follow have been 
obtained in accordance with the methods of investigation which have 
been described in detail. 

The study of the individual data shows often a wide daily variation 
in the various forms of nitrogenous constituents excreted, and the 
daily quantity of total nitrogen excreted also shows notable variations. 

The total nitrogen of the urine having first been determined, the 
quantities of nitrogen which were present as urea, uric acid, xanthin, 
kreatinin, and ammonia were separately determined. The difference 
between the total nitrogen contained in these bodies and the total 
nitrogen of the urine represents the nitrogenous elements undeter- 
mined. On account of the amount of analytical work in connection 
with the study of the metabolic processes during Series VI, it was 
found impossible to properly conduct a stud} T of the distribution of 
the nitrogen in the urine. To remedy this fault a supplemental study 
was made of four men subsequent to the investigations described as 
Series VI. 



26 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



SCHEDULE OF ADMINISTRATION OF THE PRESERVATIVE. 

The schedule of administration of the preservative and the dates 
covered by the periods of observation an 1 shown in Table IV. 

Table IV. — Schedule of administration of salicylic acid and salicylates for special study 

on four in, a -Series XI. 




a The amounts of sodium salicylate administered to Nos. 11 and 12 contained amounts of salicylic 
acid equivalent to the corresponding doses given Nos. l and 2— i. v., 0.25, 0.50, 0.7."), and l gram in the 
respective suhperiods. 



BUPPLEMENTAL STUDY OP THE PRESENCE OF \l.m MIX AND THE REACTION OF THE URINE. 

A further study of the effect of salicylic acid and sodium salicylate 
on the acidity of the urine and the occurrence of albumin therein was 
made in the case of (he four subjects of the special study. In 'Table V 
arc given the individual and summarized results of this investigation. 

The acidity of the urine is comparatively/ expressed by the number 
of cubic centimeters of tenth-normal sodium hydroxid solution required 
to neutralize LOO oc of the urine, using phenolphthalein as indicator. 
The average acidity for Nos. 1 and 2, receiving salicylic acid, in the 
fore period is 38.9, in the preservative period 1 1.7. and in the after 
period 37.1. Tnese figures indicate a tendency on the part of the 

salicvlic acid to increase the aeidit\ of the urine. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 727 

In the case of Nos. 11 and 12 receiving' sodium salicylate the aver- 
age acidity for the fore period is represented by 34.0, for the pre- 
servative period by- 33.6, and for the after period by 36.2, showing a 
tendency to decrease the acidity. 

The percentage of cases in which albumin was found in the fore 
period is 25, in the preservative period 36, and in the after period 30. 
It appears from these data that the preservative distinctly favored the 
formation of traces of albumin in the urine, the result being much 
more marked, however, when the salicylic acid was administered than 
in the case of the sodium salicylate. 



728 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OH : IE ALT II. 
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732 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

INDIVIDUAL ANALYTICAL DATA. 

No. 1. 

In the case of No. 1, Table VI, the average daily volume of the 
urine excreted during the fore period is lc_>l cc, containing 56.7 grams 
of solid matter. The total nitrogen ingested daily in the food is 10.4*') 
grams, the total nitrogen excreted in the urine 13.81 grams. Of this 
quantity 12.77 grams are present as urea, 0.15 as uric acid. 0.04 as 
xanthin, 0.12 gram as kreatinin, 0.22 gram as ammonia, and 0.22 
gram undetermined. 

During the preservative period there was a slight increase in the 
volume of the urine and a considerable increase in the amount of total 
solids therein. There was an increase in the amount of urea, a slight 
increase in the amount of kreatinin and ammonia excreted, and a slight 
decrease in the amount of uric acid found, leaving a total of only 0.18 
gram daily of nitrogen unaccounted for by a direct determination of 
the various nitrogenous constituents. 

In the after period there was again an increase in the quantity of 
the urine, a decrease in the amount of total solids to practically tin 4 
same figure as in the fore period, and a decrease in the quantity of 
nitrogen in the urine and the amount of urea excreted. 

In respect of the quantity of materials eliminated, it is seen that the 
average excretion per day of total urea is 27.33 grams in the fore 
period, for uric acid 0.45 gram, for xanthin 0.10 gram, for kreatinin 
1.13 gram-, and for ammonia 0.27 gram for the fore period. 

In the preservative period the quantity of urea daily excreted is 
almost exactly 1 gram greater than in the fore period. The quantity 
of kreatinin is also somewhat increased. 

In the after period the several amounts excreted are almost the 
same as in the fore period. In the case of No. 1, therefore, it is 
apparent that the effect of the salicylic acid was to increase the quan- 
tity of urea and kreatinin excreted, hut not to increase the quantity 
of uric acid and the other nitrogenous constituents. 'Hie percentage 
of nitrogen excreted in the urine, computed upon tin 4 total quantity 
of nitrogen in the foods in the case of N<>. 1 in the fore period, is s;;.«>. 
The percentages of the various nitrogenous constituents in the mine 
(based on the total nitrogen excreted) are urea 92.5, uric acid 1.1, 
xanthin 0.3, kreatinin '">. ammonia !.<>, and undetermined L.5. 

In the preservative period the percentage of nitrogen in the food 
excreted in the mine i- \er\ markedly increased. The percentage in 

the urine in the various forms of nitrogenous constituents docs not 
differ greatly from the fore period, except in the cases of kreatinin 
and ammonia, where there is a considerable increase and the 
percentage of undetermined is less. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 733 

Tn the after period the percentages are restored almost to their 
original value in the fore period. 

In general it appears, therefore, that in the case of No. 1 the 
salicylic acid has a stimulating effect upon the excretion of nitrogen 
in the urine, but does not increase either in quantity or percentage the 
amount of uric acid excreted, but does slightly increase the proportions 
of kreatinin, urea, and ammonia excreted. 

No. 2. 

In the case of No. 2 the volume of urine was very much greater 
than in the case of No. 1 and the quantities of total solids are cor- 
respondingly increased. There is a progressive decrease in the tottil 
nitrogen excreted in the urine, the daily quantity in the fore period 
being 17.63 grams, in the preservative period 16.01 grams, and in the 
after period 13.81 grams. This corresponds with the decrease in the 
volume of the urine during these periods. A similar decrease is found 
also in the quantity of urea and the other nitrogenous constituents, all 
except kreatinin and xanthin being more or less diminished in quantity. 

The total weight of urea daily excreted in the fore period is 35.02 
grams, in the preservative period 31.56 grams, and in the after period 
27.22 grams. It would appear that the exhibition of the salicylic acid 
tends to interfere with the metabolism of the nitrogen as manifested 
in the urine, and these indications are of an opposite character to 
those shown in the case of No. 1. 

Of the total nitrogen in the food there was excreted in the urine 
during the fore period of No. 2 85.6 per cent, during the preservative 
period 77.9 per cent, and during the after period 67.2 per cent. If the 
relations of the various nitrogenous constituents in the urine be con- 
sidered it will be seen that there is but little variation in the excretion 
of urea nitrogen in relation to the total nitrogen in the urine. During 
the fore period 92.8 per cent is excreted as urea; during the preserva- 
tive and after period 91.9 per cent. In the fore period 1.1 per cent 
of the total nitrogen in the urine is excreted as uric acid, 1 per cent 
in the preservative period, and 1.2 per cent in the after period. The 
percentage of nitrogen excreted as kreatinin (based on the total nitro- 
gen in the urine) is 3.1 in the fore period, 1.0 in the preservative period, 
and 3.6 in the after period. For ammonia the figures are 1.9 per cent 
in the fore period, 1.1 percent in the preservative period, and 1.9 per 
cent in the after period. 

These data show that the mass effect in No. 2 was to inhibit in a very 
striking manner the metabolism of the nitrogen, but that the urine 
retained its normal composition in respect of the relative amounts of 
nitrogenous constituents, although the excretion of nitrogen was pro- 
gressively diminished throughout the preservative and after periods. 



734 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

No. 11. 

In the case of No. 11 there was a marked increase in the volume of 
urine during the preservative period, rising from 748 cc daily in the 
fore period to 943 in the preservative period, and falling slightly. 
namely, to 913, in the after period. The total solids excreted in the 
urine rise from 44. 2 grams in the fore period to 52.9 grams in the 
preservative period and fall to 50.3 grams in the after period. The 
total nitrogen in the urine rose from 10. 74 grains in the fore period to 
12.134 grams in the preservative period, falling only slightly in the 
after period, namely, to 12.23 grams. There was a eorresponding 
increase in the urea nitrogen, rising from 9.77 grams in the fore period 
to 11.08 grams in the preservative period and rising still higher. 
namely, to 11.81 grams, in the after period. There was no increase 
in the uric acid excretion during the preservative period, but a slight 
increase is shown in the after period. There was a slight increase in 
the kreatinin during the preservative period and a decrease in the 
ammonia. 

There was an average daily excretion of 20.9 grams of urea in the fore 
period, 23.71 grams in the preservative period, rising to 24.20 grams in 
the after period. There was no increase in the excretion of uric acid 
in the preservative period, but an increase is shown in the after period. 
There was a marked increase in the excretion of kreatinin during the 
preservative period. Seventy per cent of the total nitrogen in the 
food was excreted in the urine in the fore period, 80.4 per cent in the 
preservative period, and 79.7 per cent in the after period. 

In the total percentage of nitrogen excreted as urea there was a 
decrease in the preservative period, and an increase in the after period 
exceeding the amount excreted in the fore period. There was mark- 
edly less uric acid excreted in the preservative period, but an increase 
in the after period. No appreciable influence was exerted by the 
salicylate of soda upon the percentage of nitrogen excreted as kreati- 
nin. hut less was excreted as ammonia. 

In general it may be said in the ease of No. 11 that the exhibition 
of the salicylate of soda lias an apparent tendency to increase the me- 
tabolism of nitrogen. It produces no increase in the amount of uric 
acid eliminated in the preservative period and has very little effect 
upon the form in which the nitrogen was excreted. 

No. !.'. 

In the case of No. L2 the volume of urine during the preservative 
period was -lightly increased, falling again in the after period t<> a 
little below the normal for the U>n> period. The quantity of total 
solid- excreted in the urine was also slightly increased in the preser- 
vative period and fell considerably below the normal of the fore period 



SALICYLIC ACTD AXD SALICYLATES. 735 

in the after period. In this connection attention is called to the fact 
that the quantity of nitrogen ingested in the food was somewhat 
greater in the preservative period and after period than in the fore 
period. But the total quantity of nitrogen excreted in the urine was 
considerably less in the preservative period than in the fore period, 
although the amount ingested is greater. There was some tendency 
to a larger excretion in the after period, but it did not reach the 
amount found in the fore period, in spite of the larger quantity of 
nitrogen in the food. The uric acid in this case is again less in quan- 
tity in the preservative period than in the fore period, but is restored 
to the amount of the fore period in the after period. There appears to 
be no effect upon the amount of kreatinin excreted, while the ammonia 
is somewhat less in the preservative period than in the fore period. 

In regard to the total quantities of the various nitrogenous constit- 
uents in the urine it is seen that the amount of urea excreted is mark- 
edly less in the preservative period than in the fore period, and some- 
what increased over the preservative period in the after period. The 
quantity of uric acid excreted during the preservative period is mark- 
edly less than in the fore or after period. There was no appreciable 
effect produced by the sodium salicylate upon the amount of kreatinin 
excreted. The ammonia is less in the preservative period than in either 
of the other periods. In the study of the distribution of the nitrogen 
among the various nitrogenous elements it is seen that an abnormal per- 
centage of nitrogen in the food is excreted in the urine, amounting to 99 
per cent in the fore period, 81.4 per cent in the preservative period, and 
88.8 per cent in the after period. The administration of the salicylate 
of soda did not have any effect on the proportions of nitrogen excreted 
as urea, these being 90 per cent, 90.1 per cent, and 90.2 per cent, 
respectively, for the three periods. 

Again, it is found that the percentage of nitrogen excreted as uric 
acid is diminished in the preservative period, and is restored in the 
after period. The percentage of nitrogen excreted as kreatinin is 
slightly larger in the preservative period than in either of the other 
periods, while the percentage of nitrogen excreted as ammonia is less. 

In this case it is noticed that the administration of the preservative 
tends to restrict the activity of nitrogen metabolism, that it has a dis- 
tinct tendcnc} r to diminish the amount of uric acid excreted, and that 
it does not produce any other very marked effect upon the distribution 
of the nitrogen in the different nitrogenous components of the urine. 

SUMMARY FOB NOS. 1 AXD 2. 

It is convenient, for purposes of comparison, to consider first the data 
for Nos. 1 and 2, they having received salicylic acid, then those for 
Nos. 11 and 12, the}' having received equivalent amount- of salicylate 



..">•> INFLUENCE OF FOOD PBESEBVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

of soda, and afterwards a summary of the four subjects. In discussing 
these summaries attention will be directed mainly to the important 
points of the disturbance of the nitrogen metabolism, the influence 

of the preservative upon the amount of uric acid and the other princi- 
pal nitrogenous bodies of the urine excreted, and the distribution of 
the nitrogen among the nitrogenous elements of the urine. 

Viewing Nos. 1 and 2 together, it is found that there is a slight 
decrease in the volume of the urine during the preservative period, 
and a decrease again occurs during the after period. The total solids 
in the urine are almost the same in the fore and preservative periods, 
and are somewhat diminished in the after period. The total weight 
of the nitrogen in the urine is slightly diminished in the preservative 
period, and this diminution is still more marked in the after period. 
The quantity of urea nitrogen excreted in the preservative period is 
slightly less than that in the fore period, and this deficiency is verv 
marked in the case of the after period. 

There is a tendency shown to diminish the amount of nitrogen 
excreted as uric acid in the preservative period. There is a slight 
increase in the amount of nitrogen excreted as kreatinin during the 
preservative period, while there is a slight decrease in the amount of 
nitrogen excreted as ammonia. 

The total quantity of urea excreted is less in the preservative period 
and is still further diminished in the after period. The weight o\' the 
uric acid i- slightly diminished during the preservative period and 
remains unchanged in the after period. 

Tin; total weight of kreatinin is greater in the preservative period 
than in the fore period and less in the after period than in the fore 
period. There is less ammonia excreted dining the preservative 
period, while in the after period the amount is almost tin 1 same as in 
the fore period. Of the nitrogen ingested 84.84 percent is excreted 
in the urine in the fore period, 81.87 per cent in the preservative 
period, and 74.42 per cent in the after period. 

In regard to the distribution of the nitrogen among the various 
nitrogenous elements of the urine, it is noticed that there is no appre- 
ciable disturbance in the percentage appearing as urea, there being 
92.6 per cent in the fore period, 92.3 per cent in the preservative 
period, and \>-i.'.\ per cent in the after period. The percentage of 

nitrogen appearing as uric acid is slightly less in the preservative 
period. In the after period it is the same as in the fore period. A 
somewhat larger percentage of nitrogen is found ;is kreatinin in the 

preservative period and a slightly less percentage as ammonia. 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 737 

SUMMARY FOB NOS. 11 AND 12. 

In the case of Nos. 11 and 12 there is an increase in the volume of 
urine in the preservative period and a slight tendency to decrease in 
the after period. In regard to the total solids excreted in the urine, 
the amount is found to be considerably greater in the preservative 
period, amounting to 55.3 grams as compared with 50.3 grams in the 
fore period. The amount in the after period falls to 51.3 grams, onl} T 
slightly greater than in the fore period. B} r reason of an increase in 
the bread ration of No. 12 the amount of nitrogen ingested in the food 
is greater in the preservative period and the after period than in the 
fore period. The total weight of the nitrogen excreted in the urine 
during the fore period is 12.52 grams daily, during the preservative 
period 12.75 grams, and in the after period 13.05 grams, showing a 
gradual increase in the nitrogen in the urine. As urea, 11.32 grams 
of nitrogen were excreted in the fore period, 11.47 grams in the pre- 
servative period, and 11.90 grams in the after period. In the case of 
uric acid there is again a decrease in the nitrogen excreted as uric acid 
in the preservative period and a slight increase in the after period 
over that of the fore period. There is an increase in the amount of 
nitrogen excreted as kreatinin in the preservative period, from 0.47 
gram to 0.51 gram, dropping back to 0.48 gram in the after period. 
There is a slight decrease in the amount of ammonia excreted during 
the preservative period. 

Of the nitrogen in the food, 84 per cent is excreted in the urine 
during the fore period, 82.4 in the preservative period, and 84.2 in 
the after period, thus showing a decrease of 1.6 per cent in the 
amount of nitrogen metabolized in the preservative period. In regard 
to the percentage of nitrogen excreted in the various constituents it is 
seen that there is but little influence of the preservative upon the per- 
centage excreted as urea, it being 90.4 per cent in the fore period, 90.0 
per cent in the preservative period, and 91.3 per cent in the after 
period. There is a decrease in the percentage of nitrogen excreted as 
uric acid in the preservative period and a slight increase in the per- 
centage of nitrogen excreted as kreatinin, while that excreted as 
ammonia is slightly less in the preservative period. 

GENERAL SUMMARY. 

In the general summary of the four men the average daily volume 
of urine is 1075 cc in the fore period, 1084 cc in the preservative 
period, and 1032 cc in the after period. The total solids of the urine 
are 57.1 grams for the fore period, 59.3 grams for the preserv- 
ative period, and 54.4 grams for the after period, these data showing 
an increased excretion in the preservative period and a markedly 
decreased excretion of total solids in the after period. 



738 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

There aiv excreted 14.12 grams of total nitrogen daily in the urine 

for the fore period, 13.90 grams in the preservative period, and 13.41 
grams in the after period, showing a gradual decrease in the total 
amount of nitrogen excreted. 

The average daily amount of nitrogen excreted as area in the fore 
period is 12.94 grams, in the preservative period 12.73 grams, and 
in the after period 12.31 grams, showing a progressive decrease in 
the amount excreted. 

In the ease of uric acid, the amount excreted in the preservative 
period is less than in the fore period, and returns to the amount of the 
fore period in the after period. 

Respecting the quantity of the kreatinin, the amount excreted in 
the preservative period is slightly increased both over that of the 
fore period and the after period, while in the case of ammonia the 
amount of nitrogen excreted is less in the preservative period than in 
either of the other periods. 

In regard to the quantity of the various nitrogenous constituent-, 
it i- -cen that i J 7.*'»!> grams of urea are excreted daily in the fore 
period. '27r2*'> grams in the preservative period, and 26.36 grams in the 
after period. 

In the case of uric acid, less is excreted in the preservative period 
than in the fore period, and also less than in the after period. 

The quantity of kreatinin is remarkably constant throughout, but is 
slightly increased in tin 4 preservative period over both the fore and 
tin- after periods. 

In regard to the percentage of excretion of the nitrogen, it is seen 
that of the total nitrogen in the food 84.4 percent appears in the urine 
in the fore period. 82.1 percent in the preservative period, and 7s.t> 
per cent in the after period. 

The percentage of nitrogen excreted as urea does not appeal- to be 

appreciably affected by the administration of the preservative. 

The percentage of nitrogen appearing in the preservative period as 
uric acid is slightly less than in the fore period, and also less than in 
t he niter period. 

The percentage of nitrogen excreted in the mine as kreatinin is 
increased in the preservative period over both the fore and the after 
periods. 

In the case of ammonia, the percentage of nitrogen excreted i-, 
decreased in the preservative period as compared with both the fore 

and the after periods. 

'The most important points brought out in the preceding discussion 

are as follow 9: 

I. Salicylic acid and salicylates tend not only to diminish the (jnan 
tity of uric acid eliminated, but also to decrease its relative percentage 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 739 

of the total nitrogen eliminated in the urine. These interesting obser- 
vations therefore indicate that the general opinion that has been held 
respecting the influence of salicylic acid and salicylates in increasing 
the excretion of uric acid is fallacious, the contrary effect being- 
produced . 

2. The preservatives exercised a slightly inhibiting effect upon nitro- 
gen metabolism in so far as the urinary excretion is concerned, and in 
this the results differ from those of Series VI, which being longer con- 
tinued and including a greater number of men must be given more 
weight in the final conclusions. The data indicate a slight but per- 
sistent disturbance of nitrogen metabolism, which can only be regarded 
as having a prejudicial effect upon health. 



740 



INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 



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SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 



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THE USE OF SMALL QUANTITIES OF THE PRESERVATIVE. 



The arguments which have been advanced in excuse of the use of 
preservatives, when used in minute quantities, have perhaps been more 
vigorously urged for salicylic acid than for almost any other sub- 
stance. Since the publication of Part I of this bulletin this argument 
has been urged with such vigor and such ingenuity that a further 
reference may not he out of place in these general conclusions. The 
principle which is laid down i>> that a substance which is injurious to 
health when added to foods, if not a natural constituent thereof, or if 
not added for condiinental purposes, does not lose its power of injury 
to health because it i^ diluted or given in small quantities. The only 



LETHAL DOSE 
100 



NORMAL DOSL 

100 




LETHAL DOSE " 50 75 NORMAL DOSE 

I- 1'.. 8. — Graphic chart, representing the comparative Influences of foods ami preaervath ea 

change which i- made is to mask the injurious effects produced, to 
make them more difficult <>f ascertainment and impossible of measure 
nient. This subject was fully discussed in the hearings before the 
House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce in February, 
L906. 

The fallacy of the argument that small quantities of an injurious 
substance are not injurious may perhaps be best represented graphically. 
The chart which accompanies this discussion shows theoretically the 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 755 

normal and lethal dose of a food and a drug, or. as in this case, a 
chemical preservative. The chart shows two curves, one representing a 
chemical preservative and one representing a food. The normal dose 
of a food is that quantity of food which maintains a healthy adult body 
in equilibrium. It is represented on the right of the chart by the 
number 100. If the quantity of food necessary to maintain the equi- 
librium in a healthy adult body is slightly diminished, no apparent 
change is at first experienced and possibly even no discomfort. If, 
however, the quantity of food be still further diminished progressively, 
as indicated by following the curve down to the left, the point is 
finally reached when no food is given at all and death ensues, repre- 
sented by zero on the left-hand of the diagram designated "lethal 
dose." As the curve begins to deviate from the perpendicular on the 
right the degree of injury is very readity noticed and starvation or 
symptoms of starvation are set up. Thus, if you follow the perpen- 
dicular on the right downward to the point 80, the divergence of the 
corresponding point of the curve is already measurable. As you 
descend to zero the magnitude of the measurement increases. It re- 
quires but very little further illustration to show how easily the effect 
of diminishing the normal dose of a food can be measured immediately 
after the curve begins to vary appreciably from the perpendicular on 
the right. 

Let us now consider the perpendicular on the left, which is marked 
at the top under the term "lethal dose,*' viz, a quantity of the added 
preservative sufficient to destroy life. The normal dose of such an 
added chemical preservative is 0, and is shown at the base line to the 
right marked "normal dose." If you add a very minute quantity of 
a chemical preservative, the curve representing it varies so slightly 
from the horizontal base as to be impossible of measurement by ordi- 
nary means. If we follow along to the number 75, on the horizontal 
base, we see the deviation of the curve is sufficiently great to measure. 
At 50 it is still greater, at 25 still greater, while at the left of the 
basic line it is a maximum, extending from to i<>o ? or the lethal 
dose. It is easy to show by mathematical data that no matter how 
small the quantity of an injurious substance or preservative is, it will 
still produce an injurious effect, which may be infinitely small if the 
dose be infinitely small. It follows then, as a mathematical demonstra- 
tion, that any quantity of an injurious substance added to a food 
product must of necessity be injurious, provided it is in the nature of 
a drug and the body is in a perfectly healthy normal condition. 

Hence the argument which has been so persistently urged in favor 
of a chemical preservative that if in small quantities it is harmless is 
shown to be wholly untenable. Where there is no aecessity for the 
addition of a harmful substance, where no particular benefit is secured 
thereby, and where there is no disturbance of the normal state of 



756 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH. 

health there can be no possible excuse of a valid nature to otter for 
the exhibition of even minute 1 quantities. That these minute quanti- 
ties would not be dangerous, in bo far as producing any fatal effect is 
concerned, is conceded, but that, in the end. they do not produce an 
injury, even in these small quantities, is certainly to be denied. 

The course of safety, therefore, in all these cases is to guard the 
opening of the door. If the use of small quantities is permitted, then 
there can never be aiyy agreement among experts or others respecting 
the magnitude of the "small quantity," and continued litigation and 
disagreement must follow. On tin 1 other hand, when the harmfulness 
of any substance which it is proposed to add to food is established and 
no reason for its use can be given other than the convenience, care- 
lessness, or indifference of the manufacturer, the exclusion of such 
bodies entirely from food products follows as a Logical sequence and a 
hygienic necessity. 



GENERAL CONCLUSIONS. 

In the conclusions based upon the general observations the same 
conservatism must be observed and the same general reservations 
made as are found in Part I concerning boric acid and borax. While, as 
described in the borax report, the attempt has been made to control, 
as far as possible, all the conditions of the experimental work, the 
difficulties attending the task are so enormous that it is not possible 
that complete success should be secured. There has, however, been no 
attempt made to discriminate in the choice of data, all the observations 
being recorded and the discussion of the individual data based upon 
the tabular statements being given without prejudice and without bias. 
The general assumption has been made, as in the previous case, that. 
by reason of the regular habits of life which were imposed upon the 
subjects, the amount of energy developed and the quantity of nourish- 
ment expended therein are reasonably constant throughout the experi- 
mental period. If these factors vary, as the}^ necessarily- must to a 
certain degree, it is evident that they vary uniformly above or below 
the average, and hence these variations could not possibly produce any 
notable effect upon the final result. 

There has been a general consensus of opinion among scientific men, 
including the medical profession, that salicylic acid and its compounds 
arc very harmful substances, and the prejudice against this particular 
form of preservative is perhaps greater than against any other 
material used for preserving foods. This is due not only to the 
belief in the injurious character of salicylic acid, but perhaps is 
especially due to the fact that it has in the past been so generally 
used as an antiseptic. That salicylic acid should be singled out 
especially for condemnation among preservatives does not seem to be 
justified by the data which are presented and discussed in this bul- 
letin. That it is a harmful substance, however, seems to be well 
established by the data taken as a whole, but it appears to be a 
harmful substance of less virulence than has been generally supposed. 
There, is no doubt of the fact that salicylic acid is a drug which is often 
indicated in diseases well established and also perhaps in certain con- 
ditions which, while verging on disease, might still he regarded as a 
state of health. l>ut the administration of salicylic acid as a medicine 
should be controlled exclusively by the medical profession, and while 
it is a remedy well established in the Pharmacopoeia and especially 



758 [NFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OX HEALTH. 

prized for its effect upon rheumatism and gout, it does not seem that 
there Bhould be any warrant in this fact for its promiscuous use in 

foods, even if it were harmless. 

The data show very clearly that salicylic acid and salicylates appear 
to exert an exciting influence upon the activities which take place in 
the alimentary canal, stimulating the organs to greater effort, and this 
stimulation leads at first to increased solubility and absorption of the 
foods which are introduced into the stomach. In the light of the data 
which are exhibited salicylic acid may be said to increase the solu- 
bility and absorption of the food in the alimentary canal, so that larger 
part- of the nutrients taken into the stomach actually enter the 
circulation. 

The data which show the effects just noted also indicate that the 
general effect upon the system is depressing, in that the tissues are 
broken down more rapidly than they are built up. and thus the normal 
metabolic processes are interfered with in a harmful way. The 
administration of the salicylic acid is attended by a gradual decrease 
in the weight of the subjects, although the quantity of food elements 
administered during the preservative and after periods is slightly 
increased, which fact, together with the greater degree of absorption 
of the food (dements, should have resulted in a slight increase in 
weight. This increase in weight, however, dot's not occur, and the 
disturbing influence of the salicylic acid upon metabolism, although 
not very great, is specifically demonstrated. 

The final conclusion in this matter, therefore, is that the unenviable 
position which salicylic acid has heretofore held among preservatives, 
in being regarded as the most injurious of all. is to a certain extent 
undeserved. Like other ordinary preservatives, it is not one which 
can be classed a- a poison in the usual sense of the word. When 
used a- a medicine in many case- <>f derangement o\' health it is like 
the other chemical preservatives, often highly beneficial when properly 
prescribed by a competent physician. It is when used in the food at 
first an apparent stimulant, increasing the absorption and solubility of 
the common food elements from the alimentary canal. It soon, how- 
ever, loses its stimulating properties and becomes a depressant, tend 
ing to break down the tissue- of the body more rapidly than they are 
built up. Lt disturbs the metabolic processes, in mostcases producing 
condition- w Inch are not normal and which, apparently . are not bene- 
ficial. It has a tendency to diminish the weight of the body and to 
produces feeling of discomfort and malaise^ which, while not marked, 
is distinctly indicative of injury. In some cases these symptoms of 
laalaisi approach illness, and while not always diagnostic are suffi- 
ciently common to point unmistakably to the salicylic acid as their 
origin. Ii places upon the excretory organs, especially the kidneys, 
an additional burden which 1 1 1 » • \ are not able to bear and which can 



SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 759 

not possibly result in any good, but on the contrary must necessarily 
finally result in injury, though perhaps with the use of very small 
quantities of the preservative these organs would continue to perform 
their function for many years before finally breaking down. 

This work is offered as an unbiased study of all the data recorded, 
both of those which appear to be in favor of the use of salicylic acid 
and those which appear to be against its use, and leads to the inevita- 
ble conclusion that salicylic acid is a substance which, when added to 
foods even in small quantities, exerts a depressing and harmful influ- 
ence upon the digestion and health and the general metabolic activities 
of the body. Further, there appears to be no necessity for its use. as 
food can be preserved in unobjectionable ways without its aid. Its 
indiscriminate use would tend to carelessness in the quantities employed, 
thus increasing the dangers to which the consumer is subjected. Also, 
its use in the preservation of foods tends to induce carelessness and 
indifference on the part of the manufacturer, as when a chemical anti- 
septic is employed many of the processes necessary to the proper 
selection, cleaning, and preservation of foods may be omitted. 

The addition of salicylic acid and salicylates to foods is therefore a 
process which is reprehensible in every respect, and leads to injury to 
the consumer, which, though in many cases not easily measured, must 
finally be productive of great harm. 



LIST OF TABLES. 

Series VI. 

Page. 
.Table I. Dates of periods and Bubperiods 4S1 

II. Schedule of administration of preservative 481 

III. Salicylic acid ingested and recovered in urine 484 

IV. Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage 

of bddy weight 514 

V. Summary for nine men, by periods, showing average daily ratio of 

food weight to body weight - 520 

VI. Averages, byperiods, of corpuscles and hemoglobin in the blood .. 523 

VII. Summary of weight and water content of feces, by periods 527 

VIII. Urine determinations — volume, specific gravity, and total solids .. 535 

IX. Urine determinations — ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates 

to nitrogen 545 

X. Urine determinations — ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal 

sulphates and neutral sulphur 562 

XI. Microscopical examination of the urine 578 

XII. Nitrogen summary, by periods, for nine men 

XIII. Nitrogen balances 592 

X I V. Phosphoric acid summary, by periods, for nine men 613 

XV. Phosphoric acid balances 614 

XVI. Sulphur summary, by periods, for nine men (i."."-' 

XVII. Sulphur ha lances 

XVIII. Fat summary, by periods, for nine men 649 

XIX. Fat balances 653 

XX. ( lalories summary, by periods, for nine men 

XXI. Calories ha lances 669 

XXII. Solids summary, by periods, for nine men 688 

XXIII. Solids balances 689 

Series X I. 

THE BFFE4 I OF BALICYLIC acid AM) SALICYLATES UPON NIK NITROGENOUS 
BODIES i\ i in I RINE. 

Table I. Daily ration, showing amounl of food and quantity of nitrogen 

ingested in the preliminary experiment 706 

II. Urea and uric acid eliminated in urine, preliminary study 711 

III. Comparison of the two met hods for the determination of urea .... 
I \ . Schedule of administration of salicylic acid and salicylates for special 

Study On lour men 

V. Reaction of the mine and presence of albumin, special stud) 

VI. Nitrogenous constituents of the urine, special study ' 

760 

() 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 



3 1262 09216 8649 




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